And is the village large? Oh, no!

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And is the village large? Oh, no!

It’s just a hamlet in a ring.

All its daily drinking water

Comes from one, lone tiny spring.

Neither cold nor hot, its water

Mild and soft will ever please;

At times it rains, at times it snows,

And sometimes comes a gentle breeze.


hamlet – деревушка

ring -колечко

lone- одинокий, уединённый

tiny – маленький, крошечный

spring – источник, родник, ключ

mild –мягкий, умеренный

soft – мягкий, нежный

gentle – тихий, спокойный, нежный

breeze- лёгкий ветерок

II. My Native Village.

1. Read the text.

We know the English word motherland. For Russian people it has two meanings. Firstly, it is the place you were born in. Then it means the whole country where you live. For me my motherland begins in my own village, in which I have grown up. To my mind my native village is the best place in the world. As the English people say, “East or West, home is best” or “There is no place like home”.

My village’s name is Adelshino. It is situated in the Chistopol district, on the 35 kms far to the south of Chistopol .It is not big, but it is not small either. There are 160 houses in it. And 600 people live and work here.

My village was founded about 400 years ago by a man called Gadelsha. And later his name was given to the village. Today Adelshino is a modern village. There is gas, water, electricity in the houses. The most of the houses are big, new and nice.

There is a secondary school, a house of culture, shops , a library in the village. In the middle of the village there is a mosque. The villagers are proud of its magnificent building.

In summer my village is very beautiful. Parks, a lot of gardens make it wonderful. I love my native place.


motherland – родина

meaning - значение

firstly – во - первых

mean – значить

the whole – весь

own – собственный

grown up – вырос

is situated – расположен

district – район

far – далеко

south – юг

later – позже

modern – современный

mosque – мечеть

are proud of – гордятся

III. Life In The Countryside.

1. Read the text.

In the countryside I enjoy sunlight and fresh air. Besides, living in the countryside is cheaper and safer than in a city. There is less crime and of course, there is less traffic there. Life in the countryside is quiet, peaceful, and healthy. I like to be close to nature. Here people are friendly and it is much more pleasant in the countryside than in the city. Unfortunately, life in the countryside is rather hard. People work a lot and there is less entertainment here. So more and more young people flee from the countryside for a better life in the city.


countryside – сельская местность

enjoy – наслаждаться

sunlight – солнечный свет

fresh air – свежий воздух

besides – кроме того

cheap – дешёвый

safe – безопасный

crime – преступление

traffic – движение

quiet – тихий

peaceful – спокойный

healthy – здоровый

close – близкий

pleasant – приятный

unfortunately – к сожалению

hard –трудный

entertainment – развлечение

flee – бежать

(A song)
Everybody has his native place,
Everybody prides himself on it.
But I don’t know any place with so much grace
Exept my native village, I admit.

Wherever I’ve been, I always think of you,
My native village – the place of my birth.
I’m so happy when I return to you,
And there’s no other place like you on Earth.

I pride myself on you, my native village,
And I sincerely hope we’ll never part.
If something ever makes me leave you,
Wherever I’ve been, you will be in my heart.

Mavletdinova Lena

Group 503

My Native Place: the Buraevo district, the village of Vanysh-Alpautovo

The Burayevo district is situated in the North-East of our republic, between the towns of Birsk and Neftekamsk. The population of the district is 31 thousand people and the district centre Burayevo has more than 10 thousand people. The population is multinational - there live Bashkirs, Tatars, Udmurts, Maris, Russians and some other ethnic groups.

Our district borders on the Tatyshly district in the North-West, on the Dyurtyuli district in the South-West, on the Mishkino district and the Birsk district in the South and South-West, and the Baltachevo district in the East. In the South it is washed by the Belaya River and in the North-West by the river Quick Tanyp. The district is rich in beautiful lakes and small rivers. For instance, there is a magnificent Swan Lake near the village of Tazlarovo, which never gets frozen.

The flora of the district is varied. There are mixed forests with pines, birches, oaks, maples, elms and so on.

