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GEORGE BERNARD SHAW



George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950) was born in Dublin on July 26th, 1856, into a family of Irish gentry.

He began his literary work as a critic of art, literature, music and drama. By his clever criticisms Shaw won recognition as the most talented British feuilletonist of his day.

Shaw's career as a dramatist began with his famous series of "unpleasant" plays: "Widowers' Houses", "Mrs Warren's Profession" and others, that turned out to be a daring exposure of the darker sides of English life.

Another series of plays that followed: "Candida", "Arms and the Man", "You Never Can Tell" and others was given the title of "pleasant" plays, and this rather ironically; through the amusing situations and witty scenes with sparkling dialogue Shaw continued his criticism of bourgeois morals and ideals. "There were two Shaws," writes a critic, "one was the prophet with doctrine in his hand; the other was the jester with a joke on his lips".

Among Shaw's other plays most well known are: "Heartbreak House", "Saint Joan", "The Apple Cart", "Too True to Be Good" and others.

Shaw introduced intellectual debate into his stories with its original and fearless paradoxes. He also revived the practice of including a long preface and sometimes a sequel in the play, explaining what it was about and what he actually meant. Shaw's influence on his age was immense. William Irvin, Shaw's biographer, says that to comprehend Shaw is to comprehend the 20th century to a great extent. Like Shakespeare, his name was adapted to add a new adjective to the English language: "Shavian". The word defined by the Oxford Dictionary as "characteristic of Bernard Shaw" suggests a unique way of looking on life and the universe.


***


Shaw demanded that art should always be didactic, serving a social purpose. His "Pygmalion" is unlike most of his other plays in this respect. The plot of "Pygmalion" is "the eternal Cinderella story". In the play professor Higgins, a phonetics expert, transforms a Cockney flower girl into a society lady by teaching her to speak beautifully. Professor Higgins is drawn from Henry Sweet, an eccentric phonetics expert from Oxford. The role of Eliza was specially written for Patrick Campbell, a famous actress of Shaw's time.

"Pygmalion" has been regularly revived since it was first produced in Vienna, was successfully filmed in 1937 and set to music as "My Fair Lady" in 1956.

PYGMALION*


* Shaw C.B. Pygmalion. M., 1972. Pages in Assignments refer to this edition.

Characters of the Play and Their Prototypes


Pygmalion (king of Cyprus) [p'mln] ['saprs]

Galatea [,l't]

Eliza Doolittle ['laz ‘du:ltl]


Alfred Doolittle ['lfrd 'du:ltl]

Henry Higgins ['henr 'hnz]

Mrs. Higgins ['hnz]

Colonel Pickering ['k:nl 'pkr]

Mrs. Eynsford Hill ['ensfd 'hl]

Freddy ['fred]

Clara ['klr]

Mrs. Pearce [ps]

Nepommuck ['nepmk]

Other Proper Names


p. 20. Queen of Sheba [‘i:b]

p. 20. Pharisaic [,fr'sek] (adjective)

of Pharisee [‘frs]

p. 22. Judy ['du:d]

p. 46. (by) Jove [dv]

p. 66. Pandour ['pnd]

p. 70. Queen Victoria [vk't:r]

p. 85. Ezra D. Wannafeller ['ezr ,wn'fel]

p. 86. Scilla and Charybdis ['sl] [k'rbds]


Assignments


Act I (pp. 10-22)


I. Study the Notes to Act I and comment on:


1. Characteristics of Cockney speech as compared with standard English (p. 12).

2. Connotations of the names Cheltenham (p. 17) and Harrow (p. 17).

  1. Historical associations of the words Pharisaic, Pharisee (p. 20).

  2. The meanings of the English words: profession (p. 19), student(p. 20), club (p. 20, the Carlton club) as compared with the Russian counterparts: профессия, студент, клуб.


II. Write out and translate into English Eliza's description on p. 12:


"She is not at all a romantic figure … a dentist".

Find some stylistic devices. Translate into English the description of Eliza's lodging on p. 22:

"She picks up the basket... without any further change."


