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REGULATION, CURRICULUM AND SYLLABI

(With effect from the academic year 2009- 2010 onwards)


M.Sc. Food Science and Technology





DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

R. Venaktaraman Nagar,

Kalapet, Puducherry – 605 014.

PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY


M.Sc. Food Science and Technology


REGULATIONS, CURRICULUM AND SYLLABI


Of late, with increasing demand for processed food and increased export of food and food products, food technology has gained so much importance that economists and policy makers look for a tremendous boost in the GDP of our country. The changing urban life style coupled with compulsions has enabled the food industry to become lucrative and prosperous. Food technology provides an effective and timely platform for researchers in Universities and industries as well to develop and innovate cutting edge processing technologies for the development of our nation. Development of curriculum in consultation with the constellation of food industries would open up new vistas for employment to the graduates. Therefore, it is timely and challenging to offer this course in Pondicherry University.


Programme of study:

M.Sc Food Technology programme is interdisciplinary in nature comprising of microbiology, biotechnology, biochemistry, Food Science and Technology and nutrition, engineering etc. The main thrust would be hands on experience in different areas of food processing, nutrition, packaging, preservation and marketing. The students admitted in the programme shall be required to take up dissertation work on any emerging areas of food technology which demand attention. Field visits, industrial visits, etc by the students would immensely help them to understand and analyze in depth the problems, challenges, remedial measures and management of industries.


Entrance Examination:

The entrance examination shall be conducted on the specified dates and locations as given in University brochure.


Infrastructural facilities:

The department of Food science and Technology offers an M.Sc degree programme in Food Science and Nutrition besides M.Sc Food Technology programme. The department has well qualified teaching faculty specialized in various disciplines of food technology. The department has spacious and well lit class rooms and laboratories. All the sophisticated facilities including equipments are available in multiples where necessary. The University has a central instrumentation facility where SEM, X-ray diffraction unit; NMR, FTIR, etc are available. Since the food technology programme is interdisciplinary in nature the faculties are drawn from other departments such as biotechnology, biochemistry and molecular biology, statistics etc, and this adds credence to the quality of education, imparted to the students.

Eligibility:

The minimum qualification for applying to the course is B.Sc/B.Tech Degree in Agriculture / Vetinary sciences, Home Science, Food Science and Nutrition, Food Science and Quality Control, Clinical Nutrition, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Microbiology and other life science related subjects. Maths at +2 / P.U.C level is compulsory.

Duration of course: Two years


M.Sc FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY –COURSE OUTLINE


Semester

Course

Code

Title

Credit/

Hours

Nature of

the course



I

FST401

Food chemistry

3

HC

FST451

Food chemistry lab

1

HC

FST402

Food microbiology

3

HC

FST452

Food microbiology lab

1

HC

FST403

Food process engineering

3

HC

FST404

Biostatistics

3

SC

FST405

Food processing and preservation

3

HC

FST453

Food processing and preservation Lab

1

HC

FST454

Techniques in food analysis lab

2

HC



II

FST406

Food plant equipment

3

HC

FST407

Nutrition and biochemistry

3

SC

FST457

Nutrition and biochemistry lab

1

SC

FST408

Food product development and quality evaluation

3

HC

FST458

Food product development and quality evaluation lab

1

HC

FST409

Enzymes in food processing

3

HC

FST459

Enzymes in food processing lab

1

HC

FST410

Fermentation technology

3

HC

FST411

Nutraceuticals and functional foods

3

HC

FST491

Seminar

1

HC



III

FST501

Food biotechnology

3

HC

FST502

Food packaging

3

HC

FST503

Elective paper ( any two from 503-555 with lab) Technology of animal products


3


HC

FST 551

Technology of animal products lab

1

HC

FST 504

Technology of fruits and vegetables

3

HC

FST 552

Technology of fruits and vegetables lab

1

HC

FST 505

Technology of cereals , legumes and oil seeds

3

HC

FST 553

Technology of cereals, legumes and oil seeds lab

1

HC

FST 506

Technology of milk and milk products

3

HC

FST 554

Technology of milk and milk products lab

1

HC

FST 507

Technology of plantation products

3

HC

FST 555

Technology of plantation products lab

1

HC

FST 508

Food safety and quality control

3

SC

FST 556

Food safety and quality control lab

1

SC

FST595

Dissertation

3

HC



IV

FST509

Environmental issues in food industry

3

HC

FST510

Elective paper (any one from 510-511)

