Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format




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Rich Text Version (RTF) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format.


GREATERLONDONAUTHORITY


Focus on London 2009


Editor – Gareth Piggott

Published with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO). An acknowledgement of the source is given with each table or map. © Crown copyright 2009

Maps. All maps are © Crown copyright. All rights reserved (LA100032379) (2009) GLA

You may re-use this publication (excluding logos) free of charge in any format for research, private study or internal circulation within an organisation. You must re-use it accurately and not use it in a misleading context. The material must be acknowledged as Crown copyright and you must give the title of the source publication. Where we have identified any third party copyright material you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

This publication is also available at the Greater London Authority website: www.london.gov.uk/gla/dmag

Data presented in this report can be made available in other formats on request.

To request this publication in other formats or languages please contact the GLA Public Liaison Unit.

Telephone 020 7983 4100

City Hall Minicom 020 7983 4458

ISBN 978 1 84781 267 4

ISSN 1479-7879

First published 2009

This book is printed on 80 per cent recycled paper that is accredited by the Forest Stewardship Council (www.fsc.org). The paper is suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.


Cover photo - Visit London


About the Greater London Authority

The Greater London Authority was created in 2000 as a new form of strategic city-wide government, consisting of an elected Mayor and a separately elected 25-member Assembly. The GLA is responsible for the strategic administration of London. The Mayor’s role as the executive of the strategic authority for London is to promote economic development and wealth creation, social development, and the improvement of the environment. The Mayor also has a number of other duties in relation to culture and tourism. The GLA’s services are delivered by four functional bodies - Transport for London, Metropolitan Police Authority, The London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, and the London Development Agency.

About the Data Management and Analysis Group

The Data Management and Analysis Group (DMAG) is a team of statisticians and researchers. The team work across the fields of statistics, demography, geographic information (GIS) and data presentation. DMAG deals with various types of socio-economic and demographic data as well as education and crime data. DMAG has particular expertise in the analysis of data sets such as the Census, Labour Force Survey, population estimates and welfare benefits. Its publications - DMAG Briefings and Updates - aim to disseminate this work to as wide an audience as possible.

Contact points

For enquiries about this publication, contact the Editor

E-Mail: dmag.info@london.gov.uk

Tel: 020 7983 4327

Data Management and Analysis Group

2nd Floor, Post Point 24A

Greater London Authority

City Hall

The Queen’s Walk

More London

London

SE1 2AA

Copyright © Greater London Authority, 2009


List of contributors

(DMAG except where stated)

Editor, Production Manager, Design, Maps and Typesetting:

Gareth Piggott

Assistant Editor:

Richard Walker

Authors:

Allan Baker (London Health Observatory)

Michael Damiani (London Ambulance Service)

Richard Gittings (Metropolitan Police)

James Gleeson (GLA Housing team)

John Hollis

Thomas Knight (Office for National Statistics)

Oliver Meller-Herbert (London Health Observatory)

Andrew Mobbs (London Fire Brigade)

Gareth Piggott

Richard Prothero (GLA Economics)

Richard Walker

Additional data:

Rachel Conti (GLA Air quality officer)

Gary Fuller (King’s College)

David Hutchinson (GLA Environment Policy)

David Wyatt (London Fire Brigade)

Review team:

Richard Cameron

Rachel Leeser

Rob Lewis

Grant Pettitt (GLA Health Policy)

Distribution:

Kelly Rump

Cover Photograph:

Visit London

Other Photographs:

Visit London, Gareth Piggott and Shutterstock


Acknowledgements

The editing team wish to thank all their colleagues in the Greater London Authority, particularly within DMAG, the housing and environment teams, GLA Economics and the London Development Agency. Our thanks are also extended to colleagues in the Office for National Statistics, London Health Observatory, London Ambulance Service, Metropolitan Police and London Fire Brigade for their generous contributions and support. This publication would not have been possible without the help given by these specialists.

Data providers

Civil Aviation Authority

Communities and Local Government

Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform

Department for Children, Schools and Families

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

Department for Transport

Department for Work and Pensions

Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, Northern Ireland

Department of the Environment, Northern Ireland

Environment Agency

General Register Office for Scotland

Greater London Authority

Health Protection Agency

Higher Education Statistics Agency

HM Revenue and Customs

Home Office

Information Centre for Health and Social Care

Irish Central Statistical Office

King’s College London, Environmental Research Group

Land Registry

London Ambulance Service

London Fire Brigade

Metropolitan Police Service

Ministry of Justice

National Health Service Central Register

Northern Ireland Department of Education

Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency

Office for National Statistics

Office of the Rail Regulator

Police Service of Northern Ireland

Registry Trust

Scottish Environment Protection Agency

Social Disadvantage Research Centre

Transport for London

United Nations, Population Division

Welsh Assembly Government


Contents

The page numbers refer to the PDF version. In this RTF version the page numbers should be ignored.