III. Get ready to discuss Act I. Find the given word combinations,translate them into Russian. Speak of the situations they are used in.


a) 1. to run for shelter (p. 10); 2. to get chilled to the bone (p. 10); 3. to be engaged (about a taxi) (p. 13); 4. What's the row? (p. 14); 5. to take down some words (p. 14); 6. to take smb for another person (p. 14); 7. to take away one's character (p. 14); 8. to be much distressed (p. 15); 9. to mean (no) harm (p. 15); 10. to lay a charge against smb for smth (p. 15); 11. a busy-body (p. 16); 12. to make a living by... (one's hobby, one's profession (p. 19); 13. to give oneself away (p. 19); 14. to pass smb off as... (p. 20).


b) Paraphrase the above word combinations 2, 4, 12.


IV. Questions and Assignments


  1. Were is the scene laid?

  2. Mention the characters taking part in the first scene.

  3. Speak about your first impression of the flower girl.

  4. What was the cause of the lady's anxiety when she heard Eliza calling her son by his name?

  5. What caused the "general hubbub"?

  6. Why was Eliza so frightened when she noticed the Note Taker write down her words?

  1. How did the Note Taker and the military gentleman get to know each other?

  2. Describe the episode with the taxi. Why did Eliza tell the driver to take her to Buckingham Palace?

9. Trace out on a map of London: a) Freddy's wanderings in search of a cab. b) Eliza's taxi drive.

10. Say what you have learnt about the characters of the playfrom Act I.

Eliza (the Flower Girl)

Her age, appearance, clothes (p. 12); the language she speaks; the way she behaves ("her excessive sensibility" (p. 21); the place she lives in (p. 22).

Words to be used: to need washing badly (p. 12); to be shaped to one'swaist (p. 12); to be much the worse for wear (p. 12); to cry wildly (p. 14); to talk low-spiritedly to oneself (p. 16); to be preoccupied with one's wounded feelings (p. 18); to hang loose (p. 22); to be mended with (p. 22); to be heaped with (p. 22); to put in another penny (p. 22).

Henry Higgins (the Note Taker):

His profession, his hobby (p. 19); his statement on the role of pronunciation (pp. 19, 20).

Colonel Pickering (the Gentleman):

His appearance (p. 13); the place he comes from and the education he got as revealed by the Note Taker (p. 17); his political and social status (p. 20); his main occupation (p. 20).


V. Comment on the meaning of the following passages:


"This is an age of upstarts. Men begin in Kentish Town with F 80 a year and end in Park Lane with a hundred thousand. They want to drop Kentish Town; but they give themselves away every time they open their mouths" (p. 19).

"You see this creature with her kerbstone English: the English that will keep her in the gutter to the end of her days". (p. 19)


VI. Translate into English.


Дождь лил как из ведра. Нарядные люди покинули Ковентгарденский Оперный театр. Все боялись промокнуть до нитки, а такси были заняты. Многие нашли убежище у входа в церковь, там и оказались м-с Эйнсфорд Хилл с ее взрослыми детьми: дочерью и сыном. Там же они встретили молоденькую цветочницу Элизу, которая зарабатывала себе на жизнь тем, что продавала цветы. Совершенно случайно она услышала разговор двух ученых. Один из них был известный фонетист м-р Хиггинс. Услышав как Элиза говорит, он сказал, что мог бы через три месяца выдать ее за герцогиню или, по крайней мере, за продавщицу.


VII. Act out an episode from Act I.


VIII. Give a summary of Act I.


Act II (pp. 24-50)


I. Make comments on the following:


1. Historical references and the origin of phrases used in the text:

  1. The Tower of London: its function in different historical periods (p. 34);

  2. to wash one's hands of (p. 43). Remember the situation in which the last phrase is used in the text.

2. Linguistic phenomena:

  1. the meanings of first floor (p. 24); public house (p. 42); genial(p. 24), as compared with their Russian equivalents for the Russian"симпатичный".

