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Focus on London 2009 contains a range of statistics from demographic, social and economic datasets, that relate to key London issues. This report looks in detail at Londoners, their lives and their work, as well as the natural environment of the capital. The chapters aim to tackle subjects that are in the spotlight in 2009, in order to build up a complete current image of the capital. The information is aimed at both general and specialist readers, and will be of interest to those people who live in, work in, study, or visit London.
There has been a statistical compendium on London produced virtually every year since 1890, though it has been titled Focus on London only since 1997. This edition updates Focus on London 2008 and some of the tables are repeated from previous editions, which aims to help in understanding long-term trends. Patterns and trends are often examined and set against regional and national comparators.
This new edition also sees the return of an Emergency Services chapter, which brings together aspects from Police, Ambulance and Fire. This is one of the few publications where trends in the demand for these three public services can be compared closely together.
Over the past year, London has experienced the effects of a national recession, mostly as a result of the global credit crunch and consequent financial crisis. This was the main focus of the G-20 summit that met in London in April. It is important to note that much of the underlying data comes from government surveys, and the data from many of these take over a year to release. Therefore some chapters analyse data from 2007 - prior to the effects of the credit crunch. This should be borne in mind when looking at data likely to be affected by the economic downturn.
However, a point of considerable interest is the reduction in outflow of London’s population, particularly in moves to the East and South East regions (year ending June 2008). Along with house price trends, this appears to be one of the first recorded indications of the impact of the credit crunch on mobility.
With a population of over 7.5 million, London’s share of the UK population was 12 per cent in 2007. Chapter 1: Population and Migration includes the most recent GLA projections which estimate that the total population will rise by 1.09 million to 8.54 million by 2026. A key aspect of the projected growth are the high rates of international migration. In 2007, 162 thousand international migrants came to London, equivalent to the population of Barking and Dagenham. However, since 2001, London has only once (2004/05) had a net migration inflow.
During the year ending September 2008 the reduction in outflow of population particularly in moves to the East and South East regions has seen the capital’s net loss reducing to 56 thousand. This appears to be the first recorded indication of the impact of the credit crunch on mobility. The number of people leaving London to live in other parts of the UK has more than halved since 2004. A further stand-out finding from the chapter shows that when within-borough movements are included, almost one in five of the population moved within a single year.
Chapter 2: Diversity shows London remains the most ethnically mixed region in the UK. Just under 40 per cent of England’s Black, Asian and Minority ethnic population resides in the capital. Furthermore, a third of all Londoners were born outside the UK, compared with 11 per cent for the UK as whole. However, nearly four-fifths of people in London consider themselves to be British. In 2007, overseas–born women accounted for 54 per cent of London’s births - possibly due to the age profile of the migrant population. Interestingly, migrants from the original eight accession countries have been the major increasing group in recent years and now constitute two per cent of the total population in London. Between 2001 and 2007 only the White British, White Irish and Black Caribbean groups saw a decline in population.
Chapter 3: Labour Market finds that London has an employment rate of 72 per cent, only marginally lower than the UK rate of 74 per cent. As with all regions London has a higher male employment rate (79 per cent) than female (64 per cent). However, the gender gap of 14 percentage points is far greater than in any other region with the UK figure standing at just eight per cent, mostly due to employment rates for mothers in London (both lone and in couples) being considerably lower than the rest of the UK. This chapter also highlights geographical differences in employment rates particularly between inner and outer London. The population of inner London has an employment rate of 67 per cent compared with 72 per cent in outer London.
Qualification levels are seen as a key predictor of success in the labour market and the data within Chapter 4: Skills looks at the relationship between employment status and qualifications. The analysis finds that 37 per cent of the working-age population have level 4 or above (degree) qualifications compared with just 29 per cent in the UK. In contrast, London’s rate of 13 per cent of working-age adults without any qualifications is consistent with the UK figure. Over half (56 per cent) of jobs in central London were filled by people with Level 4 or above qualifications compared with only a third in UK overall. The data also shows that GCSE results have improved rapidly in London. In 2000, just 45 per cent of pupils achieved 5 A*-C grades compared with 64 per cent in 2008.
