Скачать 1.22 Mb.
» London’s local authorities are the most ethnically diverse authorities in the country. A top 20 ranking of all authorities in England & Wales contains 19 London Boroughs.
» London is home to 39 per cent of the England’s Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic populations.
» London is home to more than half of the English population of Black Caribbeans, Black Africans and Black Other ethnic groups as well as 49 per cent of Bangladeshis.
» Each of the sixteen ethnic groups, with the exception of White British, has a higher representation in London than in the country as a whole.
» Between 2001 and 2007 only the White British, White Irish and Black Caribbean groups saw a decline in population.
» The proportions of the population that are children aged 0 to 15 vary from seven per cent (White Irish) to 48 per cent (Mixed White and Black Caribbean).
» A third of all Londoners were born outside the UK, compared with 11 per cent of the population of the UK as a whole.
» London has 38 per cent of all foreign-born residents in the UK.
» Between 2004 and 2007-08 the major change in the breakdown of nationality has been the increase of nearly 100 thousand nationals from the A8 new EU countries.
» Migrants from the A8 countries now form over two per cent of London’s population.
» In 2007, overseas–born women accounted for 54 per cent of London’s births, the next highest region was the West Midlands at 21 per cent.
» Only 35 per cent of pupils in London’s maintained primary schools were White British, compared with 77 per cent in England as a whole.
London is one of the most multicultural cities in the UK and arguably in the world. It is home to a population that speaks over 300 languages and nearly 40 per cent of the national ethnic minority population. This chapter takes a closer look at that diversity, in terms of the ethnicity, country of birth and nationality of its residents. It then focuses on children through the country of birth of mothers in London and finally the school population itself.
London has the most ethnically diverse population of any region. In 2001 the Census showed that 60 per cent of Londoners were White British (nearly 4.3 million people) and 40 per cent were from other ethnic groups (nearly 2.9 million people). The West Midlands was the region with the next highest representation of persons other than White British at just 15 per cent. The 2001 Census also showed that nine boroughs had more than 50 per cent of their populations from groups other than White British with a further ten having between 40 and 50 per cent. The highest was Brent at 71 per cent. The only non-London borough in the top 20 English and Welsh authorities was Slough at 42 per cent.
The majority of the national ethnic minority population is concentrated in a few major cities and towns and even within local authorities the various ethnic minority communities are likely to be concentrated within parts of the authority.
However London boroughs dominate the rankings for the most diverse local authorities in the country. Twenty-nine of the 33 local authorities in London appeared in a ranking of the top 50 local authorities in England and Wales (ranked by a score on the Simpson’s Diversity Index). Brent and Newham were at numbers 1 and 2 respectively. Similarly London dominated the ward analysis of ethnic diversity where only three non-London wards featured in the top 50 wards in England and Wales (See Focus on London 2008 for full details).
Although London only has just under 15 per cent of the total population of England, it is estimated by ONS that in 2007 it was home to 39 per cent of the national Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) population. Most ethnic groups have a greater representation in the capital for instance London is home to more than half of the English population of Black Caribbeans, Black Africans and Black Other ethnic groups as well as 49 per cent of Bangladeshis. Each of the sixteen groups, with the exception of White British, has a higher representation in London than in the country as a whole. Between 2001 and 2007 only the White British, White Irish and Black Caribbean groups saw a decline in population in London (Table 2.1). The White British and White Irish populations also fell in England as a whole. Major growth since 2001 was estimated in the Chinese (38 per cent), Other (26 per cent), Mixed White and Asian, and Pakistani groups (22 per cent).