  2. the meaning of the word snobbery; remember the situation in which it is used in the text.


II. Write out and translate into Russian the description of


a) Mr. Higgins' appearance and character on p. 24. Pay special attention to the epithets the author uses to describe him.

  1. Eliza's appearance when she entered Mr. Higgins' study. (pp. 25, 26). Say what impression she produces.

  2. Doolittle's appearance (p. 40). Pay attention to the stylistic devices.


III. Get ready to discuss Act II. Find the given word combinations, translate them into Russian. Speak of the situations they are used in.


a) 1. Take it or leave it (p. 28); 2. to bet smb smth (p. 29); 3. to have a good ear and a guick tongue (p. 29); 4. to walk over smb (p. 30); 5. to fit oneself for one's new station in life (p. 30); 6. to take smb out of the gutter (p. 31); 7. to become of (what's to become of her? (p. 32); 8. to be (stay) somewhere on some terms (p. 32); 9. to take charge of (p. 34); 10. a confirmed old bachelor(p. 37); 11. to take advantage of smb's position (p. 41); 12. to extort money from smb (p. 41); 13. to put smb up to smth (p. 41); 14. to blackmail smb (p. 41); 15. one of the underserving poor (p. 44); 16. against middle class morality (p. 44); 17. to charge smb for smth (p. 45); 18. to be a credit to smb (p. 47); 19. to touch smb for money (p. 47); 20. to be a disgrace to smb (p. 48); 21. to go through an ordeal (p. 50).


b) Give two or three sentences with word combinations 6, 11, 18.


IV. Questions and assignments


  1. Speak about the impression of Higgins' study.

  2. Describe the scene of Eliza's appearance and speak of the purpose of her visit.

  3. What was the gentlemen's attitude towards Eliza's offer?

  4. What was to become of Eliza when Higgins had finished his teaching? Did Eliza realize it?

  5. How did Eliza like the idea of having a bath?

  6. Speak about Alfred Doolittle: a) his appearance, social standing, his trade, his private life; b) Doolittle's excuses for his immoral ways; c) Doolittle's philosophy and conception of happiness.

  7. Why did Doolittle refuse to take more money than he had asked for?

  8. Higgins' attitude towards Doolittle?

  9. What did he call "the Welsh strain" in Doolittle?

  1. Speak about Higgins' character. Quote the sentences illustrating a) his abrupt, bullying manner (pp. 26, 28, 29, 30); b) his witty paradoxical style (pp. 29, 33).

  2. Say what new things you have come to know about Eliza from Act II: her parents, her upbringing, manner of talking, behaviour(pp. 26, 31).

  3. Describe Higgins' lesson to Eliza. Why was it "a sort of ordeal she had to go through?"


V. Analyse Doolittle's style of speech. Point out some devices,which make it especially expressive.


VI. Comment on the meaning of the following passages on p. 37:


"Women upset everything. When you let them into your life, you find that the woman is driving at one thing and you're driving at another."

"I suppose the woman wants to live her own life; and the man wants to live his; and each tries to drag the other on to the wrong track. One wants to go north and the other south; and the result is that both have to go east, though they both hate the east wind... So here I am, a confirmed old bachelor, and likely to remain so."


VII. Translate into English.


Элиза решила приодеться и навестить м-ра Хиггинса. Ее цель была получить новое место в жизни, а для этого ей надо было стать ученицей м-ра Хиггинса и остаться в его доме. Хиггинс ничего не имел против, чтобы избавить Элизу от ее тяжелого положения, но для этого она должна была быть достаточно способной к языку. Кроме Элизы в доме неожиданно появился ее отец, мусорщик. Его целью было вымогание денег у Хиггинса. Но Хиггинс и Пикеринг были поражены его красочной речью - он много говорил о морали среднего класса. Оба джентльмена были удивлены оригинальностью его мышления.


