Teachers’ Curriculum Institute History Alive!: Pursuing American Ideals

НазваниеTeachers’ Curriculum Institute History Alive!: Pursuing American Ideals
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Teachers’ Curriculum Institute - History Alive!: Pursuing American Ideals






Student Edition

Chief Operating Officer: Amy Larson

Director of Development: Liz Russell

Managing Editor: Laura Alavosus

Project Editor: Lillian Duggan

Content Editors: John Burner, Jeannie Cole, Lara Fox

Production Editors: Mali Apple, Tara Joffe

Editorial Associate: Anna Embree

Production Manager: Lynn Sanchez

Art Director: John F. Kelly

Senioir Graphic Designer: Christy Uyeno

Graphic Designers: Paul Rebello, Don Taka

Photo Editor: Margee Robinson

Art Editor: Eric Houts

Audio Director: Katy Haun

Copyright ©2008 by Teachers’ Curriculum Institute 2, Inc.

No parts of the publication may be reproduced without written permission from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America.

ISBN 978-1-934534-51-9

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Program Director

Bert Bower

Program Author

Diane Hart is a nationally recognized social studies textbook author and assessment consultant. She has authored several basal social studies textbooks for students at all levels. She has also written texts for students with special needs that are used in schools, adult literacy, and citizenship classes. In addition to her writing, she consults with state departments of education on the development of standards-based social studies assessments.

A former teacher and Woodrow Wilson Fellow, with a master’s degree in history from Stanford University, Ms. Hart is deeply involved in social studies education. She is active in California Council for the Social Studies and serves on the Board of Directors of the National Council for the Social Studies. In both her professional and volunteer activities, she is guided by two passions. The first is engaging students in the social studies curriculum by creating compelling, accessible textbooks. The second is to ensure that all students have opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, and habits of the heart that they will need to be effective citizens in a complex world.

Senior Writer

Brent Goff

Contributing Writers

Kate Connell

David Fasulo

Andrew Goldblatt

Holly Melton

Linda Scher

Ellen Todras

Julie Weiss

Lead Program Developer

Steve Seely

Creative Development Manager

Kelly Shafsky

Curriculum Developers

Nicole Boylan

Terry Coburn

Julie Cremin

Erin Fry

Amy George

Colleen Guccione

Teacher and Content Consultants

Suzy Allione

South Tahoe High School

Lake Tahoe Unified School District

South Lake Tahoe, California

Betty Carroll

Kennedy High School

Sacramento City Unified School District

Sacramento, California

Loyal Frazier

Southwest High School

Central Union High School District

El Centro, California

Karl Grubaugh

Granite Bay High School

Roseville Joint Union High School District

Cameron Park, California

Thomas Johnson

Glendora High School

Glendora Unified School District

Glendora, California

Lindsay Petrie

Lee M. Thurston High School

South Redford Public Schools

Redford, Michigan

Michael Radcliffe

Greenville High School

Greenville Public Schools

Greenville, Michigan

Deb Schneider

Merrill F. West High School

Tracy Unified School District

Tracy, California

Kathy Taylor

Hillsborough County School District

Tampa, Florida


Dr. James Banner

Independent Scholar

Dr. Dan Dupre

Department of History

University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Dr. Richard R. John

Department of History

University of Illinois at Chicago

Dr. Robert Johnston

Department of History

University of Illinois at Chicago

Dr. Ben Keppel

Department of History

University of Oklahoma

Dr. Delores McBroome

Department of History

Humboldt State University

Dr. Carol Petillo

History Department

Boston College

Dr. Bruce Schulman

Department of History

Boston University

Dr. Timothy Thurber

Department of History

Virginia Commonwealth University

Dr. Stanley Underdal

Department of History and American Studies Program

San Jose State University

Music Consultant

Melanie Pinkert

Music Faculty

Montgomery College, Maryland


Mapping Specialists

Madison, Wisconsin

Internet and Technology Consultant

Clinton Couse

Cedar Valley Community School

Edmonds School District

Edmonds, Washington


Jessica Efron

Library Faculty

Appalachian State University

Carla Valetich

Pittsboro, North Carolina

Page 1

Era 1 Establishing an American Republic 1492–1896

The history of the United States naturally divides itself into eras, or periods of time made distinctive by key issues and events. The earliest era was a time of founding and settlement, of testing and conflict, when Americans established high ideals and fought over their meaning. It saw the growth of colonies and the forging of a new nation. This era also saw that nation divide over the issue of slavery—a conflict that was settled only by a civil war. Throughout this period, Americans struggled with the ideals first set forth in the Declaration of Independence. By the end of the era, much had been decided. Still, Americans found themselves asking, “What kind of people and nation are we? And what do we hope to become?”

This image is a color photograph depicting the various facets of American life. It depicts George Washington, the first president of the United States; a Native American; an American woman pulling a canon; the U.S. President Abraham Lincoln; and an African-American family.

Page 2

Statue of Liberty

This image is a close-up color photograph of the Statue of Liberty, located in New York.

Page 3

Unit 1 Getting Oriented 1492–1776

Liberty Island, New York

This image is a color photograph of the close up view of the Statue of Liberty, located in New York.

Page 4

Martin Luther King Jr. speaking from the Lincoln Memorial in 1963

This image is a black and white photograph of a huge gathering, assembled close to a water body. A huge building is also seen in the background.

Page 5

Chapter 1 What Is History?

What is history, and why should we study it?

