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In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age of six or seven. When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for two more years, or go to a professional schools where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some professions. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities. There are many types of schools in Russia: specialized, polytechnical, musical, art and others. Now days some new types of schools appeared: gymnasiums and colleges. Citizens of Russia have the right to education, which is guaranteed by the Constitution. The public educational system in our country incorporates рге-school, general school, specialized secondary.
Pre-schools consist of kindergartens and crèches. Children there learn reading, writing and arithmetic. But the pre-school education isn’t compulsory. Children can get it at home. Compulsory education is for children from 6 (7) to 17 years of age. There are various types of schools: general secondary schools, schools specializing in certain. subjects, high schools, lyceums and so on. Tuition in most of them is free of charge, but some new types of schools are free paying. The term of study in a general secondary school is 11 years and consists of primary, middle and upper stages.
After the 9th form pupils have to take examinations. Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a general secondary school and entering a specialized secondary or vocational school.
A person who finishes the general secondary school, receive a secondary education certificate, giving them the right to enter any higher educational establishment. Entrance examinations are held in July and August Institutions are headed by rectors; the faculties are headed by the deans. One has to study in the institute for 5 years. Higher education institutions train students in one or several specializations.
The system of education in Grate Britain is determined by the National Education Acts.
Schools in England are supported from public funds. There are several basic features of public education in Britain, Firstly, there are wide variations between one part of the country and another. Secondly, education in Britain mirrors the country's social system: it is class divided and selective. The first is between those who pay and those who do not pay. Another important feature of schooling in Britain is a variety of opportunities offered to schoolchildren. The English school syllabus is divided into Arts and Sciences, which determine the division of the secondary school pupils into study groups.
The National Education Act of 1944 provided three stages of education: primary, secondary and future education. Compulsory schooling in England and Wales lasts 11 years, from age of 5 to 16. After the age of 16 a growing number of school students are staying on at school, some until 18 or 19, the age of entry into higher education in universities. Britain university courses are rather short, generally lasting for 3 years. The cost of education depends on the college and speciality which one chooses.
In some areas of England there are nursery schools for children under 5 years of age. Some children between 2 and 5 receive education in nursery classes or in infant classes in primary school Most children start school at 5 in a primary school. A primary school may be divided into two parts – infants and juniors. At 7 years children go on from the infant schools to the junior schools. They study reading, composition, history, and geography, Nature Study Art and Music, Physical Education. Swimming is also on the timetable. The pupils are streamed according to their abilities to learn into А, В, С and streams.
After the age of 11, the most children go to comprehensive school of which the majority is for both – boys and girls. About 90% of all state – financed secondary schools are of this type. Most other children receive secondary education in grammar and secondary modern schools.
At the age of 18 most public school leavers gain entry to universities. The academic year in Britain's Universities., Polytechnics Collage of 'Education is divided into three terms, which usually run from the beginning of October to the middle «f December, from the middle of January to the end of March, arid from the middle of April to the end of June or the beginning of July.
There are –16 universities in Britain. English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history and tradition, general organization, methods of instruction, and way of student life. After three years of study a university graduator will leave with the Degree ft bachelor of Arts. Science, Engineering. Medicine, etc. Later he may continue to take the Master's Degree, and then the Doctor's Degree. Research is an important feature university work.
2. Make up sentences
1. Compulsory, to be, in, Russian Federation, the, school, education.
2. Many types, school, to be, there of, schooling, Russia in.
3. Citizens, Russia, right, to have, of, the, to, education.
4. Creches, kindergarten, рте-schools, consist, of, and.
5. Some, types, of, new, schools, free-paying to be.
6. Entrance, July, August, examinations, to be, to hold, in, and,
7. To study, one, to have, in, for, the, institute, years, five.
8. То be, schools, in, support, from, England, funds, public.
