Topic 2: Confidentiality in health and social care




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Tutor Guidelines:

Health Studies, Level 2


Produced by:





Epic Group plc / The Open Learning Company

www.epic.co.uk

For the National Learning Network

Copyright © 2002 Learning and Skills Council


Contact: David Roughton (EPIC)

Andy Wolfe (OLC)

Table of contents

Introduction 1

Rationale for selection of topics 1

The topics 1

Topic 1: The care value base 1

Learning unit: What is the care value base? 1

Learning unit: Stereotypes and prejudice 1

Learning unit: Effective communication in care settings 1

Topic 2: Confidentiality in health and social care 1

Learning unit: An introduction to confidentiality 1

Learning unit: Confidentiality and written or verbal information 1

Learning unit: Confidentiality and electronic information 1

Topic 3: Ethical issues in health and social care 1

Learning unit: Codes of practice 1

Learning unit: Rights, expectations and charters 1

Learning unit: Empowerment and advocacy 1

Topic 4: Diversity, beliefs & prejudice in health and social care 1

Learning unit: The client as an individual 1

Learning unit: Values and beliefs 1

Learning unit: Meeting the needs of a diverse population 1

Types of learning unit 1

The structure of a learning unit 1

Question types 1

Accessibility information 1

Introduction


The online materials available for Health Studies Level 2 can be used in a variety of ways:

  • As a supplement to face-to-face teaching in class

  • As opportunities for learners to prepare for a class

  • As the basis for assessment work

  • As revision aids

  • As a means of introducing variety into a module

  • As an integral part of the class teaching (using an interactive white board)

  • For independent learning


Health Studies Level 2 consists of four topics (listed below), each of which comprises three learning units. Each learning unit is self-contained, so learners can work through individual units or whole topics, as appropriate for the context and purpose of the learning task.


The materials can be used by learners working independently – on their own or in pairs – and can provide opportunities for follow-up activity in groups, in the whole class or as home study.


Rationale for selection of topics


The two topics were selected on the basis that they match the syllabus requirements of a range of national examining bodies in Health and Care, thus ensuring relevance throughout the FE sector. Key concepts common to all of the syllabuses are addressed, with particular reference to:


Edexcel/City and Guilds GNVQ Intermediate

City and Guilds NVQ in Caring


The coverage of each topic is not intended to be exhaustive, but to supplement other forms of learning.


The topics


The four topics are as follows:

  • The care value base

  • Confidentiality in health and social care

  • Ethical issues in health and social care

  • Diversity, beliefs and prejudice in health and social care



Topic 1: The care value base


This comprises three learning units:

  • What is the care value base?

  • Stereotypes and prejudice

  • Effective communication in care settings


Details on each of these learning units are provided below.

Learning unit: What is the care value base?


Purpose

To introduce the learner to the concept of the care value base and its importance in health and social care.


Objectives

On completing the unit, learners should be able to:


  1. Describe the purpose and aim of the care value base

  2. Explain the three aspects of the care value base

  3. Outline what professionals can do to achieve the aim of the care value base


Approximate study time

20 minutes (exact time depends on the ability and/or existing knowledge of the learner)


Type of learning unit

Graphic menu (see below)


Prerequisite knowledge and preparatory activities

None required


Outline of content

The care value base is one of the main features of health and social care and applies to all areas of work, irrespective of client group or care setting. For level 2 learners it may be a difficult concept to understand, especially if they have had no hands-on experience of caring.


It looks at three of the main aspects, which are equality and diversity, rights and responsibilities, and confidentiality. The examples used in this learning unit are those that learners can relate to even if they have no previous caring experience. If the learners undertake work experience, then their personal experience could be used to expand the information in this learning unit.


Suggestions for follow-up learner activities

  1. Groups of people are often discriminated against on the grounds of religion. One way to alleviate discrimination is to increase understanding. In small groups learners should find out about a religion and its rules about things such as diet, clothes, marriage. Learners could then prepare a wall display so that the information is shared with others in their group. (Time allowed will depend on resources available, and the learner group. It might be worth spreading the activity over two or three sessions to ensure that the finished product is satisfactory.)




