Annals of the university of craiova




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RÉFÉRENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES



BURNLEY, David, 1992, A History of the English Language: A Source Book, London, Longman

HOUSE, Juliane, 2001, “Translation Quality Assessment: Linguistic Description versus Social Evaluation” in Meta, XLVI, pp. 243-257

MAYBIN, Janet, MERCER, Neil (ed), 1996, Using English from Conversation to Canon, London, Routledge

NORD, Christiane, 1997, Translating as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained, Manchester, St. Jerome

REISS, Katharina, 2002, La critique des traductions, ses possibilités et ses limites (trad. C. Boucquet), Artois Presses Université

VAN ROEY, Jean, 1990, French-English Contrastive Lexicology. An Introduction, Louvain-La-Neuve, Peeters


ABSTRACT


The paper discusses the linguistic choices of three translators of the novel “Le rouge et le noir” in English, at a significant temporal gap. The English loans from French do not always preserve the initial semantic description and the translators must pay attention to the connotations in order to find optimal equivalents. Even if English imported a large number of words of French origin during its evolution, they were adapted to the new extralinguistic reality; this is why the evolution of a language can explain the variability of translation.

ABSTRACTS


METAMORPHOSIS OF THE « POÈME EN PROSE » FROM THE BEGINING OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT TO PRESENT

Driss AISSAOUI

University of Technology Sydney, Australia



This paper deals with the evolution of the “poème en prose” from the beginning of the Enlightenment to present. It retraces the major phases trough which this kind of writing distinguished itself from neighboring literary forms such as the short story and the count. Moreover, this study outlines the formal difficulties this type of expression overcame in order to better define its aesthetic configuration and gain its status as an independent genre.


J. JOYCE’S A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST – A SELF-REFLEXIVE WORK

Florentina ANGHEL


University of Craiova, Romania


Although James Joyce decided not to give any information about the making of A Portrait of the Artist, his critical essays being far from such theories, the work itself abounds in meta-texts which reveal its theoretical enclosure. Therefore, the novel is an invitation to a reading revealing the making of the work of art, which allows the text to open and draw the reader inside its overwhelming polyvalence. To support the above-mentioned perspective, my reading was under the hazard’s influence as, while I was working, I was directed by both Joyce’s text and my bibliographical context towards new possibilities to demonstrate the novel’s self-reflexivity. Thus, the text itself stands for both the matter on which the reader works and the possible reading of its own encoding, being a net of symbols and suggestions for their decipherment, seeming to anticipate any approach.


REMARQUES ON THE AMERICAN PRAGMATISM

Felicia BURDESCU

University of Craiova, Romania


This article presents American pragmatism as different and still responsive to the European social and political context and to European philosophy. Focusing on Richard Rorty’s philosophical works, the author explains that his leftist position constitutes the democratic liberalism in postmodern America. Rorty’s philosophical pragmatism, as debatable as it may be, finds its roots in his attitude towards a non-synchronic tradition and in his epistemologically shaping the truth which is contextualized from social and political perspectives. Rorty anchors American pragmatism in his contemporary reality and criticizes western ethnocentrism. Aiming at an example of human solidarity and objectivity, Rorty promotes science and recommends a future scientific pragmatics.


DERRIDA’S GAME AND WRITING

Marius GHICA

University of Craiova, Romania


In Derrida’s works we dont encounter a unique direction, which advances pregressively or enriches the lime of thought. His discourse is always brought together by means of cumulus. Hermeneutics and dialectic deconstruction are both employed to determine the “aim” of discourse, which is nothing else than discourse itself in written form. The old themes, which used to work in the classical discourse as with Nietzsche, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Gamader or Paul Ricœur consist mainly in the search of a hermeneuein. The language, the written form and the “already-found” which the philosopher looks for only later, develop in the text a verb of relationships in which the elements have the same sounds, are musical and exchange place and function in contradictory couplets. Thes differences mentain the pressure on thought and become “reconciled” in a new concept just to become, once again, deepened in other disjunctions, in a “slippery chasm”, always looking for that something that cannot be expressed by the Word. The writing is also the different identic, the trigger of the itinerary, which takes place in the realm of language, the looked for hermeneuein, a space of everlasting search, a Holy Grail which seems to be out of touch but which also seems to closer, as one travels along a road filled with names and runes, a realm of the word.