The age structures of the different ethnic communities in London are also different reflecting both the timing of major migration flows to the UK, which mainly contained young adults, and differential fertility. In 2007, the proportions of the population made up of children aged zero to 15 vary from seven per cent (White Irish) to 48 per cent (Mixed White and Black Caribbean). Many White Irish parents are in partnerships with White British and their children tend to be designated as White British. In general the Mixed ethnic groups tend to have very high proportions of children. At the working-ages (16 to retirement) the Mixed groups tend to be most sparsely represented, with just 49 per cent of Mixed White and Black Caribbean, compared to 81 per cent of Chinese. The Chinese population is currently growing rapidly due mainly to large numbers of students. Over retirement age the lowest proportions in 2007 were found in the Mixed groups and Other Black, while the highest proportions were found in the White Irish (32 per cent), White British (17 per cent) and Black Caribbeans (15 per cent). The Caribbean population in London now has an age structure that, on this crude three-way scale, closely approximates that of the White British population. However, the other long-established New Commonwealth group, the Indians, still shows a younger profile, although it has relatively fewer 0-15s than the White British population (Table 2.2).
The age structure differences can be summarised by the standard dependency ratio – the number of children and retired per thousand persons of working-age. Not surprisingly, the Mixed groups had the highest dependency ratios by far. This is because the growth of these groups has been mainly due to new births of mixed parentage. However, as a whole the BAME population has a lower dependency ratio than either the White British or the London average. Outside the Mixed groups the highest ratios were found amongst the Black Other, White Irish and Bangladeshi populations. The Other Black and Bangladeshi groups were high due to the child population but the Irish population has a very old age structure. The lowest dependency was found amongst the Chinese, Other and Other White populations.
Country of Birth and Nationality
ONS estimates based on the Annual Population Survey (APS) for 2007-08 suggest that one third (33 per cent) of Londoners were born outside the UK – around 2.5 million Londoners (Table 2.3). In the United Kingdom as a whole, migrants make up around 11 per cent of the population. This figure of 2.5 million is likely to be an under-estimate as the APS excludes many short-term migrants and residents in most types of communal establishments. Further, the APS population totals for London are around three per cent lower than the latest official estimates of the resident population.
The UK’s migrant population is heavily concentrated in London with 38 per cent of all migrants resident in the UK compared with nine per cent of the UK-born population being resident in London. Estimates for the period 2007-08 indicate that the percentage of the population born outside the UK ranges from seven per cent in Havering up to 51 per cent in Westminster.
London attracts migrants from all over the world, with high concentrations from Europe, Africa and Asia. Nine per cent of London’s population was born in other European Union countries. Migrants from the A8 countries now comprise over two per cent of London’s population.
The breakdown of Londoners by nationality is similar (Table 2.4) but the key difference is that there is a major net shift between persons born in the Rest of the World and persons whose nationality is British. In 2007-08 over 79 per cent of Londoners were British with eight per cent being nationals of other EU countries and 13 per cent from the Rest of the World. The 21 per cent who were not British compares with just seven per cent of the population of the UK as a whole. Between 2004 and 2007-08 the major change has been the increase of nearly 100 thousand A8 nationals.
Births by Birthplace of Mother
The influence of the diversity of origins of London’s population may be seen in the analysis of births by birthplace of mother. In 2007, 54 per cent of births to London residents were to women born outside the UK (Table 2.5). This compares with just 23 per cent of all births in England and Wales, and to little more than 16 per cent of those occurring in England and Wales but outside London. In London the borough of Havering had the lowest proportion of births to overseas-born women, but at 17 per cent this was still greater than the national average excluding London. Newham and Brent both had more than 70 per cent of births to overseas-born women.
Births to EU born women were most common in Kensington & Chelsea, Ealing and Haringey. In Ealing and Haringey many of these births were to women born in the ‘New (post-2004) EU’ and reflect the pre-existing Polish and Cypriot communities in these boroughs. Births to women born in the Rest of Europe were most prevalent in Enfield, Haringey and Hackney. In the case of the first two boroughs the resident Turkish communities would account for a large proportion of these totals.
Births to Asian–born women account for nearly a half of all births in Tower Hamlets, nearly a third in Newham and over a quarter in Redbridge. The largest sub-group of births in London was to African-born women, who accounted for nearly 17 per cent of all births. However African women have only three per cent of births in the rest of England and Wales. At borough level, births to African-born women are most common in Southwark, Barking & Dagenham and Greenwich – all at over a quarter of all births. The numbers in Barking & Dagenham reflect the rapid movement of Africans into this borough from Inner London since before the 2001 Census.
