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Английский язык: тесты для подготовки к ЕГЭ
English No. 4/2012, p.47
Раздел 1. Аудирование
Во время выполнения теста по аудированию перед каждым заданием дана пауза с тем, чтобы вы смогли просмотреть вопросы к заданию, а также паузы после первичного и повторного предъявления аудиотекста для внесения ответов. По окончании выполнения всего раздела “Аудирование” перенесите свои ответы в бланк ответов.
Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего 1 – 6 и утверждениями, данными в списке A – G. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей буквой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.
Now we are ready to start.
When someone talks about a doctor, they will think of him as a guy in white, but most of the time that is not the case. Another example is that most people think those who go to school are always smarter than people who don’t, but really some people who don’t attend school can be just as smart. Everyone will get different pictures in their mind when talking about certain things, because they have been influenced by different reports and opinions of those around them. Everyone resorts to stereotypical thinking sometimes so lets look at how stereotypical are your concepts.
We, as humans, learn stereotyping when we are only 2 or 3 years old. We learn it from our parents, when they say,"Don't talk to strangers, they're bad." or "All candy is bad." Of course as children we listen to our parents sincerely and obediently. The stereotypes we are handed change when we start school, though. Our teacher is a stranger and we have discovered that the taste of candy is delightful. As we grow though, we build our own stereotypes about other things. Until we face the object or kind of person that has been stereotyped, our thoughts will always be the same. Stereotyping, itself, goes through phases, for once you are proven wrong, you move on to the next phase.
My class and I were learning about how stereotypes are formed, and how they can be created and enlisted so easily, even if you don't really know what you are saying. I think that it’s wrong to make judgements about people you don't know and to automatically think that they are dangerous/inferior/strange. They actually might be nice or sweet, very bright or special. Even people who have tattoos or double or triple piercing on their bodies can be trustworthy, but judging by their appearance, you might jump to the conclusion that they are punks and also dangerous. Stereotyping can also be favorable; for example, if you see someone pretty, or good looking you would probably think, “Wow, he/she is so handsome/beautiful and he/she is a good person.” I think people should stick to positive stereotyping and avoid being negative.
I personally don’t like stereotypes because they tend to discriminate against others and give the wrong idea about someone/thing. For example, most women in the media are particularly good-looking and have great bodies, but the average women do not. Another example: you’re walking down a street and you see a teen and he/she has wild spiky hair and is wearing ragged dark clothes, and the first thing you think is that the person is a drug dealer or a gangster, etc. However, that teenager might be kind and clever and he/she may only want to look different.
There is a very popular stereotype, which is that all policemen are good people who help and protect us. I’m not saying that all cops are evil, it’s just that some police decide to break the law. Here’s something to think about, a cop would make a good criminal, and a criminal would make a good cop. That essentially means that, since cops know how police examine a crime scene, they would better know how to commit a crime, and do it in a way that police wouldn’t be able to catch them. Also, criminals know the way criminals commit crimes so they, as police, would know how to better catch them.
It's extremely hard to say that stereotyping is helpful and positive because you really shouldn't form an idea about something or someone just by appearance. BUT we do it because it appears to be true to us and it makes it hard for us to believe that the idea is false. For example, all the stereotypes about a homeless person – poor, dirty, smelly, no education, beaten, torn up family, a thief – are hard to turn around. If we did believe those people were NOT those things, they wouldn't be homeless, would they? We seem to give everything a label that is 'stuck' deep in our minds and it's just very hard to get rid of them.
You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)
Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)
This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.
A. Stereotyping is often misleading.
B. If all policemen were good people, there would be no criminals.
C. We all have our own stereotypes.
D. Good stereotypes are not that bad.
E. We acquire stereotypical thinking at an early age through our parents.
F. Stereotypes are made when we judge by appearance, which makes it hard us to give up our stereotypical ideas.
G. New ideas are born when we start thinking beyond the boundaries of stereotyping.
Задания А1 – А7
Вы услышите интервью с организатором программы обмена. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений А1 – А7 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated). Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды. У вас есть 20 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданиями.
A: Every year a lot of students from different countries take part in exchange programmes. They want to learn more about other countries and improve their foreign languages. Many regions in Russia run exchange programmes for students with their sister-cities or partner-schools in Great Britain and the USA. Our guest today is Mike Rayler, senior specialist of the FLEX Programme, which is run for secondary school students aged 15–16 to study in American high school for an academic year. Hello, Mike. Can you explain to us the goals of this exchange program?