THE LITERATURE OF EMIGRATION OR THE MIXED TRANSCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

George FRERIS

Aristote” University of Thessalonique, Greece


Starting out from the definition that literature is a part of the national ideology, this presentation seeks to demonstrate that the idea of the nation is undoubtedly “real” but thoroughly utopian as well. On the contrary, the literature of emigration, when considered as a form of creative activity between multilingual partners and different cultures that adopt the same linguistic code, express, in the context of culture, a view equivalent to the current universalisation of economy.

This original combination of unity and diversity allows readers to diversify their idea of identity. By means of language, authors, and consequently readers, create a universe which is relevant to the Other, to the multicultural and versatile world in which they exist. This multicultural or even multilingual unity does not mean that a language signifies a unique culture, but it develops in a plurality of cultures and in a linguistic area in which the individual identity is confronted to the Other so that it becomes ideal or even utopian.


WRITTINGS OF THE DISCONTINUITY IN POSTMODERN CONTEXT

COHABITATION AND FRAGMENTS IN

MICHEL BUTOR’S AND GEORGES PERROS’S WORKS

Marc GONTARD

Rennes 2 University, France


If postmodernism is primarily the expression of discontinuity and difference, one may call postmodern all type of narrative discourse which privileges heterogeneous techniques like collage or fragmentation. Indeed, if collage is a process which, at the beginning of the 20th century, designates modernity in painting or literature, with simultaneous mainly, today this process illustrates our heterogeneous experience of reality, where air transport creates contiguity between different cultures which entails an entirely discontinuous representation of the world.

The most interesting literary experience in this field is that of Michel Butor, when he stops experimenting with the form of the novel and finds, with Mobile (1962), a system in which narration dissolves into collage in an attempt to reproduce, on the tabular mode, the mosaic effect and the endless diversity of the North American continent. Another form of discontinuity in writing is the use of fragment, which, no more than collage, is specific to postmodernism, since it dates back to Antiquity.

But when fragmentation illustrates the chaos of self variance, when the note, in opposition to the narrative mode, becomes a writing process which privileges insularity and dissemination, then fragmental writing becomes coherent with the postmodern condition. This is what Georges Perros’s work, Papiers Collés (1960-1978) shows us.


THE ARTISTIC EMPATHY AS A READING METHOD

Tuğrul İNAL

Hacettepe“ University of Ankara, Turkey


It would be possible to add to the diverse methods of criticism an approach that consists of examining a work within the framework of artistic empathy by identifying oneself with the author trough the use of the first person singular. Such empathy would require first and foremost that the interpreter – the essayist – have complete and profound knowledge of the personal and universal aspects of the literary world of the author studied.

Professor Inal uses this approach particularly for the texts of Baudelaire who, in a spirit of rebellion, always maintains his delicate position between the extremes of good and bad, sincerity and artificiality, beauty and ugliness, extraordinary and ordinary, heaven and hell all through the wonderful creative magic of imagination.


ROLAND GIGUÈRE – « THE POET OF THE INTERNAL LANDSCAPE »

Ioan LASCU

University of Craïova, Romania


Roland Giguère gives, once again, the proof of his double nature: a poet whose hand is used by the painter and the artist in order to create the beauty and the colours. The hand, with its powerful functions is, in the same time, the instrument and the man’s soul that create a human being more profound then ever existed.