VIII. Act out an episode from Act II.


IX. Give a summary of Act II.

Act III (pp. 52-70)


I. Study the Notes to Act III and make comments on:


  1. Art references (p. 52): a) William Morris; b) Rossetti;Rossettian; c) Thomas Chippendale; d) Elizabethan.

  2. Place names: Chelsea Embankment (p. 52); the Park (p. 60);Earl's Court (p. 65); Clerkenwell (p. 67).

  3. The implications of the phrases: at-home day (p. 52); small talk(p. 53).

  4. Give synonyms for: cordially (p. 57); darkly (p. 58); right away(p. 64); snigger at (p. 59).

  5. Give Russian equivalents of the following idiomatic phrases: a bee in the bonnet (p. 63); "pay through the nose" (p. 67); "in full swing" (p. 68).


II. Translate into Russian the description of Mrs. Higgins' drawing room (p. 52).


III. Get ready to discuss Act HI. Find the given word combinations, translate them into Russian. Speak of the situations they are used in.


a) 1. to be brought up on (p. 52); 2. to be (not to be) bothered with (p. 53); 3. to keep to some subject in a talk (p. 54); 4. to win one's bet (p. 54); 5. to be at home in society (p. 55); 6. to have no manners (p. 55); 7. to be the life and soul of smth (p. 56); 8. to be rather trying (p. 56); 9. to get used to the new ways (p. 60); 10. to be old-fashioned (p. 60); 11. to be (thoroughly) up-to-date (p. 61); 12. to be (not to be) presentable (p. 62); 13. to get on (well) with smb (p. 63); 14. to take smb seriously (p. 63); 15. to find smb out (p. 67); 16. to betray one's origin (p. 67); 17. to be no good as (p. 68); 18. Is he any good? (p. 68); 19. to be a fraud (p. 69); 20. to lose one's bet (p. 70).


b) Write down wrong questions with word combinations 5, 7, 9, 11, 12.


IV. Questions and Assignments


  1. Say a few words about Mrs. Higgins' drawing-room; mention the quarter of London she lived in; say in what ways her drawing-room was unlike her son's room in Wimpole Street; in what way the furniture and the whole ornament reflected hertastes. Words to be used: to be (not to be) crowded with furniture;nicknacks; wall-papers; oil-paintings; chintz window curtains;elegantly simple writing table.

  2. What kind of a try-out was Mrs. Higgins' at home for Eliza?

  3. Comment on the dialogue between Mrs. Higgins and her son (pp. 53-63). How did he justify his bachelorship?

  4. Summarize the dialogue between Mrs. Eynsford Hill and Higgins about "small talk".

5. Describe the famous tea-party scene at Mrs. Higgins':Eliza's first appearance in society. Pick out from the text word combinations, characterizing Eliza, "a triumph of Higgins' art and of her dressmaker": her appearance, her new refined manners, her pronunciation.

6. In what way did Eliza handle the prescribed topics of "the weather" and "everybody's health" ? Define her style, her method of expression.

  1. What happened to Eliza's speech when she let herself go on things in general? Comment on Eliza's "new small talk" that amazed and shocked the guests so much.

  2. Discuss the guests' varying reactions to Eliza'shocking talk.Why did Clara try so hard to imitate Eliza's speech?

  3. Speak on the exact state of things in Wimpole street. On what terms did Eliza live there?

10. Comment on the nature of Higgins' "absorbing experiment". What accounted for Eliza's wonderful progress?

  1. What was Mrs. Higgins' attitude towards her son's experiment?

  2. Say a few words about Nepommuck: his appearance, his wonderful gift, his occupation.

  3. What was Higgins' opinion of Nepommuck?

  4. Describe the emotional state Eliza was in and the impression she made on those present at the reception.

  5. What was Nepommuck's opinion of Eliza.

  6. What is Pickering's final statement showing Eliza's unmistakable triumph?


V. Comment on the following:


  1. Mrs. Higgins' words: "Henry, you are the life and soul of the Royal Society's soirees, but really you are rather trying on more commonplace occasions." (p. 56).