B: Well, I am in charge of exchange programs in this part of Russia. Our programs have very distinctive goals. The first very important goal is for Russians to learn the truth about America, what America is beyond what they see on television and in films. The second, even more important goal, is for Americans to learn about Russians, to learn what real Russians are beyond the stereotypes. So the programs are mostly about breaking down stereotypes and preparing new generations of young Russians and Americans to live in a cooperative future world. I see it as a way of building a new bridge between the two countries.
A: Do you have many applicants? What do students need to succeed in the selection process?
B: We have a great many applicants for each vacancy. Of course, in order to study in the United States some knowledge of English is required, so we are looking for good students of English. But that is not the only criterion. There are several important criteria: the ability to speak English, the ability to adapt to a very different way of life and the ability to make friends easily and to represent your country. I would say you need to be flexible, outgoing, you need to have a good sense of humour.
A: Do you think that such exchange programs are successful?
B: If we take the earliest point of Russian-American exchange programs, I must admit there was very little give-and-take between our two countries during the Soviet period. During those years, a limited number of Americans came to Russia, mostly to Moscow and St Petersburg. But almost no Russians were able to go to the United States.
These days it's the reverse situation: many more Russians go to America to study or are involved in professional exchange programs. The programs are very successful. The desire to know more about the States is an important reason why Russian students decide to participate in the program, and in fact they do learn a lot about America and bring this knowledge back with them to Russia in order to build a better future in their own country. We'd like to think that they are taking all of the good things they learn in the States and trying to apply them to life here in Russia.
A: Isn’t it difficult for Russian students to adapt to life in the USA?
B: Well, of course, there are problems. We often say that students going to America feel like they are on a different planet, everything is so different: the way Americans eat, sleep, work and all the various leisure activities are so different. So there are some problems of adaptation especially with those students living with host families – people living in a new family need to get used to one another.
But I think the programs are tremendously positive for both the countries: Americans get to meet the real Russia. In the Soviet period, I think they had no idea what real Russia and real Russians were like. Today, Russian young people learn about the real America – both the good and the bad – and they apply that knowledge when they return to Russia.
A: Thank you very much, Mike.
A1 The exchange programs are aimed at both Americans and Russians to expand their view on those countries.
1) true 2) false 3) not stated
A2 One needs an advanced knowledge of English to study in the USA.
1) true 2) false 3) not stated
A3 The most important criteria for participation in the program is your flexibility in adjusting to new culture.
1) true 2) false 3) not stated
A4 During the Soviet period the financial support for exchange programs was very limited.
1) true 2) false 3) not stated
A5 The participation in exchange programs helps young people be more successful in the future.
1) true 2) false 3) not stated
A6 Problems of adaptation can be solved through careful preparation to study and live abroad before the departure.
1) true 2) false 3) not stated
A7 The programs are worth running because both Americans and Russians get a true idea of what these countries are like.
1) true 2) false 3) not stated
Задания А8 – А14
Вы услышите лекцию о стереотипах. В заданиях А8 – А14 обведите цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.
Have you ever thought of stereotypes? I say, yes. Because, they are natural. They are just a picture in your head to help you see the world. But be careful with those pictures or you can easily do harm.
Stereotypes can lead to prejudice and then to violence. For example, about six million Jews died during the Holocaust, the destruction of European Jewry by the Nazis. That was the result of prejudice based on ignorance, fear and misunderstanding. I don’t think you’ll kill anybody because of stereotypes, but you might easily offend a person. That’s why our lecture today is devoted to stereotypes.
First of all, I want to tell you about the forms of the stereotypes.
You probably all feel you know what stereotypes are, or you can recognize them when you come across them. “This is a stereotype, I hate this.” And this must be something generalized, oversimplified and referring to a group rather than to an individual. For example, stereotypes about “male” and “female” jobs in the past or even now.
But you may not know that there are three ways, in which stereotypes exist in your mind. Macre in “Foundations of Stereotypes and Stereotyping” says there are group schemas, group prototypes and exemplars.