THE MONOCHROMIC ART. THE AXE PASS

Camelia MANOLESCU

University of Craiova, Romania


In his well-known novel, Salammbô, Flaubert deals with his conception of writer and painter in the same time. He re-creates an ancient atmosphere by means of a very modern conception about colour and the human sensation about it.

In the episode of the Ax Defile Flaubert gives us the chance, by using our imagination, to anticipate the cinema of the XXI-st century and, in this way, to re-crate the violent contrast between fire, water and stone. The colour rules, it is the real instrument used by Flaubert. The red colour demands its victims: the reader impressed by its power of suggestion. This unique colour lives by the means of the powerful light, the symbol of a male god, Moloch in a longlasting war with a goddess, Tanit, the night symbol. Their war and union in the same time give birth to a colour, the red one and to a sensation, the novel changed into a painting.


THE « MIXED » LANGUAGE IN LITERARY TRANSLATION

Maria ORPHANIDOU – FRERIS

Aristote” University of Thessalonique, Greece


Considering the translation as a cultural activity which in most cases provides a partial notion of the source context, we shall demonstrate how the sense of a language renders in the context of the target language a different image than that of the source language. Particularly in literary contexts, the translation process aims at adapting the context of the source language in the target language and the reader of the target context accepts a message which is not “unfaithful”, but "different", or even "mixed".

We have to develop a simple literary strategy based on a cultural plan, which highlights the arbitrary and superficial elements on each side, stressing mostly on the cultural traditions, where elements take their real sense. That is an anti-nationalist position, a real post-modern attitude founding the translation on a huge respect towards on the peaceful and creative co-existence of various cultural domains which presuppose the existence of a political freedom and a civilizing autonomy as well as of a multicultural and versatile writing.


INTERFERENCES LITERATURE-IMAGE

Elena RĂDUCANU

University of Craiova, Romania


Even if image and word have specific languages, their interferences are evident. This article sets up to explore different forms of dialogue between text and image. Literary modernity is connected to any kind of image, pictorial, photographical, cinematographically. The originality of every artist emerges sometimes from these defined and dominated interferences. I am going to analyze the connection between literature and painting during the surrealistic period, between writing and cinematographically image, in Marguerite Duras and Alain Robbe–Grillet’s works and the photo carrying a message in Roland Barthes’s studies. Therefore the civilization of image is an inevitable fact which reveals the vital exigency for imaginary in our modern society.

THE NEW CRITICS AND THE MOBILE EQUILIBRIUM

Lelia TROCAN

University of Craiova, Romania


The new critics try not to neglect anything and show the structures during their movement, the architectures having an aim. For this reason they want to be synchronic and diachronic in the same time, in order to gain the mobile balance. They try to find a being in every work, an existence (we can say a self conscience, a language), they are fundamentally ontological.


THE BAROQUE AND THE FINE ARTS

Lelia TROCAN

University of Craiova, Romania


In the end of the XVI-th century we have to admit the presence of a new sensitiveness that resume the old forms, develop them in its own atmosphere and adjust them to its goals transforming them into new ones.

The baroque architecture seems to express the spirit of the whole period where the world, even the universe, was taken for a theater.


FROM THE IDENTITY QUEST TO THE EUROPEAN LINGUISTIC SUPER-FIELD IN THE NATIONAL LANGUAGES (WITH APPLICATION ON THE ROMANIAN LANGUAGE)

Doina BUTIURCĂ

Petru-Maior” University of Târgu-Mureş, Romania


The 18th and 19th centuries signified for the Romanian culture and, implicitly, for the Romanian language, a period of identity searching. The 20th century and especially the post December 1989 period, impose an intercultural and interdisciplinary approach of the European cultural and linguistic reports. The aspect we proposed ourselves to approach in our study refers to the relationships between the European superior linguistic layer and the national languages, the Romanian language in particular.