The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) collects data on pupils in maintained schools by location of the school and a number of factors including ethnicity. In London only 35 per cent of primary pupils and 40 per cent of secondary pupils were White British, compared with 77 and 80 per cent in England as a whole (Tables 2.6 and 2.7). In London the largest minority populations were Black Africans who accounted for 13 and 12 per cent of primary and secondary pupils respectively. Comparing the proportions in Secondary schools with those in Primary schools gives an indication of the changing ethnic mix in London. Apart from the decline in White British, as indicated above, the Indian population shows a relative decline in primary schools compared to secondary schools, particularly in Outer London. On the other hand the Other White and Mixed groups were more abundant in primary schools across London and the Black African population was growing in Outer London.
Looking at individual boroughs (Tables 2.8 and 2.9) shows that at primary level there were relatively fewest non-White pupils in Havering (16 per cent) and the most in Newham (82 per cent). Havering was also the lowest for secondary pupils (16 per cent) but Tower Hamlets was the highest (80 per cent). The school data is a good benchmark for other estimates of ethnic populations and generally confirms the ONS estimates and GLA projections. However, some children have not been classified and it does not include the 10 to 12 per cent of London children in independent schools. It should therefore be treated with some caution in those wealthier parts of, mainly, central and outer boroughs where private education is a more significant part of the education market.
» Over three quarters (77 per cent) of London’s working-age population were economically active in the labour force in 2007. This group comprises those who are in work and those who are unemployed and looking for work.
» London’s employment rate (72 per cent) was slightly below the UK average (74 per cent). The rate for men was around average but the rate for women was the lowest of any UK region.
» Within London, the employment rate was lower in Inner London (67 per cent) than Outer London (72 per cent), where rates were closer to the national average in 2007.
» In London, as in most areas, women have a lower employment rate (64 per cent) than men (79 per cent). However, the gender gap in London was far greater than average - 14 percentage points compared with 8 for the UK as a whole.
» Of all regions, the gender gap in employment rates was widest in London, reflecting the relatively low employment rate of women, especially those in Inner London (60 per cent).
» Within London, employment rates ranged from 82 per cent in Bromley down to 57 per cent in Tower Hamlets, a difference of 25 percentage points – the biggest difference between the top and bottom authority of any British region. For London’s women, rates were even more polarised across boroughs from 76 per cent in Bromley down to 43 per cent in Tower Hamlets – a gap of 33 percentage points.
» Disabled Londoners had a very low employment rate (45 per cent) relative to non-disabled Londoners (74 per cent). Disabled Londoners comprised 15 per cent of the working-age population.
» The employment rate for BAME Londoners overall is 60 per cent, far lower than the rate of White Londoners (75 per cent).
» Londoners who were born outside the UK tend to have lower employment rates (66 per cent) than UK-born Londoners (73 per cent).
» Londoners with UK nationality had a higher employment rate (71 per cent) than foreign nationals (65 per cent). However, foreign nationals from White ethnic groups had a higher employment rate (75 per cent) than UK nationals. BAME foreign nationals had a very low employment rate (57 per cent).
» Around 287 thousand Londoners of working-age were unemployed. Unemployment rates for men in London have increased at a far slower rate than for women during 2008.
Annual Population Survey (APS) estimates for 2007 suggest that London’s working-age population numbers just over 5 million. The population of London is quite different to other UK regions. London has a relatively young working-age population, has long been the top destination for migrants from overseas and is one of the most diverse cities in the world. Thirty-nine per cent of London’s working-age population are migrant Londoners who were born outside the UK. A quarter of London’s working-age population are foreign nationals. All of these factors affect London’s employment rates when compared with the national rates.
This chapter presents statistics on the theme of Londoners and their relationship with the labour market. Data are mostly based on the Labour Force Survey (LFS)quarterly data for October to December 2008, the APS for 2007 and Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) for 2008. APS data remain the best source of inter-censal data on labour market participation among Londoners. LFS quarterly data can only provide headline employment data for London and cannot be broken down into smaller geographical areas. For smaller geographies the 2007 APS data will be used.