1.1 Introduction

More than 200,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., on a hot August day in 1963. There they heard Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. give one of the most powerful speeches in U.S. history. His “I have a dream” speech was a watershed event of the civil rights movement.

By speaking on the steps of the memorial, King underscored the historical connection between the civil rights movement and President Abraham Lincoln’s efforts to end slavery. In 1863, at the height of the Civil War, Lincoln had signed the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in Confederate states. Later that year, in his famous Gettysburg Address, Lincoln reminded the nation why slavery must end: “Fourscore and seven years ago,” he began, “our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.” The words of the Gettysburg Address are carved on a wall of the Lincoln Memorial.

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, remains one of the most honored leaders in American history. Lincoln is best remembered for holding the nation together through the Civil War and helping end slavery.

This image is a color photograph of the U.S. President Abraham Lincoln’s statue showing him seated in a huge chair. Abraham Lincoln’s speech, engraved in stone, is seen in the background. Abraham Lincoln is one of the highly respected U.S. presidents, best remembered for his role in Civil War and abolishing slavery.

Speaking a century later, King echoed Lincoln’s words:

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free … Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.

—Martin Luther King Jr., “I have a dream” speech, 1963

By beginning his speech with a reference to the past, King made the point that history matters. What happened long ago shapes how we live today. What he said next made another point: We are not prisoners of the past. If we can dream of a better tomorrow, it lies in our power to shape the history to come.

Page 6

1.2 History: The Past and the Stories We Tell About It

The term history can mean several related things. It can refer to events in the past, as in the history of a family. It can also refer to the stories we tell about the past. In this way, just about anyone can be a historian, or someone who reconstructs and retells stories of the past. History is also an academic, or scholarly, discipline—like economics, physics, or mathematics—and is taught and studied in schools.

This chapter considers history in each of these dimensions: as the past, as stories about the past, and as an academic subject. Its main focus, however, is on the writing, or reconstruction, of history and on how historians do their work.

History Begins with a Question or Problem

Historians begin their work with a question they hope to answer or a problem they wish to solve. For example, a historian might start with the question, Was the Civil War inevitable? Next, he or she gathers facts and information related to the question. This material becomes the evidence the historian uses to reconstruct the past. Evidence is information that can be used to prove a statement or support a conclusion.

Historical evidence can come in many forms. It might be an old letter or manuscript. Or it might be an artifact—a human-made object—such as a tool, a weapon, or part of a building. Evidence can also be found in photographs, recorded music, and old movies. And, of course, it can be found in books, magazines, and newspapers, as well as in interviews with experts or historical figures.

Historians refer to these various forms of information as sources. There are two basic types of sources on which historians typically rely when writing history. A primary source is a document or other record of past events created by people who were present during those events or during that period. An eyewitness account, such as a Civil War soldier’s diary, is an example of a primary source.

In the 1850s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a best seller. Today it is read as a historical novel and a primary source of that time.

This image is a color photograph of the 1850s best-selling novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The novel talks of the problem of slavery and its effect on the African Americans in the United States. The novel is considered as the greatest book of the age.

Photographs are visual primary sources that show what life was like in the past.

This image is a black and white photograph of an American family in a one-room apartment.

Posters from the past are today’s historical artifacts.

This image is a color poster that reads “Sunrise Sunset—Own a liberty bond” and the Statue of Liberty in the background.

Page 7

Examples of a secondary source include a book or commentary from someone who was not present at the events or perhaps not even alive during that period. Many secondary sources are created long after the events in question. One example is a book about the Civil War written in the 1990s.

Historians Select and Weigh Evidence

All historical evidence, whether primary or secondary, must be critically evaluated. Historians carefully examine each source for the creator’s point of view, perspective, or outlook on events. This outlook may be shaped by many factors, such as the person’s age, gender, religion, occupation, or political views. For example, a historian would expect that a southern plantation owner in the 1850s would have had a point of view different from that of a northern factory worker.

Sometimes a source contains information or conclusions that reflect a distinct point of view. This is not necessarily a bad thing, but historians are careful to look for signs of bias when analyzing evidence. In general, bias is any factor that might distort or color a person’s observations. Bias takes many forms, ranging from a simple friendship or preference for someone to an unfair dislike of a person or group. Whatever its form, bias can make a source less than trustworthy.

Historians Reconstruct and Interpret the Past

Once their evidence is selected and evaluated, historians begin to reconstruct what happened. They often begin by establishing a chronology, or sequence of events in time. Once historians are certain of the correct order of events, they are better able to make connections among those events. They can identify causes and effects. They can also begin to look for long-range changes and trends that may have developed over many years or even decades. For example, in considering whether the Civil War was inevitable, a historian would examine the events leading up to the war. He or she would also look for points at which war might have been averted.

Newspapers provide historians with eyewitness accounts of past events.

This image is a black and white photograph of the front-page of the American newspaper Variety. The headline of the newspaper reads “Wall St. Lays An Egg.”

Magazine covers and television shows can reveal a lot about the cultural values of the years in which they were created.

This image is a black and white photograph of a happy American family depicting a father, mother, and two children on the cover page of the magazine Life.

Everyday artifacts, like John Lennon’s eyeglasses, help connect us to the lives of historic figures.

This image is a color photograph of the spectacles worn by the famous singer John Lennon of the Beatles group.

Page 8

When writing history, historians do not focus only on facts or chronologies. If they did, history books would be little more than a chronicle, or a simple listing, of what happened year by year. The more challenging part of a historian’s task is to interpret the past—to weave together the evidence and produce a story that helps readers understand and draw meaning from history.
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