9. Schooling, last, compulsory, years, and, eleven
10. Children, 5, most, start, school, at.
11. Children, go, most, comprehensive, to, school
12. The, year, to be, academic, divide, into, 3, terms.
13. Research, an, to be, feature, important, work, of. university.
Материал для обсуждения
1. Answer the following questions
1. Is the school education in Russia compulsory?
2. How many types of schools are there in Russia?
3. What new types of schools are appeared now days?
4. Is the right to education guaranteed by the Constitution in our country?
5. What kind of рге-schools do you know?
6. Are they compulsory?
7. When do children begin to go to school?
8. 1s the tuition free of charge in our country?
9. What choice does the 9th former have?
10. What kind of document does the person who finishes the general secondary school receive?
11. When do the entrance exams to the Universities begin?
12. How many years do students study to get a higher education?
13. What are the basic features of public education in Great Britain?
14. How long does the compulsory schooling last?
15. Where do children between 2 and 5 receive education?
16. Where do children go from infant school?
17. Where do most school-leavers gain entry at 18?
18. How many terms is the academic year divided into?
19. How many universities are there in Britain?
2. Compose a plan of the text.
3. Speak about a) secondary education in Russia; b) higher education in Russia; c) system of education in Britain.
1. Translate the following words and expressions
in view of the situation, nowadays, thorough training, to be deeply involved, surface of things, long – run forces, to be diversified, post – graduate courses, to carry out researches, being employed in, accountant, book – keeper, balance – sheet, invoice, income statement, Stock Exchange, to face, law, contribution.
2. Learn the words above by heart.
MY FUTURE SPECIALITY
I'm a student of the Economics Faculty of the Omsk State Technical University. In the near future I'll graduate from the University and become a professional economist. I'm sure that the profession of an economist is one of the most important nowadays in view of the situation in our country.
What makes a good economist? Whatever he does, an economist should have a thorough training in economic theory, mathematics and statistics and our University offers such training.
At the University we are learn various general and special subjects, such as Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, Management, Accounting, Marketing, Advertising,
Money and Banking, Economic Theory, Econometrics, Statistics, Computer Science, Philosophy, Business Ethics, Foreign Languages, etc.
An economist needs some knowledge of the world outside his own country because both business and government are deeply involved in the world economy. Some knowledge of political and economic history will help him to expect changes and always look for basic long-run forces under the surface of things.
The profession of an economist is quite diversified. The graduates of our Faculty work at educational institutions, various research centres and laboratories, in industry, business, banks, etc. You may continue your studies at the Post-graduate Courses or Doctorate if you have a desire and abilities to become a scientist or a professor. Scientists in the field of Economics create new theories and models, test their hypotheses and carry out economic researches.
Being employed in industry and business, our graduates work as managers, as an executive manager, a sales manager, a financial manager. Some of us work as accountants. Аn accountant is one of the most prestigious and widely required professions of an economist in any society. You shouldn't mix an accountant and with a book-keeper. While a book-keeper is mostly involved in calculations, like balance sheets, income statements, invoices, an accountant is responsible for designing the financial policy of a company. Some of us will work at the banks, at the Stock Exchange as brokers, others will work for the government or in various agencies or military services.
Knowing the economic laws of the development of the society, economists can solve many problems facing our country and I hope I'll manage to make my contribution to this process.
Материал для обсуждения
1. Answer the questions
1. Why is the profession of an economist one of the most important nowadays in our country?
2. What makes a good economist?
3. The profession of an economist is quite diversified, isn't it?
4. In what way do accountants differ from book-keepers?
5. What kind of specialists can the Economics Faculty train?
6. How can you continue your studies after graduating from the Economics Faculty?
7. What does the profession of an economist contribute to?
2. Make up a plan of the text.
3. Talk to your partner and prove that your future profession is 1) interesting; 2) diversified; 3) highly useful nowadays.
Редактор Т.А. Жирнова
ИД 06039 от 12.10.2001
Свод, темплан 2005 г.
Подписано в печать 21.02.2005. Формат 60х84'Лб. Бумага офсетная.
Отпечатано на дупликаторе. Усл. печ. л. 2,0. Уч.-изд. л. 2,0.
Тираж 100. Заказ 207.
Издательство ОмГТУ. 644050, Омск, пр. Мира, 11 Типография ОмГТУ
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