Labour market position of working-age Londoners
The APS shows there to be 4.13 million people who work in London. Just over four-fifths of these people are Londoners. Around 326 thousand Londoners work outside London - about the same number who live in the East or South East regions and work in central London (Table 3.22).
According to LFS data from the last three months of 2008, over three-quarters (77 per cent) of London’s working-age population were economically active in the labour force; that is they are either employed or unemployed. The remaining 23 per cent of the population were economically inactive. This group includes those caring for children, those too sick to work, those who have retired and students (who are not also in work). The economically inactive population are, by definition, less ready or able to enter the labour market relative to the unemployed who are actively seeking work.
In London, 3.6 million people or 72 per cent of the working-age population were in employment (the employment rate) and the remaining 28 per cent represent the ‘workless’ population. This latter group comprise both the economically inactive population and the unemployed.
The employment rate for the UK was 74 per cent, which is 2.5 percentage points higher than the London rate. However, while the employment rate for London’s men is slightly above the average (79 per cent in London and 78 per cent for the UK), the rate for women is considerably lower - almost six percentage points lower than the average (64 per cent in London compared with 70 per cent in the UK as a whole).
The LFS indicates that 287 thousand working-age Londoners were unemployed at the end of 2008. This group comprises 7.3 per cent of the economically active population. This measure is the unemployment rate and expresses the number unemployed as a percentage of the labour force. The unemployment rate for the UK was 6.5 per cent. When the rate is broken down by gender, there is a similar pattern to the employment rate. The unemployment rate for men is slightly below average (6.8 per cent in London and 7.1 per cent for the UK), while the rate among women is well above average (8.0 per cent in London and 5.8 per cent for the UK).
London is the only region with a higher unemployment rate for women than for men and there are nearly as many unemployed women as men in London.
Over the past 18 months the unemployment rate in London has increased from 6.4 per cent in July 2007 to 7.6 per cent in December 2008. An increase of 1.2 percentage points is very similar to the change for the UK as a whole. However, again when broken down by gender there are significant differences. The unemployment rate for men in London has increased slightly whereas the rate nationally has increased significantly. Conversely the rate for London women has increased considerably more than for UK women on average. Therefore, while rates for men have converged, the rates for women have drifted further apart (Figure 3.1).
Employment rates by region
The most recent full-year APS data from 2007 shows London’s employment rate (70 per cent) is significantly below the UK average (74 per cent) and is one of the lowest employment rates of all UK regions, alongside Northern Ireland. Rates are around eight to nine percentage points higher in London’s neighbouring regions of the South East and East of England.
Within London, the employment rate is lower in Inner London (67 per cent) than Outer London (72 per cent), closer to the national average.
Across all regions, employment rates for women are lower than those of men, but the gender gap in employment rates is particularly pronounced in London (a difference of 14 percentage points). Employment rates for women in London average 63 per cent relative to a national average of 70 per cent. Employment rates for men in London (77 per cent) are far closer to the national average (79 per cent) (Table 3.2).
|Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format||This rich text version does not include all images. For a full version please view the pdf|
|This rich text version does not include all images. For a full version please view the pdf||This rich text version does not include all images. For a full version please view the pdf|
|[Version 1 (Jul 07 02). If you find and correct errors in the text, please update the version number by 1 and redistribute.]||Ebook version 0—please increment version number if you make corrections to this text. Thanks! The Toad exploring the world of lucid dreaming|
|This ebook is an updated version of the book Francis: Life and Lessons which was first published in print format by Authorhouse in 2010||Chris, Geoff and others: make sure the final printed version has apostrophes (they’re lost in my version) and that Rick’s equations print ok|
|Brian Current program notes and info in Rich Text Format||La demande de financement doit parvenir par courrier électronique. L’envoyer en format rtf, pdf ou ps, en document attaché, à : martine revillon@cnrs-dir fr|
«surveys» couvrant plusieurs années. Plusieurs de ces thèmes de recherche devraient déboucher à terme sur des applications plus pratiques...