The fauna is also rich. In the forests, fields, and on river banks there live elks, hares, squirrels, lynxes, wolves, foxes and other animals.

Our district is ecologically clean for there are only 2 factories, namely, the brick factory and the dairy factory. Bee-keeping is well developed in my native place. Our honey has proved to be of the best quality.

The district centre Burayevo is being built day by day. There are a lot of beautiful mansions in the neighborhood of Burayevo. Individual house-building is well developed. Recently the building of the bus station has been repaired in European style, a new mosque has been built, and a new TV tower was raised in 2003. The existent buildings are successfully repaired, among them the vocational college, the music school and two schools, one of them is a gymnasium. The last 5 years saw the construction o0f a new cinema house and the "Tanyp" sport complex.

Speaking about the famous people who were born in our district, the first name to mention is that of Stepan Sergeevich Vostretsov. He got four orders of the Red Banner. His native village of Kazantsevo was renamed Vostretsovo in his honour. The name of the Doctor of Military Sciences Vladimir Nickolaevich Lobov is also well-known.

There are two monuments in Burayevo. The first is in the central square. It is the monument to Vostretsov. Newlyweds put flowers to the monument on their wedding day. The second one, named "To a Mourning Mother", is devoted to mothers, who lost their sons and daughters in wars. It is situated on the way to Ufa.

The district is proud of such famous people as Iskander Sayapov, an artist, the writers Muslim Marat and Faik Mukhamatyanov, the singers Lena Gareeva, Khamduna Timergalieva, Fadis Ganeev, Salavat Akhsanov, Farida Timerbaeva as all of them come from the Burayevo district.

Life is not so easy as it may seem. The main problem that worries the residents of my home district is unemployment. Many people either leave for Siberia, or attempt to open free enterprises. In villages, most people live by selling agricultural products.

Twelve kilometres away from the district centre there is the village of Vanysh-Alpautovo. It is my native village. No one is sure about the origin of the name, but the most spread belief is that it comes from the name of the first man who settled there. His name was probably Ivan and his relatives called him Vanyasha. The second half of the name characterizes people who lived there in older times. "Alpaut" means "a tall and strong man".

The nature around our village is beautiful - there are hills, forests, fields a pond, and the river Quick Tanyp flows near the village. The village is surrounded by hills, on which herbs and berries grow. The village has many springs. There are coniferous forests near our village.

I am glad that a new school has been recently opened. Actually, it is a complex building comprising a kindergarten, a school with a dormitory. It also houses the local administration. One cannot help admiring the modern building with all kinds of necessary equipment, showers, a fountain and many other facilities.

Another big and beautiful building is our Palace of Culture. In front of it you can see a monument to Marat Nurtdinov, hero of Afghanistan war. He died in 1985. Every year pupils of our school put flowers to the monument in memory of the hero.

Concluding my essay, I would like to say "welcome to my native place!" You will enjoy the beautiful nature and meet a lot of nice people.

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This Is My Native Village, The Place Where I Belong:

       Most of our great-grandmothers and great-grandfathers as well as many of our grannies and granddads were peasants who lived in the countryside, working very hard to earn their daily bread, rejoicing at plentiful harvests, at good health of their children and parents, at peaceful life and rural fetes. They believed in God - sincerely, candidly, with all their heart:
       My parents - the generation of the '50s - unintentionally became "citizens": first they got their education in cities, then they were sent to a "socialist construction project" and lived not in a spacious country home but in a crowded dorm:
       And now comes my generation, who has grown up in standard flatlets, absolutely detached from the land and familiar with peasants' life only from books, films and occasional trip to the countryside to very few "country cousins". There have only been three generations, hardly a century, and the psychology has utterly changed: My story is most usual, a very typical in Russian life. This was proven by the figures of the All-Russian Census of 2002, more of whose results have recently started to appear in the press.
       Thus, a recent press release of the Committee for State Statistics of the Republic of Bashkortostan reports that 4-million-strong Bashkortostan numbers only 1,477,700 rural dwellers. Though the rural population of Bashkortostan increased by 51,200 people, or 3.6 percent against the 1989 level, it is for the first time in the post-war period that this trend (I mean some increment of countryside inhabitants) is observed in the Republic. In Russia as a whole the rural population has reduced by about 200,000 over the recent several years.
       It should be noted that about 96 percent of the population, which inhabited the territory of present-day Bashkortostan at the end of the 19th century, resided in the rural areas. As a result of industrialization and urbanization the number of those living in the country was progressively reducing, and in the 1970s the urban population started to prevail. The Census of 1972 recorded 50.1 percent of citizens versus 49.9 percent of rural dwellers.
       The current portion of those living in the countryside constitutes 36 percent of the Republic's total permanent residents. Nevertheless, Bashkortostan remains among the regions of Russia in which the rural population still plays an important role. If one looks at the whole of Russia, the portion of the countryside population constitutes only 26.7 percent. Bashkortostan's countryside inhabitants account for 3.8 percent of the rural population of Russia. This index in the Volga Federal District is 16.2 percent.
       The Republic's territory is currently divided into 54 rural districts. Nine of them have the population under 20,000 people, 23 districts number between 20,000 and 30,000, 15 - between 30,000 and 40,000, and seven districts number over 40,000 inhabitants.
       The number of villages and settlements in Bashkortostan at the time of the Census was 4,586. This is a reduction of 163 against 1989.
       The Russian Federation as a whole numbers 155,000 rural settlements and villages. Compared to 1989, their number decreased by nearly seven thousand! The latest Census recorded the following deplorable fact: THIRTEEN THOUSAND RURAL SETTLEMENTS ARE NOT INHABITED AT ALL! Those villages died, they are no longer wanted by the children and grandchildren of those for whom the land was the feeding mother, was their native : MOTHERLAND. Deserted villages have become typical in several regions of Russia. According to the Census returns, this Republic of Bashkortostan numbers 84 villages "with no permanent inhabitancy".
       The dynamics of the changes, which took place during the recent decade, shows that rural dwellers tend to move to larger countryside settlements. The number of small villages inhabited by few people considerably reduced. At the same time the number grew of larger villages and settlements with inhabitants exceeding 500. The inhabitancy of these is 873,400 people - 59 percent of the rural population - an increase of 80,400 against the 1989 level.
       In each of the Republic's 44 largest villages the population exceeds 3,000 people. The majority of them - 35 - are district centres. The population in Tolbazy, Kushnarenkovo and Chekmagush surpassed the 10,000 people mark.
       :My generation is ambitious; we are always in a hurry, driven by commercialism. We tend to move to megalopolises, where we think the "real life" can only be, we are afraid of slowing down not to lag behind, we shift marriages and kids to later dates, we regularly fight depressions: In a nutshell, we do not wish to live like our ancestors did - in large families with many children, without much haste nor money.
       When my parents retired and became old-age pensioners they started a return to where they once belonged. Their favourite season now is between April and October, when they live on the land, staying in their garden practically all the time. They work on their tiny plot of land not to sustain themselves but out of inner necessity. Here, in the country, they revisit their childhood and feel happy, calm and peaceful: Just look - nearly every Russian urban dweller has a plot of land in the country for which they long so much... Does this mean that deep inside we are still peasants' children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, rural dwellers? Maybe personal ambitions and a rapid progress are not the main things in life after all?..

Liana Gainutdinova.

The Tatar edges - TatarstanТатарские края - Татарстан

Village history New Tinchali/jana Tinchali/История деревни Новые Тинчали /Яна Тинчали/

It is one of last neopublished works of Kasima Bikkulova, dated 1926г. Это одна из последних неопубликованных работ Касима Биккулова, датированная 1926г.

The manuscript original is in East department of scientific library of the Kazan state university (VONB КГУ). Подлинник рукописи находится в Восточном отделе научной библиотеки Казанского государственного университета (ВОНБ КГУ).

In preparation for the publication have taken part: Rasim Bikalov (Moscow) and Rinat Tohvatullov (д. J.Tinchali). Transfer from the Tatar G.Z.Hantemirovoj. В подготовке к публикации приняли участие: Расим Бикалов (Москва) и Ринат Тохватуллов (д.Я.Тинчали). Перевод с татарского Г.З.Хантемировой.