  2. Higgins' statement: "You see, we're all savages, more or less.We're supposed to be civilized and cultured – to know all about poetry and philosophy and art and science, and so on, but how many of us know even the meanings of these names?" (p. 57).

  3. Higgins' opinion of Nepommuck: "He can learn a language in a fortnight – knows dozens of them. A sure mark of a fool." (p. 68).


VI. Pick out from the text words and word combinations used to greet and introduce people: use them in a short dialogue basedon the text of the play.


VII. Translate into English.


Однажды Хиггинс появился в доме своей аристократки-матери в ее приемный день. Она не любила, когда он приходил, так как он шокировал ее гостей, не обладая достаточно аристократическими манерами. Но он упросил м-с Хиггинс провести эксперимент, и сделать вид, что Элиза была настоящая леди. Хотя произношение Элизы было великолепно, ее вульгарная речь выдавала ее. И все же через несколько недель на балу в Посольстве никому и в голову не пришло, что она обманщица.


VIII. Act out an episode from Act HI.


IX. Give a summary of Act III.


Act Four (pp. 72-80)


I. Make comments on the following:


1. The usage of the word "..., sir" (p. 77). 2. Compare the meanings of the English: a smoking jacket (p. 72), routine (p. 73), trivial (p. 76) with their Russian counterparts: смокинг, рутина, тривиальный. State the difference if there is any.


II. Translate into Russian the passage on p. 76:


"Liza (pulling herself together in desperation) ... you won't feel so cheap." Find some stylistic devices.


III. Get ready to discuss Act IV. Find the given word combinations,translate them into Russian. Speak of the situations they are used in.


a) 1. to take no notice of smb (p. 73); 2. it's over and done with (p. 74); 3. to be on the point of doing smth (p. 74); 4. to give way (to some feelings) (p. 74); 5. to throw smth at smb (p. 74); 6. to show one's temper to smb (p. 75); 7. to complain of smb's treatment (p. 75); 8. to behave badly to smb (p. 75); 9. there's nothing more to worry about (p. 75); 10. to be fit for smth (What am I fit for?) (p. 76); 11. to settle oneself somewhere (p. 76); 12. people in the marrying line (p. 76); 13. to be accused of smth (p. 77); 14. to wound smb to the heart (p. 78); 15. to lose one's temper (p. 78); 16. to wander about the streets (p. 80); 17. to hunt smb off the streets (p. 80); 18. to drive about all night (p. 80).


b) Write out sentences with word combinations 3, 4, 5, 7, 8.


IV. Questions and assignments.


  1. Speak about the scene and the time of the action, the appearances and actions of the main characters.

  2. What is Higgins' impression of the Embassy Ball?

  3. Describe Eliza's emotional state when she saw that both gentlemen took her success for granted and ignored her after her triumph. What was it that wounded her to the heart? What did she blame Higgins for?

  4. How did Higgins explain the cause of Eliza's future?

  5. In what light does Eliza's reaction to Higgins' matrimonial plans characterize her?

  6. What was Eliza's purpose in nagging Higgins with her talk about her clothes? What was the effect?

7. Speak about Eliza's further actions after the fiery scene with Higgins. How do you account for Eliza's response to Freddy's demonstrations of love?


V. Comment on Pickering's words: "...they're such fools that they think style comes by nature to people in their position; and so they never learn." (pp. 73-74)


VI. Translate into English:


Однако после бала в доме Хиггинса была ужасная сцена. Хиггинс был рад, что все было закончено. Зато Элиза дала волю своим чувствам и проявила свой характер. Она не знала, что с ней будет, и обвиняла во всем Хиггинса. Она ушла из дома, встретив Фредди, который был влюблен в нее. Всю ночь они прокатались на такси.


VII. Act out an episode from Act IV.


VIII. Give a summary of Act IV.


Act Five (pp. 81-101)


I. Comment on the meanings and origin of:


a) Scylla and Charybdis (p. 86);

b) brougham (p. 94).