  1. Ask learners to visit their local shopping centre and carry out a survey of the facilities available. They should draw a diagram (bird’s eye view) of the shopping area and include the location of things such as toilets, ramps, lifts, and electronic/sliding doors. They can then plan to visit a range of shops (stationery, clothes, chemist, food) and take note of any problems that they think a person using a wheelchair might have.

Things that they might like to think about are:

  • Can a person in a wheelchair access all areas?

  • Would it be easy to move around in each of the shops?

  • Are doors wide enough for a wheelchair to go through?


Using their findings, learners should write a short report for a newspaper entitled:

Shopping in a wheelchair’. (1 – 2 hours for the finished product)

Learning unit: Stereotypes and prejudice


Purpose

To introduce the concept of prejudice and to encourage the learner to think about how they perceive different groups of people.


Objectives

On completing the unit, learners should be able to:


  1. Define the terms stereotyping and prejudice

  2. Explain how stereotyping and prejudice can affect the quality of client care


Approximate study time

20 minutes (exact time depends on the ability and/or existing knowledge of the learner)


Type of learning unit

Tutorial (see below)


Prerequisite knowledge and preparatory activities

None required


Outline of content

This learning unit provides some definitions for stereotyping and prejudice but it might be worth encouraging learners to look for other definitions in order to demonstrate the complexity of the subject being studied.


Mini case studies are used to highlight different issues such as age or gender. It would be worth pointing out to learners that there are many other examples. A class activity to generate ideas might be useful prior to learners working on this unit.


Suggestions for follow-up learner activities

  1. Learners should select a picture from a magazine that, in their opinion, supports a stereotype image. These images can then be used to generate a general discussion about stereotypes and prejudice. (30 minutes)


2. The media quite often endorses many of the stereotype images and could therefore be said to encourage or support prejudice. One example of this is the television programme One foot in the grave where Victor Meldrew is portrayed as a ‘grumpy old man who always moans and generally looks miserable’. This enforces the stereotype that older people are ‘sad and grumpy’.


Ask learners to find other television programmes/films that enforce/support certain stereotypes, then answer the following questions:

  • What stereotype is being endorsed?

  • How does the film/television programme use the stereotype (humour, sympathy)?

  • Is the image/person portrayed in a positive or negative way? (1 hour)



Learning unit: Effective communication in care settings


Purpose

To explore the role of communication in the care setting.


Objectives

On completing the unit, learners should be able to:


  1. Describe the main benefits and elements of effective communication in care settings

  2. Outline the ways of communicating with clients who have specific communication needs

  3. Explain the main barriers to effective communication


Approximate study time

20 minutes (exact time depends on the ability and/or existing knowledge of the learner)


Type of learning unit

Graphic menu (see below)


Prerequisite knowledge and preparatory activities

None required


Outline of content

  • Verbal and non-verbal communication

  • Face-to-face communication

  • Signs and sign language

  • Barriers to communication


Some learners may have experience of communication differences (speaking another language, hearing impairment) and may be able to add the ‘personal touch’ to this. Personal experience may be their own problems or things they have encountered during work experience.


Suggestions for follow-up learner activities

  1. Ask learners to watch a television chat show, the sort that discusses topical issues (Kilroy, Trisha, Esther). While watching they should make notes on the methods of communication used by various people to get their point across (gestures, facial expressions, posture). (Up to 1 hour depending on the programme)




  1. Many clients who have communication differences use a picture board as a means of communicating with others. The pictures have significance to the client and when they want to say something they point to the appropriate picture e.g. a picture of a cup and saucer if they want a drink. Ask learners to design a picture board that could be used by a teenager who does not speak the same language as they do. (1 – 2 hours)



Topic 2: Confidentiality in health and social care


This comprises three learning units:

  • An introduction to confidentiality

  • Confidentiality and written/verbal information

  • Confidentiality and information stored electronically


Details on each of these learning units are provided below.