Food plant organization and management

3

SC

FST511

Food laws and regulatory issues

3

SC

FST596

Dissertation

4

HC


PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

Department of Food Science and Technology


M.Sc. Food Science and Technology


Semester –I


Course Code

Title

Credits

Nature of the course

FST401

Food chemistry

3

HC

FST451

Food chemistry lab

1

HC

FST402

Food microbiology

3

HC

FST452

Food microbiology lab

1

HC

FST403

Food process engineering

3

HC

FST404

Biostatistics

3

SC

FST405

Food processing and preservation

3

HC

FST 453

Food processing and preservation Lab

1

HC

FST454

Techniques in food analysis lab

2

HC



FST401 FOOD CHEMISTRY CREDIT 3


UNIT -I 8 hours

Introduction to chemistry of foods: composition and factors affecting the composition of foods, moisture in foods and methods of moisture determination. Flavonoids and tannins. Carbohydrates: occurrence and classification. Principles of structure determination, diagrammatic representation of optical isomers, absolute configurations properties of sugars, sugar derivatives. Caramelisation. Chemistry of fibre fractions and their constituents. Starch enzymes. Properties of starch, Pectic substances, their occurrence, structure, properties and use in foods. Plant acids and their functions.


UNIT -II 8 hours

Chemistry of amino acids and proteins. Classification of proteins, chemical and physical properties of proteins, structure of proteins and techniques used in elucidation of protein structure. Protein conformation, functional properties of proteins in foods, enzymatic and non enzymatic browning, hydrolysis of proteins, major food proteins and their sources. Changes in proteins during processing.


UNIT -III 8 hours

Oils and fats their chemistry, occurrence, classification, composition. Physical and chemical properties of fats, rancidity and flavour reversion, oil sources, extraction, refining, hydrogenation and interesterification .


UNIT -IV 6 hours

Vitamins classification, properties and chemistry,changes during processing. Emulsions: Definition, classification and functional properties. Essential oils, chemistry occurrence and extraction. Terpeneless oils and their use in foods.


UNIT -V 6 hours

Principles of Colorimetry, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, atomic absorption spectroscopy and chromatographic methods


References

  1. Belitz HD.2005. Food Chemistry. Springer Verlag.

  2. Owen R. Fennema ,2006,Food Chemistry , Academic Press.

  3. Meyer LH. 1987. Food Chemistry. CBS.

  4. Potter, N. and Hotchikiss, J.H. (1996), Food Sciences, Fifth edition, CBS publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

  5. Fennema OR.1996. Food Chemistry. Marcel Dekker.



FST451 FOOD CHEMISTRY LAB CREDIT 1


  1. Determination of boiling point and freezing point of water

  2. Estimation of sugars

  3. Stages of sugar cookery

  4. Estimation of gluten content

  5. Estimation of polyphenols

  6. Determination of acidity

  7. Determination of gelatinization

  8. Determination of natural pigments in foods

  9. Fat acidity in foods-flour

  10. Determination of refractive index of fats



FST402 FOOD MICROBIOLOGY CREDIT 3


UNIT -I 6 hours

Micro-organisms of importance in food - Factors affecting the growth of micro organisms in food - Intrinsic and Extrinsic parameters that affect microbial growth. Role of microbes in fermented foods and genetically modified foods.


UNIT -II 8 hours

Spoilage of different groups of foods: Cereal and cereal products, vegetables and fruits, meat and meat products, eggs and poultry, fish and other sea foods, milk and milk products, canned food.


UNIT -III 8 hours

Methods of Isolation and detection of micro organisms or their products in food

Conventional methods - Rapid methods (Newer techniques) - Immunological methods: Fluorescent, antibody, Radio immunoassay, principles of ELISA. - Chemical methods, Thermostable nuclear, ATP measurement and PCR (Polymerised chain reactions).


UNIT -IV 6 hours

Indicators of water and food safety and quality: Microbiological criteria of foods and their Significance. The HACCP system and food safety used in controlling microbiological hazards.