Voices from a far distance! Голоса из далекой дали!

For a long time it was not necessary to me to read the fascinating story about the Tatar olden time. The book of the writer, more truly, the manuscript of writer Kasima Bikkulova (1868-1937) “village History New Tinchali” is read as a fascinating work of art. Just as the water drop can provide guidance on structure of water of ocean, and K.Bikkulova's story appears at the reader as a clot of history of the Tatar people, especially after a capture of Kazan Ivan Groznym in 1552 year. Давно не приходилось мне читать захватывающую повесть о татарской старине. Книга писателя, вернее, рукопись писателя Касима Биккулова (1868-1937) “История деревни Новые Тинчали” читается как увлекательное художественное произведение. Подобно тому, как капля воды может дать представление о составе воды океана, так и повесть К. Биккулова предстает перед читателем как сгусток истории татарского народа, особенно после взятия Казани Иваном Грозным в 1552-м году.

Outwardly the story plot seems idle time is a history of occurrence of village the New Tinchali (Yana Tinchali), one of set of the Tatar villages. The talent of the writer has helped the author to show an originality of the basis of this village, it mentions not the dry facts and lists events, and concrete, emotionally rich details, details which help the reader зримо to imagine about what the author tells. We will admit that the reader from the history textbook knows that because of a colonial policy of the tsarism aspiring to violent христианизации of Tatars, people to survive, keep the belief, prayed in dark baths, in woods. However such detail as the maintenance of their prayers, immeasurably impresses, helps картинно to imagine, as all it occurred. Illiterate peasants composed prayers which the naivety, безыскуственностью convince the reader: and was actually.” Яттым, I алла! Tordym-inshalla! Бу ятуым белэн торалмасам, иман бирсен бер алла! Иман белян уткэем, Islam белэн кичкэем. Яратканым гаваным, куптер минем гоняхым, ярлыкагыл аллахым! (”If I will not wake up, let only one Allah will give belief! Has woken up - иншалла!.Слава to you, the Allah!. If I will not wake up, let only одиналлах will give belief! To live to me with belief, to live with Islam. I love only the people, the Allah, at me sins much, forgive, my Allah!” Внешне фабула повести кажется простой - это история возникновения деревни Новые Тинчали (Яна Тинчали), одной из множества татарских деревень. Талант писателя помог автору показать своеобразие основания этой деревни, он приводит не сухие факты и перечисляет события, а конкретные, эмоционально насыщенные детали, подробности, которые помогают читателю зримо представить себе то, о чем рассказывает автор. Допустим, что читатель из учебника истории знает о том, что из-за колониальной политики царизма, стремившегося к насильственной христианизации татар, люди чтобы выжить, сохранить свою веру, молились в темных банях, в лесах. Однако такая подробность, как содержание их молитв, неизмеримо впечатляет, помогает картинно представить себе, как все это происходило. Неграмотные крестьяне сами сочиняли молитвы, которые своей наивностью, безыскуственностью убеждают читателя: так и было на самом деле. ”Яттым, я алла! Тордым—иншалла! Бу ятуым белэн торалмасам, иман бирсен бер алла! Иман белян уткэем, ислам белэн кичкэем. Яратканым гаваным, куптер минем гоняхым, ярлыкагыл аллахым! (”Ежели я не проснусь, пусть только один аллах даст веру! Проснулся - иншалла!.Слава тебе, аллах!. Ежели я не проснусь, пусть только одиналлах даст веру! Прожить бы мне с верой , прожить бы с исламом. Люблю только народ, Аллаха, у меня грехов много, прости, мой Аллах!”