Learning unit: An introduction to confidentiality


Purpose

To introduce the concept of confidentiality and its importance in health and social care.


Objectives

On completing the unit, learners should be able to:


  1. Explain the meaning of confidentiality in relation to health and social care

  2. Identify the main legislation relating to confidentiality in health and social care

  3. Discuss the importance of confidentiality in health and social care


Approximate study time

20 minutes (exact time depends on the ability and/or existing knowledge of the learner)


Type of learning unit

Tutorial (see below)


Prerequisite knowledge and preparatory activities

None required


Outline of content

  • Legislation related to confidentiality

  • Guidelines provided by professional bodies for people such as nurses, doctors and social workers

  • What sort of information a carer would need access to in order to provide good quality care



Suggestions for follow-up learner activities

  1. Ask learners to use the internet to find out further information about Victoria Gillick and the issue of confidential information. In groups of three, learners should read the information and then discuss the issue from the point of view of:

  • The doctor

  • Victoria Gillick

  • The daughter

(1 hour)


  1. Recently a national newspaper suggested that a dentist had been treating patients while he was HIV positive. His patients had no knowledge of his medical condition. Ask learners to think about whether his patients should have been informed of his medical condition or the information should have remained confidential. Ask them to explain the reasons for their answer. (30 minutes)



Learning unit: Confidentiality and written or verbal information


Purpose

To make the learner aware of the need for confidentiality in relation to written and verbal information.


Objectives

On completing the unit, learners should be able to:


  1. List some of the ways that verbal information is used in health and social care

  2. List some of the main ways that written information is used in health and social care

  3. Describe the ways in which carers can ensure confidentiality with respect to written and spoken information


Approximate study time

20 minutes (exact time depends on the ability and/or existing knowledge of the learner)


Type of learning unit

Graphic menu (see below)


Prerequisite knowledge and preparatory activities

Learning unit entitled An introduction to confidentiality


Outline of content

  • Advantages and disadvantages of written information

  • Advantages and disadvantages of verbal information

  • When it might be appropriate to disclose information

  • Where and how written information should be stored


Suggestions for follow-up learner activities

  1. Ask learners to imagine they are the manager of a care home for one of the following client groups:

  • Teenagers

  • Young, disabled adults

  • Older people

Part of their role as manager is to ensure that all staff are aware of the policies and procedures of the home. They should produce a leaflet or booklet for new staff, which explains confidentiality in relation to the care home. (1 hour)


Learning unit: Confidentiality and electronic information


Purpose

To provide some insight into what information is stored on computer and how to ensure confidentiality.


Objectives

On completing the unit, learners should be able to:


  1. List the types of information relating to health and social care that can be stored electronically

  2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of storing information electronically

  3. Outline legislation relating to the confidentiality of electronic information


Approximate study time

20 minutes (exact time depends on the ability and/or existing knowledge of the learner)


Type of learning unit

Tutorial (see below)


Prerequisite knowledge and preparatory activities

Learning unit entitled An introduction to confidentiality


Outline of content

Types of information stored electronically

  • Advantages and disadvantages

  • Electronic Health Records

  • Data Protection Acts

  • Ensuring confidentiality


Suggestions for follow-up learner activities

  1. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a current initiative in relation to the NHS patient records. When fully operational (2005) everyone in the country will have one. Ask learners to find out more about it by:

  • Searching the internet (NHS and Government web sites) and collecting as much information as possible about it.

  • Contacting their local NHS Trust for information


From the information they have collected they can produce an informative poster to tell the general public about the EHR (1 - 2 hours depending on research skills)


  1. Ask learners to write a brief summary of confidentiality in their workplace after finding out what information is stored on computer and who has access to it. If they do not go on work placements they can do the same activity in relation to their college. (1 hour)



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