A group schema is a group of beliefs about characteristics of a certain group. For example, Greeks are perceived as fun-loving, while English are reserved, and Russians are emotional. It’s easy to see the weak points of group schemas. Are there no quiet and calm Greeks or unemotional Russians? That’s absurd, because every individual is different. So, an oversimplified impression of a group as a whole, which a group schema is, won’t help you to understand a real person who is a member of that group. It can also be an oversimplified impression of a country. How many of you think it is cold in Russia? It’s one of the most common stereotypes connected with Russia.
A group prototype is more specific. It’s your associations and features assumed to be true of the group. Like a feature of Italians is that they are romantic. Or another example. Americans are usually associated with hamburgers, cars and white teeth. That’s a group prototype.
Exemplars are very simple. Suppose you met a specific individual from another country. Your memories connected with this person will be exemplars. Exemplars are not abstract notions, such as group schemas or group prototypes, but a memory of a specific individual you’ve met before that you then transfer to a group.
In conclusion, I want to say that stereotypes are a sort of wall you encircle yourself in to feel comfortable. But by doing this, you put others in a cage. Now when you know about the forms in which stereotypes exist in your mind – group schemas, group prototypes and exemplars – you can be more careful with generalizations and more considerate of others. You can stick a label of a stereotype on a material object to recognize it easier among others. But I hope you realized after this lecture, that labels don’t work with people. So let's break stereotypes into pieces, look beyond the wall, and keep in mind that not always, not everywhere, not everybody acts as we expect them to.
A8 You should be careful with stereotypes because
1) they are normal
2) you can offend somebody
3) you can commit a crime
A9 The lecturer will explain
1) different kinds of stereotypes
2) how stereotypes are formed
3) the foundations of stereotypes
A10 The negative side of a group schema is that
1) it doesn’t help you get to know the representative of a group
2) it’s too difficult to understand
3) it is connected with nationalities
A11 A group prototype is
1) an oversimplified image of the whole group
2) typical features and associations of the group
3) what you associate with the whole group
A12 Exemplars are
1) more theoretical than other kinds of stereotypes
2) personal and definite, varying from individual to individual
3) memories of specific features of a group
A13 Knowledge about stereotypes will help you to
1) get rid of stereotypes
2) be more tactful and respectful
3) feel comfortable
A14 The lecturer’s attitude to stereotypes is
Раздел 2. Чтение
Установите соответствие между заголовками A – Н и текстами 1 – 7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
A. Are Americans crazy about having a healthy lifestyle?
B. Do all Americans have white teeth?
C. Do Americans eat a lot?
D. Do all Americans eat only hamburgers and cheeseburgers from McDonalds?
E. Are there a lot of fat people in the USA?
F. Do Americans drink alcohol?
G. Does emancipation influence family? Is this talking about Women’s liberation???
H. Is it true that for Americans, money is above of all values?
1. Families with 2-4 children are very common. Very often Americans adopt children. But there are families who don't want to have children and women who prefer a career to having a family. Like everywhere else.
2. More than 60% of Americans suffer from overweight or obesity. Snacks in the car and on the move may be the reason. Also high-calorie fast food is widespread in the U.S.: pizza, hot dogs, burgers, and Coke.
3. Some people aspire to material success, others don’t. Very often Americans mention in conversation how much something costs, not complaining, just reporting.
4. An American smile is a component of success. That's why the mouth cavity is taken care of. But they have dental problems like everybody. If there is a problem they go to the dentist immediately without delay. But not everybody has good medical insurance and money for a dentist.
5. Americans take care of their physical condition and wellbeing. They prefer to spend money on keeping themselves in shape, than on doctors and medicine. Gyms, fitness-clubs, swimming-pools are never empty. People go running, jumping, roller-skating even if they are over 50. It is common sense and beneficial to health.
6. No event or meeting goes without refreshments. Portion sizes in a restaurant are large enough for two. In city parks, on the lawns and in the gardens there are grills for cooking hot dogs and burgers.
7. At first it seems they don’t drink much. But trips in public transport give another impression. And in a college environment there are a lot of parties with spirits, where everybody who is over 21 can drink.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1 – 6 частями предложений, обозначенными буквами A – G. Одна из частей в списке А – G лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.
British School Stereotypes
In every British class there are some distinct types of pupils. We’ve identified a few of these stereotypes and we’d like to tell you all about them.
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