«Сибирский федеральный университет» утверждаю директор института филологии и языковой коммуникации




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3.2 Содержание лекционных занятий


№ п/п

Тема занятия

Трудоемкость

лекции

СРС

Module 1

1.

Introduction to the course. Syllabus.

The object of lexicology. Definitions of the basic terms: vocabulary, lexicon, word, word-group, external structure of the word, internal structure of the word, external and semantic unity of the word. Analysis of the word on the syntagmatic and paradigmatic levels.

The connection of the lexicology with the other branches of linguistics (phonetics, grammar, stylistics, sociolinguistics).

Sub-branches of lexicology. General lexicology. Special lexicology. Contrastive Lexicology. Historical lexicology (Etymology). Descriptive lexicology. Terminology. Phraseology.

Lexicography (general overview).Practical and theoretical lexicography. Generalized and specialized lexicography. Corpus-based and computational lexicography.

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2.

Lexicography.

British lexicography. American Lexicography. Types of dictionaries. Encyclopedic and linguistic dictionaries. Explanatory, translation, specialized (phraseological, phrasal verbs, new words, slang, usage, frequency, pronouncing, etymological) dictionaries. Hard and soft dictionaries. Modern trends in English Lexicography. Corpus-based linguistics. corpus-based generation of dictionaries. Computational lexicography. Electronic encyclopedias.


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3.

Enriching vocabulary. Word structure.

Ways of enriching vocabulary. Main (conversion, affixation, composition) and secondary ways of word-building (shortening, blending, acronymy, sound interchange, stress interchange, sound imitation, back-formation).

Morpheme. Structural types of English words. Allomorphs or morpheme variants. Root morphemes (radicals). Non-root morphemes. Free morphemes. Bound and semi-bound morphemes.

Types of meaning in morphemes (lexical, differential, distributional, part-of-speech meaning). Denotational and connotational components of the lexical meaning.

Classification of the words according to the number of morphemes. Morphemic types of words (monomorphic, polymorphic, monoradical, polyradical).

Types of word segmentability (complete, conditional, defective segmentability). Procedure of morphemic analysis. Method of immediate and ultimate constituents as the procedure generally employed for the purposes of segmenting words into the constituent morphemes

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4.

Word-building. Derivation. Shortening.

Derivational structure. Derivational bases. Derivational patterns. Affixation. Noun-forming, adjective-forming, verb-forming, adverb-forming suffixes. Semantic of affixes. Productive and non-productive affixes. Affixes. Inflexions. Stem. Simple (root) words. Derived words. Compound words. Compound-derived words. Historical changeability of word structure. Etymology of derivational affixes. valances of affixes and bases.

Shortening. Acronymy (graphical abbreviation).

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5.

Word-building. Conversion. Composition.

Conversion as one of the principal ways of forming words in modern English. Main varieties of conversion (verbalization, substantivation, adjectivation, adverbalization).

The meaning of the denominal verbs (action characteristic of an object, instrumental use of an object, acquisition of an object, deprivation of an object, location). The meaning of deverbal nouns (instance of and action, result, agent, place, object).

The historical development of the conversion. The diachronic semantic analysis of conversion pairs.

Basic criteria of semantic derivation in conversion (non-correspondence, synonymity, derivational relations, semantic derivation, frequency of occurrence transformational criterion). Semantic relations in conversion.

Word-composition. The structural meaning of compound words (the meaning of distributional pattern, the meaning of the derivational pattern). Classification of compound words. Coordinative and subordinative compounds (according to the relations of IC compound words). Compound adjectives, pronouns, nouns, adverbs, verbs (according to the part of speech they represent). Compounds with or without connecting elements (according to the means of composition). Compounds proper and the derivational compounds (according to the type of bases that form compounds). Four major classes according to the correlation with variable free phrases (adjectival-nominal, verbal-nominal, nominal, verbal-adverbial).

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6.

Word-building. Secondary ways of word-building.

Sound interchange. Stress interchange. Reduplication. Sound imitation. Blending (contamination). Back formation. Redistribution.

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7.

Word groups. Phraseology. Phraseological units.

Lexical and grammatical valency. Structure and classification of word-groups. Syntactic structure (formula) and syntactic pattern. Predicative and non-predicative word-groups. Endocentric and exocentric word-groups.