The story how the village New Tinchali has obtained the permit of the authorities to mosque erection is remembered. One of inhabitants of village served as the soldier in Petersburg, and there has rendered any essential service to the authorities, for what have given it an allotment. However having returned from military service, he did not process the earth, and leased to Russian muzhiks from the next village for 1-2 kg of bread and a vodka bottle for десятину. After his death at it successors have not appeared, but have established that to it in the award has been allowed to construct a permission a mosque in native village. It happens at the time of reign of empress Elizabeth. The author with pride writes that after 200th years of an interdiction to erect mosques, the village New Tinchali of the first in Russia has obtained such permit, to 11 years before the Kazan! Запоминается рассказ о том, как деревня Новые Тинчали получила разрешение властей на возведение мечети. Один из жителей деревни служил солдатом в Петербурге, и там оказал какую-то важную услугу властям, за что ему дали земельный надел. Однако вернувшись с военной службы, он сам землю не обрабатывал, а сдавал в аренду русским мужикам из соседней деревни за 1-2 кг хлеба и бутылку водки за десятину. После его смерти у него наследников не оказалось, зато установили, что ему в награду было дано позволение построить мечеть в родной деревне. Это случилось во времена царствования императрицы Елизаветы. Автор с гордостью пишет о том, что после 200-х лет запрета возводить мечети, деревня Новые Тинчали первой в России получила такое разрешение, на 11 лет раньше самой Казани!

The reader will familiarise with not smaller interest, as the village who were its first settlers who owned the extensive earths which were called as estates and as one clever person from inhabitants of village has achieved transfer of the earth in favour of landless was occupied, and since then the earth became communal, the earth was allocated on eaters. С неменьшим интересом читатель ознакомится, как заселялась деревня, кто были первыми ее поселенцами, которые владели обширными землями, называвшимися поместьями и как один умный человек из жителей деревни добился передачи земли в пользу безземельных, и с той поры земля стала общинной, земля выделялась по едокам.

The author draws also customs of that time. If the peasant did not make autumn ploughing of its earth fellows villager, as idler subjected to a beating. The head during arrivals behind gathering of taxes brought whole to a supply of rods for section of defaulters. The head it was necessary to humour, weld in every possible way the whole goose and to expose other entertainments. Malicious chastooshkas were in this respect composed also. Автор рисует также нравы того времени. Если крестьянин не производил осеннюю вспашку земли его подвергали побоям односельчане, как бездельника. Староста же во время наездов за сбором податей привозил целую подводу прутьев для сечения недоимщиков. Самого же старосту надо было всячески ублажать, сварить целого гуся и выставить другие угощения. На этот счет сочинялись и злые частушки.

Besides emotional influence on the reader, the last is convinced also by a method of the author, as historian and the researcher. He carefully analyzes each legend or the manuscript. For example, some sources asserted that village three persons for the first time mastered, but Bikkulov proves that the first settlers was not three, but twenty three persons. By calculation of life expectancy of the first settlers, it does a conclusion that age of their village - not less than 250 years, and the son of one of the first settlers of Bajsaid, son Sundeka, son Sunjaja, has given most of all descendants, nearby 700 persons and that it is possible to meet at them families, in which the owner, the wife and the daughter-in-law have one ancestor - Bajsaida, son Sundeka, son Sunjaja. Помимо эмоционального воздействия на читателя, последнего убеждает и метод автора, как историка и исследователя. Каждое предание или рукопись он тщательно анализирует. Например, некоторые источники утверждали, что впервые осваивали деревню три человека, но Биккулов доказывает, что первых поселенцев было не трое, а двадцать три человека. Путем вычисления продолжительности жизни первых поселенцев, он делает вывод, что возраст их деревни - не менее 250 лет, а сын одного из первых поселенцев Байсаид, сын Сундека, сын Суняя, дал больше всего потомков, около 700 человек, и что можно встретить у них семьи, в которых хозяин, жена и невестка имеют одного родоначальника - Байсаида, сына Сундека, сына Суняя.

The book of Kasima Bikkulova — an invaluable monument of history of the Tatar people, and readers with gratitude will get acquainted with its work. Книга Касима Биккулова — бесценный памятник истории татарского народа, и читатели с благодарностью познакомятся с его трудом.

G.Z.Hantemirova, Cand.Phil.Sci. Г.З. Хантемирова, кандидат филологических наук.
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