II. Translate into Russian the passage on p. 86 "That's the tragedy of it, maam ... has brought me to." Find some stylistic devices.


III. Get ready to discuss Act V. Find the given word combinations, translate them into Russian. Speak of the situations they are used in.


a) 1. to get on (to do) without smb (pp. 82, 92); 2. to set the police after smb (p. 83); 3. to happen to smb (p. 84); 4. to provide for smb (p. 87); 5. to behave in the most outrageous way (p. 87), 6. to be on good (friendly) terms (pp. 87, 88); 7. to become attached to smb, smb's feelings (p. 88); 8. to be inconsiderate (p. 88); 9. to have some (no) consideration for smb (pp. 88, 95); 10. to let bygones be bygones (p. 88); 11. to make It up with smb (p. 89); 12. to come into some money (p. 92); 13. a break-off with smth (one's former life) (p. 92); 14. to put up with smb's tempers (p. 94); 15. to grow accustomed to smth (p. 96); 16. to be independent of smb (p. 97); 17. to adopt smb as... (p. 97).


b) Paraphrase sentences with word combinations 4, 5, 9, 12, 15.


IV. Question and assignments.


  1. How did Mrs. Higgins explain to both gentlemen the reason for Eliza's escape?

  2. Describe in detail Doolittle's striking appearance and the emotional state he was in. What did he accuse Higgins of?

  3. Tell Doolittle's story. What was it that Doolittle objected to in his new position of a gentleman? What is the lecturing in the Moral Reform Society that he minded?

  4. Doolittle's conception of middle class morality. What were in his eyes the disadvantages of having three thousand a year?

  5. Why couldn't Doolittle bring himself to reject the beguest?

  6. What was it that brought Doolittle to Higgins?

  7. Say a few words about Mrs. Higgins and her character, her attitude to Eliza and her father.

  8. Describe Eliza playing "the fine society lady".

  9. How did Eliza feel towards Higgins? What was it that upset her so much?

  1. What were Higgins' conditions for Eliza's stay at Wimpole Street?

  1. Speak about the ambiguous end of the play.


V. Characterize Doolittle's speech and the stylistic devices which make it especially expressive.


VI. Comment on the following:


"It's a choice between the Skilly of the workhouse and the Char Bydis (Charybdis) of the middle class." (p. 86); We're all intimidated, ... that's what we are." (p. 86).


VII. Translate into English.


Утром джентльмены не нашли Элизы в доме, и решили послать за ней полицию. Они считали, что Элиза вела себя возмутительно. Но самым интересным было появление м-ра Дулитла в костюме жениха. Так случилось, что он получил в наследство большую сумму денег. Но он не был доволен. Он привык к своей бедной жизни. Он был ни от кого независим. А теперь все пытались получить от него деньги, да еще он был вынужден жениться. Пьеса заканчивается тем, что Дулитл едет в церковь, чтобы стать супругом, а м-с Хиггинс сопровождала его на свадебную церемонию.


VIII. Make up a dialogue that might have taken place: a) between Eliza and Mrs. Higgins when she called on her in the morning, b) between Higgins and Pickering when they found out that Eliza had left the house.


IX. Give a summary of Act V.


FINAL DISCUSSION


I. Mark on a map of London all the places (streets, squares, parks mentioned in the play.


II. Give a summary of the whole play.


III. Speak about: 1. G.B. Shaw's biography and literary career.2. The main characters of the play, a) Professor Henry Higgins – a modern Pygmalion, b) The history of Eliza Doolittle. Analyse the development of her character, c) Alfred Doolittle and his "eccentric destiny". 3. Fashionable society as described in the play. 4. The idea of Shaw's play as suggested by its title. 5. The problem of language and character-development, their impact on each other, as summed up in Higgins' argument: creating a new speech for a person "is a means of changing a human being into a quite different human being." 6. G.B. Shaw's literary manner, the peculiar features of his style as reflected in "Pygmalion".


IV. Remember any dialogue or monologue you like best in the play. Act it out (in pairs or groups).

1   ...   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15

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