Types of meaning in word-groups. The lexical meaning. The structural meaning (or lexical and structural components of meaning).

Motivation in word-groups. Lexically motivated and lexically non-motivated word-groups.

Free word-groups versus phraseological units versus words; structural, semantic, syntactic criteria.

Phraseology. Phraseological unit. Types of transference in phraseological units. Simile. Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche.

Classifications of phraseological units. Phraseological fusions. Phraseological unities. Phraseological collocations.

Semantic structure of phraseological unit (denotational, evaluational, motivational, emotive, stylistic, grammatical, gender microcomponents).

Sources of phraseological units.


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Module 2

8.

Word meaning.

Semasiology and semantics. The historical surveys of the study of meaning. Meaning as a linguistic notion. Word-meaning.

Referential approach to the understanding of meaning. The basic triangle (sound-from, referent, concept). Functional or contextual definition of meaning. The term ‘context’. Operational or Information-oriented definitions of meaning. The direct information and the information added in the meaning.

Semasiological and onomasiological approaches.

The process of naming. The nominator and the referent. The stages of the process of giving name (forming a concept of an object, the designation of the class of objects under nomination with the help of linguistic means, defining a set of denotational features constituting the most important part of the meaning (semantic core) and the acquisition of the sound and graphic forms.

Types of meaning. Lexical, grammatical, part-of-speech meaning of words. Aspects of meaning. Denotational, connotational, pragmatic aspects of meaning. Aspects of connotation: emotive charge, evaluation, intensity, imagery. Pragmatic aspects: information on the “time and space” relationships of the participants, information on the participants and the given language community, information on the tenor of the discourse. Information on the register of communication.

Word-meaning and motivation.


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9.

Semantic changes.

Causes, nature and results of semantic changes.

Causes of semantic changes: new concepts, changes in the referent, changing of the categorization of the world, onomasiological fuzziness, official language policy, inofficial language policy, taboo and political correctness, disguising language, misnomers, flattery and insult, prestige and fashion, social and demographic reasons, anthropological salience of concepts, culture induced salience of concepts, dominance of the prototype, wish for plasticity, aesthetic formal reasons, communicative formal reasons, word play, excessive length of words, morphological misinterpretation, logical formal reasons, lack of motivation, onomasiological analogy, secondary effects.

Classification schemes for semantic changes. Gradual semantic changes (specialization, generalization). Momentary semantic changes (metaphor, metonymy). Secondary semantic changes (degradation of meaning, elevation of meaning, hyperbole). Semantic extension. Semantic extension and numeric growth of the vocabulary.


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10.

Paradigmatic relations between words in English. Homonymy. Synonymy. Antonymy. Semantic fields.

Causes of homonymy. Types of homonyms. Peculiarities of lexical-grammatical homonymy. Homographs, homophones, perfect homonyms. Homonymy and polysemy: the demarcation line. Proximity. Equivalence. Inclusion. Hyponymic structures. Opposition.







11.

The Etymology of English words.

Etymology as the branch of linguistics. The etymological structure of English vocabulary. Important landmarks in the history of England that influenced the development of the language. Words of native origin (Indo-European, Germanic, English words proper). Latin affixes. French affixes.

Borrowed words. The role of borrowings in English vocabulary. Greek, latin, French, Scandinavian borrowings. Classification of borrowings according to the borrowed aspect. Classification of borrowings according to the degree of assimilation. Classification of borrowings according to the language from which they are borrowed. Assimilation of borrowings. Influence of borrowings. Etymological doublets. International words.


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12.

Vocabulary change in modern English. Borrowings.

Neologisms, archaisms, historisms, obsolete words.

Sources of neologisms. Neologisms vs. nonce-words.

The role of borrowings in English vocabulary. Classification of borrowings according to the borrowed aspect. Classification of borrowings according to the degree of assimilation. Classification of borrowings according to the language from which they are borrowed. Assimilation of borrowings. Influence of borrowings.

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13.

Variants and dialects of English.

Standard English. Variants of a language. Dialects. American English. The history of American English. Canadian, Australian, South African and Indian variants. Variants and dialects of English in Great Britain. Dialects in the USA. Social variation of the English language. Gender and occupational varieties.

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Всего

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