THE FACTS OF FRENCH LANGUAGE

IN ROMANIAN HANDBOOKS OF FLE

Cecilia CONDEI

University of Craiova, Romania


The prospect that we propose places in a large zone, observed and described by the linguistics variationnist which starts from “the assumption that the linguistic variation obeys regularities concerned with two orders: linguistic constraints on the one hand, historical and social factors (extralinguistic) of the other” (Gadet, 2003: 67). The facts of language which we will study belong to the didactic speech presented in the handbooks of FLE used for two periods, marked by the revolution of 1989.


MOBILE « CIBLE » VERBS

Adriana COSTĂCHESCU

University of Craiova, Romania


The paper is divided into two sections. The former is mainly dedicated to a discussion of the asymmetry of the linguistic relation between the figure and the ground (in French ‘cible’ and ‘site’). For items as in front vs. behind, left vs. right, this asymmetry, which does not exist in geometry, is due to material and cognitive factors: the ground is, usually, bigger, less mobile and better known than the figure.  The two main classes of spatial relations (topological and projective) are also presented in this part.

The latter section describes the dynamic verbs in French, characterized by the mobility of the figure. If the agent and the figure are identical, the predication is spatially defined as self-propelling (aller, marcher, voler, fuir, etc). For other verbs, it is the agent that guarantees the movement of a separate figure (mettre, placer, amener, jeter, etc). For a number of verbs belonging to either category, the occurrence of an inciter is possible (appeler, inviter, convoquer, conduire, etc). In this line of approach, observations concerning the aspectual values as well as the phase-structure of the predication are contributed by the author.


THE OPPOSITION SUBJECT VS DIRECT OBJECT IN THE PROPER NOUNS (FRANCH-ROMANIAN FIELD)

Daniela DINCĂ

University of Craiova, Romania


This article proposes a comparison between the marks of the proper names of persons in French and Romanian used to express two essential syntactic functions, i.e. subject and direct object, in the Nominative and in the Accusative. In both languages, the marks of the cases depend on the verb, but the Romania Accusative displays a redundancy of marks: the use of the preposition pe and the anticipation of the direct object by using the atonic form of the personal pronoun.


COLLISION IN THE DISCOURSE OF THE LAW

Ancuţa GUŢĂ

University of Craiova, Romania


Contemporary law is exposed to irreconcilable conflicts between different institutionalized discourses in society. The structure of the discourse in law is made of the incorporation of an independent, very high specialized and social institutionalized discourse in a systematical plurality.

The problem of the discourse collision occurs when these different and independent forms of the discourse, required by a specific logic, are rendered as translation in the law language and they have a free access to the law field. The law can, in this way, become the source of an upper social discourse whose purpose is that to integrate the stratification process of the society in general.


THE LEXICAL SEMANTICS AND THE TEACHING OF THE NOUNS. DIDACTIC APPLICATIONS

Dorina PĂNCULESCU

University of Craiova, Romania


This article proposes an analysis using the principles and methods of the lexical semantics in the study of semantic classes of Nouns in French. The hierarchical organization of the nominal vocabulary in common French is based on the main link of hyperonymy / hyponymy. The theoretical remarks we made allowed us to apprehend the teaching of the nominal vocabulary, by the exercises offered in the Appendix.


THE « CONFESSION »VERBS

Ileana-Camelia POPA

University of Craiova, Romania


Our paper is an analysis focused on the verbs expressing the act of confession, in a bilingual perspective, Romanian and French.

For the analysis, we took as staring point the model proposed by Anna Wierzbicka (1987), English Speech Acts Verbs. A semantic Dictionary. Our goal is to illustrate, as much as possible, all the aspects involved by the speech act, at syntactic, semantic and pragmatic level.