UNIT -V 8 hours

Food borne diseases: -Bacterial food borne diseases ( Staphylococcal intoxification, Botulism, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli Diarrhoea, Clostridium Perfringens gastroenteritis, Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritics) Food Borne Viral Pathogens (Norwalk virus, Norovirus, Reovirus, Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, Parvovirus, Hepatitis A Virus) Food Borne Animal Parasites Protozoa – Giardiasis, Amebiasis, Toxoplasmosis, Sarcocystosis, Crypotosporiodiosis. Cysticercosis/Taeniasis. Roundworm – Trichinosis, Anisakiasis. Mycotoxins: Aflatoxicosis, Deoxyni valenol Mycotoxicosis, Ergotism


References


  1. Pelezar, M.I and Reid, R.D. (1993) Microbiology McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 5th Edition.

  2. Jay, James, M(2000) Modern Food Microbilogy, 2nd Edition. CBS Publisher

  3. Adams, M.R. and M.G. Moss (1995): Food Microbiology, 1st Edition, New Age International (P) Ltd.

  4. Frazier, W.C. (1988) Food Microbiology, Mc Graw Hill Inc. 4th Edition.

  5. Doyle, P. Bonehat, L.R. and Mantville, T.J-(1997): Food Microbiology, Fundamentals and Frontiers, ASM Press, Washington DC,



FST452 FOOD MICROBIOLOGY LAB CREDIT 1


  1. Preparation of common laboratory media and special media

  2. Staining of Bacteria: Gram’s staining, acid-fast, spore, capsule and flagellar staining, Motility of bacteria, Staining of yeast and molds.

  3. Identification of important molds and yeast

  4. Microbiology of air

  5. Microbiology of water

  6. Microbiology of soil

  7. Microbiological analysis of processed food

  8. Microbiological analysis of unprocessed food

  9. Isolation of specific culture



FST403 FOOD PROCESS ENGINERRING CREDIT 3


UNIT -I 8 hours

Transport Phenomena Nature and properties of fluids. Transport phenomena with respect to foods. Laminar and turbulent flow. Laws governing fluid flow. Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids. Visco-elastic behaviour of dough.


UNIT -II 8 hours

Mechanism of heat transfer. Study of heat exchangers, condensers, jacketed kettles and coils. Evaporation. Multiple effect evaporators in sugar and fruit juice industry.

Thermal processing as applicable in canning, sterilization, microbial death rates. Batch and continuous processing. Operation of plate heat exchangers, shell and tube and other designs for aseptic processing, HTST, UHT.


UNIT -III 8 hours

Drying curves, equilibrium moisture, adsorption isotherms and relation to storage, water activity, absolute humidity and relative humidity. Drying of milk, fruit juices and liquid foods as well as convective drying for solid foods.


UNIT -IV 6 hours

Principles of mass and energy balance. Factors affecting heat and mass transfer. Phase change operations e.g. Freezing and thawing. Mechanical refrigeration and refrigerants.


UNIT -V 6 hours

Principles of other food processing such as membrane filtration (ultra, osmosis and reverse osmosis, dialysis), pulsed electric, irradiation and other non-thermal technologies.


Reference

  1. Gopala Rao, Chandra, “Essential of Food Process Engineering”, BS Publications,

2006.

  1. Majumdar, Arun S. “Dehydration of Products of Biological Origin”, Oxford & IBH Publication, 2004.

  2. Das, H. “Food Processing Operations Analysis”, Asian Books, 2005.

  3. Smith, P.G. “Introduction to Food Process Engineering” Springer, 2005.

  4. Rao, M.A., S.S.H. Rizvi and A.K. Datta “Engineering Properties of Rood”, 3rd

Edition, Taylor & Francis, 2005.

  1. Fellows, P.J. “food Processing Technology : Principles and Practice”, Wood head

Publishing, 1997.

  1. Aguilera, J.M. “Microstructural Principles of Food Processing and Engineering”,

2nd Edition, Aspen, 1999.