Chapter 5: Economy examines London’s economic performance, both independently and within the wider context of the UK economy. When interpreting the data it is important to note that in terms of the economy, London is not simply a region, but also a capital city and global financial, tourist and transport hub. This clearly has an impact on measures of economic performance. In 2007, London had a workplace Gross Value Added (GVA) measure of almost £251 billion, which accounts for around one fifth of the UK total. This chapter also looks at measures such as Gross Disposable Household Income (GHDI) and finds that London’s GDHI per person was a quarter above the UK average in 2007. However, this relative prosperity exists alongside significant levels of deprivation within the capital. The Economic Deprivation Index shows that in 2005, London was the second most deprived region behind the North East. In terms of income deprivation alone, London is the most deprived in the UK.
There were approaching 400 thousand businesses in London in 2007. Chapter 6: Business shows Business Services to be by some distance the largest single sector with 1.07 million employees. London is also home to a quarter of all UK enterprises in the Financial Services sector. The capital remains a particularly attractive location for large firms, with more that one in five UK firms with annual turnover greater than £5 million located in the capital. London has high rates of both new business start-ups and existing business closures. The net effect of which has been positive with London’s business base the fastest growing of any UK region over the past decade. The chapter also shows that employment in London is highly concentrated in central London. Almost one-third of London employees, work in just three per cent of London’s wards.
Chapter 7: Income and Lifestyles focuses on the distribution of income, and its sources and looks at patterns in expenditure, including cinema admissions and tourism. Analysis of patterns of income and expenditure reveals London’s average gross weekly household income was £834 in 2006/07 – by far the highest of any region. Furthermore, a quarter of all households had a gross weekly income of greater than £1,000. There has been a steady decline in the registration of new cars since 1996 in London, which is against the national trend. London’s earns £8.2bn from overseas tourists, more than five times as great as the next region.
Chapter 8: Poverty shows that despite the relative prosperity enjoyed by the average Londoner, one in five people living in the capital live below the poverty line showing that considerable inequality exists between geographic areas and population groups. In addition, a child is a third more likely to live in poverty than in the rest of the UK. Child poverty is crucially important in analysing more widespread poverty, partly due to the actual deprivation it causes and partly due to the pressures placed on parents’ decisions for their children. In August 2008, 27.5 per cent of children aged 0-18 lived in families claiming at least one key benefit – the highest rate of any region. Ten inner London and two outer London boroughs had rates above 30 per cent. In addition to benefit claimant rates this chapter also examines indicators of levels of personal debt and worklessness.
Chapter 9: Emergency Services covers the inter-related work of the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), London Ambulance Service (LAS) and the London Fire Brigade (LFB). Almost 870 thousand crimes were recorded in 2007/08 representing a reduction of six per cent on the previous year. Incidents of crime fell across all categories except for drug offences. Almost 220 thousand crimes were cleared up, a sanction detection rate of 25 per cent.
During 2008/09 the LAS responded to over 2,600 emergency incidents per day, representing an increase of three per cent on the previous year and 27 per cent since 2000/01. The most common incidents involved falls or back injuries, accounting for an eighth of all calls, followed by breathing problems. The LFB answered over 229 thousand emergency calls in 2008/09 and responded to 139 thousand incidents, which represents a drop of over four per cent on the previous year or 25 per cent since 2001/02. Just over a fifth of all incidents were fires, although there were more than twice the number of false alarms than fires.
A range of indicators including rates of smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are examined in Chapter 10: Health. The analysis finds that almost one in four males were regular smokers during 2007, compared with 17 per cent of females. The capital had the highest proportion of people who had not drunk alcohol within the previous seven days. Even though three in five males were classified as either overweight or obese, London had the lowest rate of obesity of any English region. Slightly fewer women than men were classified as overweight or obese at 54 per cent. More women in London reported themselves as being very physically active than in any other English region. In 2007, over a third of Londoners had eaten at least the recommended five portions fruit and vegetables or more every day, above the national average. The teenage conception rate in London in 2007 was higher than the national average but rates vary considerably within the capital. Finally, the chapter finds that the highest life expectancy of all local authorities in England during the period 2005-07 was recorded in Kensington and Chelsea.