ONCE AGAIN ABOUT THE CONDITIONAL SYSTEM OF THE FRENCH

Mihaela POPESCU

University of Craiova, Romania


This article represents a study realized diachronically on the French conditional system, starting from Old French and up to modern days. The ensemble of the evolution of the French conditional system type si p, q (if p, q) allows us to observe the gradual decrease –starting from Old French – of the role played by the imperfect subjunctive and two very important aspects: (a) the emergence and consequently, the use of compound forms reinforce the formal system of expression of the hypothetical, which enable us to advance the idea of prevalence of the hypothetical by comparison to the potential; (b) even inside the potential, we can speak of the prevalence of the probable by comparison to the possible, situation determined explicitly by the use of the conditional mood.


ROMANIAN POSESIVE STRUCTURES: SYNTACTIC-SEMANTIC ASPECTS

Anda RĂDULESCU

University of Craiova, Romania


The present article deals with some syntactic and semantic aspects of Romanian possessive structures in comparison to French. The characteristic of Romanian is the presence of personal and reflexive pronouns in a so called «possessive Dative», the frequency of these structures being higher that in French, where there are other characteristics that should be taken into account, such as [alienable] possession, referring mostly to the parts of the human body.

REMARKS ON SUCCESSIVE ROMANIAN TRANSLATIONS OF CHARLES BAUDELAIRE’S « THE DEAD BODY »

Anda RĂDULESCU

University of Craiova, Romania


Our goal is to examine some translation solutions of Baudelaire’s well-known poem, Une Charogne, in the alternatives proposed by Philippide, Cerna-Rădulescu, Zeletin and Cârneci. These translations are separated by three decades (1965-1996). Our analysis focuses, in each case, on the translators’ preference for a particular word, for topical collapses, in order to keep the rhythm and the rhyme of the poem. We do not aim at carrying a value judgment on the quality of the translations, even though sometimes we have made some brief remarks. We are rather interested in the translation processes used by the four translators, as well as in the meaning and the origin of some key words used in the first five stanzas of the poem.


THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ORAL COMMUNICATION COMPETANCE IN THE FLE CLASS

Daniela SCORŢAN

University of Craiova, Romania


Our society is based mainly on the interpersonal oral communication and in particular on the exchange of information. To control the competence of oral communication students must respect the following criteria: to have a well-defined object of what they will say, to express original thoughts, to connect the information in a logical way, with few transitions. We provided in this article several types of activities (comment of a visual document, how to explain instructions, a receipt, to speak about his hobby, to explain a technique related to his specialty) used to stimulate the development of the students’ competence of oral communication.


REGIONALISMS AND LEXICOGRAPHY: THE FRENCH COMPARED TO THE PORTUGUESE

René G. STREHLER

University of Brasilia, Brasil


Wörterbücher beschreiben allgemein eine Varietät, den sogenannten Standard. Die Wahl des Standards begründet sich auf ideologischen und kulturellen Kriterien. Im Falle des Französischen und des Portugiesischen, beide präsent auf dem amerikanischen und auf dem europäischen Kontinent, beobachtet man verschiedene Strategien um die regionale Varietät zu behandeln. Konzepte, wie ‚regionale Norm’ oder ‚français de référence’, statt ‚français standard’, sind in der respektiven Lexikografie immer mehr diskutiert.


LINGUISTIC EVOLUTION AND TRANSLATION

Titela VILCEANU

University of Craiova, Romania


The paper discusses the linguistic choices of three translators of the novel “Le rouge et le noir” in English, at a significant temporal gap. The English loans from French do not always preserve the initial semantic description and the translators must pay attention to the connotations in order to find optimal equivalents. Even if English imported a large number of words of French origin during its evolution, they were adapted to the new extra-linguistic reality; this is why the evolution of a language can explain the variability of translation.

* Αrticle qui a constitué la communication à la journée d’études «Mixités», organisée par le Département de Langue et de Littérature Françaises de l’Université de Chypre, à Nicosie, le 4 décembre 2007.

* Αrticle qui a constitué la communication à la journée d’études «Mixités», organisée par le Département de Langue et de Littérature Françaises de l’Université de Chypre, à Nicosie, le 4 décembre 2007.

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