FST404 BIOSTATISTICS CREDIT 3




UNIT -I 7 hours

Fundamentals of Biostatistics; sampling, Data collection and recording, central tendency-concept; arithmetic mean, mode, median for ungrouped and grouped data. Probability Rules and Theoretical Distributions: Basic probability rules, expectation, conditional probability; Probability distributions – Bionomial, Poisson, Normal and Log-normal distributions; Fitting of probability distributions to environmental data


UNIT -II 7 hours

Sample survey: Need and Purpose of sampling, Sampling with and without replacement, Population and sample, Population parameters; Environmental sampling design – Methods for selecting sampling locations and times; Different techniques of sampling – simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling, two stage sampling, compositing and three-stage sampling; Relative advantages and disadvantages of different techniques.


UNIT -III 9 hours


Sampling distribution and TEst of Significance: Parameter and statistics; Sampling distribution, Standard error and its uses; Concept of t-distribution, F-distributions, Chi Square distribution without derivation and their applications; Null hypothesis and uses of t-test, F-test, X2-tests; Test of significance of large samples. Correlation and Regression: Bi-variate data and scatter diagram; Simple (linear) correlation and regression; Coefficient of correlation and regression and their properties; Fitting of regression line; Multiple and partial correlations and regressions.


UNIT -IV 7 hours


Analysis of Variance: Different types of models used in AOV; Baisc assumptions and its violation; One and two way classified data; Application of AOV to environmental data. Distribution-Normal, t and chi square test; Difference among means; f-test: 1 way ANOVA. Computer applications in environmental modeling. Computer based modeling for population and population studies.


UNIT -V 5 hours


Multivariate analysis, hypothesis testing Model fitting; Biometry – principles and concepts; Matrices, simultaneous linear equations; tests of hypothesis and significance, time series analysis-moving averages ( 3 and 5 unit cycles); current development in the subject.


References

  1. Zar, Jerrold H. (1998). Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, N.J.

  2. Walpole, R. and R. Myres (1993). Statistics for Engineers and scientists, 5th edn. Mac Millan, N.Y.

  3. Wayne, R. Ott (1995). Environmental Statistics and Data analysis. CRC Press.

  4. Manly (2001) statistics for environmental science and management, chapman and Hall/CRC


FST405 FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION CREDIT 3


UNIT -I 9 hours

Principles of Fresh Food Storage: Nature of harvested crop, plant and animal; Product storage; Effect of cold storage and quality- storage of grains; Principles of refrigerated gas storage of food- Gas packed refrigerated foods; Sub atmospheric storage; gas atmospheric storage of foods. Principles of freezing of food product, processes and equipment for freezing of fresh and processed foods. IQF of marine products. Frozen and cold storage. Changes during freezing and storage. Microbial aspects of frozen foods.


UNIT -II 9 hours

Principles of thermal processing of food. Pasteurization, sterilization and canning. Spoilage of canned foods, storage of canned foods; Influence of canning on the quality of food; improvement in canning technology. Calculation of process time temperature-schedules. Retort processing of Ready to eat (RTE) products.Drying – Water activity, microbial spoilage due to moisture. Dehydration of fruits, vegetables, milk, animal products etc. Types of dryers. Osmotic dehydration.

Newer methods of thermal processing- batch and continuous; application of infra-red microwaves; ohmic heating.Intermediate moisture foods.


UNIT -III 6 hours

Preservation by Concentration of liquid foods :Control of water activity; preservation by concentration; reverse osmosis and membrane filtration with reference to fruit juice and milk. Freeze drying and freeze concentration.


UNIT -IV 6 hours

Other non-thermal methods, chemical preservatives, irradiation, high hydrostatic pressure, smoking. Application of Hurdle technology and minimal processing. GRAS and permissible limits for chemical preservatives and legal aspects for gamma irradiation.


UNIT -V 6 hours

Use of enzymes and microorganisms in processing and preservation of foods. Lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, pickling, smoking.