Chapter 11: Housing finds there was a net conventional supply of 27,570 homes in 2007/08. The proportion of housing considered affordable was up by four percentage points on the previous year to 38 per cent in 2007/08. House prices in the capital have fallen at a similar rate to the rest of England with the London reduction of 12.2 per cent in the 12 months to February 2009, marginally less than the England rate of 12.4 per cent, and the number of housing sales in London towards the end of 2008 was down more than 60 per cent on a year previously. The average deposit of a first-time buyer almost doubled during 2008, which has in part led to a reduction in sales of 60 per cent compared with the same period in 2007. The total number of empty homes in March 2008 was 82,300 – the lowest since comparable records began in 1979. Around 200 thousand households were classified as overcrowded which accounts for seven per cent of all households in London.
The state of the environment is a key issue for the capital. Chapter 12: Environment begins by addressing key factors related to climate change including, emissions, ecological footprints and energy consumption. Key findings include London’s CO2 emissions per person being the lowest of any UK region. In addition, of the six key pollutants recorded by the London Air Quality Network, only concentrations of ozone increased over the period November 1996 to April 2009. The chapter continues with an analysis of aspects of both the natural and built environments such as land use, planning, water quality, waste disposal and recycling. During 2007/08, just over a quarter of household waste was recycled or composted in London, the lowest rate of any region in England. The amount sent to landfill is around average but London incinerates far more of its waste than average.
At the end of 2008 Londoners spent an average of 38 minutes travelling from home to the workplace. Commuting patterns are examined further in Chapter 13: Transport, alongside usage of the London Underground service, the capital’s bus network and private cars. Just 35 per cent of Londoners drove to work - roughly half the proportion of any other UK region. By 2007 the use of private cars had fallen by 28 per cent since the introduction of the congestion charge in February 2003. The volume of traffic on London’s roads was less than half the UK rate. Impressively, the Government’s target of a 40 per cent reduction in fatal and serious road accidents by 2010 compared with the 1994-98 average has already been surpassed in the capital. In 2007/08 1.1 billion journeys were made on the London Underground, which equates to over 145 per resident. The analysis concludes with a look at London’s airports and finds an increase of a third in the number of passengers using the terminals during the period 1998-2008, with just over half of these being recorded at Heathrow airport, the busiest airport in the world for international passengers.
Structure of the publication
The report begins with some top ten rankings that cover various topics, some of which are miscellaneous and would not fit neatly into subsequent chapters.
There are 13 chapters covering different topics. The chapters start with a set of bullet points that highlight the key points of the chapter. Each chapter is illustrated by charts, maps and tables. Often the most detailed tables will appear at the end of the chapter. Sources are given at the foot of each table, chart and map.
The Notes and Definitions section after chapter 13 provides additional detail and background information which will help in understanding many of the tables and figures. There is also a section which explains the various different geographies that are used within the tables.
Readers who would like further information will find a list of references, further reading and websites at the back of the book. A map of the London borough boundaries can be found on the final page.
This report is available free of charge on the GLA website in PDF format. The data within this report are available as Excel files online (www.london.gov.uk/gla/dmag).
This report focuses mainly on London as a region but also shows some data at lower geographical levels. However, to complement Focus on London, and released earlier in 2009, DMAG produced the London borough Stat-pack 2009. It contains only borough level statistics throughout.
The Stat-pack contains nearly 200 spreadsheets of borough data, covering a variety of different themes.
This year’s stat-pack also contains a set of Interactive maps using InstantAtlas technology.
The data, maps and publication are available on the GLA website at www.london.gov.uk/gla/publications/factsandfigures/boros2009/ .
|Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format||This rich text version does not include all images. For a full version please view the pdf|
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«surveys» couvrant plusieurs années. Plusieurs de ces thèmes de recherche devraient déboucher à terme sur des applications plus pratiques...