References

    1. Arsdel WB, Copley MJ & Morgan AI. 1973. Food Dehydration. 2nd Ed. Vols. I, II. AVI Publ.

    2. Desrosier NW & James N.1977. Technology of Food Preservation. 4th Ed. AVI. Publ.

    3. Fellows PJ. 2005. Food Processing Technology: Principle and Practice. 2nd Ed. CRC.

    4. Jelen P. 1985. Introduction to Food Processing. Prentice Hall.

FST453 FOOD PROCESSING AND CREDIT 1

PRESERVATION LAB


  1. Blanching and browning control

  2. Preparation of fruit preserves (jam, jelly).

  3. Preparation of vegetable preserves (pickle)

  4. Dehydrated products – vegetables dices tray drying, osmotic dehydration of seasonal fruit.

  5. Tomato processing

  6. Fruit pulping / juice / beverage preparation

  7. Preparation and standardization of traditional Indian fermented food (idli udid and rice, dhokla – horse gram, dahi – milk) --- lactic acid fermentations. – solid state – rise in batter, softness on cooking, weight gain / loss – bulk density)

  8. Bread making - texture.

  9. Confectionery

  10. Visit to food processing and preservation unit.



FST454 TECHNIQUES IN FOOD ANALYSIS LAB CREDIT 2



  1. Estimation of calorific value of food

  2. Estimation of moisture content

  3. Estimation of ash content

  4. Estimation of protein

  5. Estimation of fat

  6. Estimation of crude fibre

  7. Estimation of Dietary fiber

  8. Estimation of Calcium

  9. Estimation of Phosphorus

  10. Estimation of iron

  11. Estimation of Vitamin C

  12. Estimation of Thiamine

  13. Estimation of Riboflavin

  14. Estimation of Vitamin A and  carotene

  15. Estimation of cholesterol

  16. Estimation of antioxidants

  17. Estimation of sugars

  18. Estimation of iodine number

  19. Estimation of saponification number



PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

Department of Food Science and Technology

M.Sc. Food Science and Technology


Semester –II



Course

Code

Title

Credits

Nature of the course

FST406

Food plant equipment

3

HC

FST407

Nutrition and biochemistry

3

SC

FST457

Nutrition and biochemistry lab

1

SC

FST408

Food product development and quality evaluation

3

HC

FST458

Food product development and quality evaluation lab

1

HC

FST409

Enzymes in food processing

3

HC

FST459

Enzymes in food processing lab

1

HC

FST410

Fermentation technology

3

HC

FST411

Nutraceuticals and functional foods

3

HC

FST491

Seminar

1

HC



FST406 FOOD PLANT EQUIPMENT CREDIT 3



UNIT -I 6 hours

Milling Equipments : Types of equipment used for milling rice and wheat, pearling and flaking equipment; dhal mills.


UNIT -II 7 hours

Washing, Filtration & Centrifugation equipment. Different Fruits and Vegetable washing systems; Conveyor belts - types, material of construction, product specific conveyors. Screw, bucket, belt, oscillating and vibratory conveyors. Filtration of liquid foods (dairy, fruit & vegetables); centrifugation systems: Solid bowl and disc bowl centrifuges; cyclone separator and self cleaning centrifuge.


UNIT -III 9 hours

Heat Processing & Cooling Equipments: Heat exchangers – Plate, shell and tube etc. Autoclaves - types, operation; Different Dryers and freezers – Tray, tunnel, Fluidized. Spray dryer, Blast and IQF, Freezers, short tube and pan evaporators;

Roasting & confectionery equipments.


UNIT -IV 8 hours

Mixing, Blending. extrusion & Filling Equipments: Agitation and mixing of liquid foods, powders and pastes; Mixers - ribbon blenders, augur, nauta, cone.

Cold and hot extruders, single screw, twin screw, extrusion cooking.

Liquid and powder filling machines - like aseptic system, form and fill (volumetric and gravimetric), bottling machines. Form Fill Seal (FFS) and multilayer aseptic packaging machines.


UNIT -V 6 hours

GMP and Hygienic Design Aspects: Basic principles: as applied to various equipment- sanitary pipes and fittings, pumps, machines, tanks. Clean-in-Place (CIP) system; corrosion process and their control.


Reference

  1. Lopez – Gomez, A. and Barbosa – Canovas, G.V. “Food Plant Design”, Taylor &

Francis, 2005.

  1. Smith, P.G. “Introduction to Food Process Engineering”, Springer, 2005.

  2. Rao, M.A. S.S.H. Rizvi and A.K. Datta, “Engineering Properties of Food”, 3rd

Edition, Taylor & Francis, 2005.


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