Page

Acknowledgements iv

Introduction xviii

Overview xix

London Top Tens 1

Table 1 Population of urban agglomerations in EU, 2007 1

Table 2 Population by nationality, London, 2007/08 1

Table 3 Population by country of birth, London, 2007/08 1

Table 4 National Insurance Number registrations of non-UK nationals by country of origin, London, 2007/08 1

Table 5 Overseas visitors to London, 2007 2

Table 6 Tourist spending by borough, 2006 2

Table 7 Leading tourist attractions, London, 2008 2

Table 8 Oldest Underground lines 2

Table 9 Passengers carried by Underground line, 2008 3

Table 10 Tallest high-rise buildings, London, 2009 3

Table 11 Commercial and industrial floor space by borough, 2007 3

Table 12 Income of tax-payers, by borough 2006-07 3

Table 13 World’s busiest airports by passenger traffic, 2008 4

Table 14 Longest rivers in London 4

Table 15 Numbers of properties with significant chance of flooding or in a floodplain by borough , 2006 4

Table 16 Most expensive average house prices, by borough March 2009 4

Table 17 Cheapest average house prices, by borough March 2009 5

Table 18 Offences by type, 2007-08 5

Table 19 Causes of mortality, London, 2007 5

Table 20 Football stadium attendances, London, 2008/09 5

Chapter 1: Population and Migration 7

Author: John Hollis

Introduction 8

Trends in total population 8

Population density 8

Table 1.1 Population density at mid-2007 9

Components of population change 9

Table 1.2 Annual population change analysis 2001-07, London and England & Wales 10

Population structure 10

Figure 1.3 Age structure of London and United Kingdom at mid-2007 11

Fertility 11

Table 1.4 Age-specific birth rates, 1981-2007 12

Mortality 12

Migration 12

Table 1.5 Regional migration flows for selected years 13

Figure 1.6 Inter-regional migration, London 2002-2008 14

Table 1.7 Inter-regional migration movements within the UK, in the year ending June 2008 15

Figure 1.8 Migration between London and the rest of the UK by age groups, 2006-07 16

Population turnover 16

Map 1.9 Average population turnover rates 2001-07 17

Table 1.10 Households by type: London and England, 2001 and 2007 18

Households 18

GLA Demographic Projections 18

Table 1.11 GLA 2008 round demographic projections for London: key results from low projection 19

Table 1.12 GLA 2008 round low projection: borough summary 20

Table 1.13 Resident population, 1991-2007 21

Table 1.14 Resident population at mid-2007 by age groups, persons 22

Table 1.14 Resident population at mid-2007 by age groups, males 23

Table 1.14 Resident population at mid-2007 by age groups, females 24

Table 1.15 Population change analysis 2006-07, London boroughs 25

Table 1.16 2001-07 average turnover rates 26

Chapter 2: Diversity 27

Author: John Hollis

Introduction 28

Ethnic Diversity 28

Table 2.1 Ethnic group population estimates 2001 and 2007 28

Table 2.2 Ethnic group population estimates by age, London, 2007 29

Country of Birth and Nationality 30

Table 2.3 Population by country of birth, 2004 and 2007/08 30

Table 2.4 Population by nationality, 2004 and 2007/08 31

Births by birthplace of mother 31

Table 2.5 Births by Birthplace of Mother, 2007 32

School Pupils 31

Table 2.6 Primary school pupils by ethnic group, January 2008 33

Table 2.7 Secondary school pupils by ethnic group, January 2008 34

Table 2.8 Primary school pupils by ethnic group, January 2008, London boroughs 35

Table 2.9 Secondary school pupils by ethnic group, January 2008, London boroughs 36

Chapter 3: Labour Market 37

Author: Gareth Piggott

Introduction 38

Labour market position of working-age Londoners 38

Figure 3.1 Unemployment rates, working-age, July 2007 to December 2008 38

Employment rates by region 39

Table 3.2 Employment rates (working-age) by gender and region, 2007 39

Part-time and Self-employed working 40

Figure 3.3 Reasons given for working part-time second quarter 2007 40

Employment by occupation 41

Figure 3.4 Employment by occupation, working-age residents, 2007 40

Figure 3.5 Occupational composition of employee jobs, 2001 and 2007 41

Employment rates by London borough 41

Figure 3.6 Employment rates, persons working-age, for London boroughs, 2007 42

Trends in employment rates 42

Labour force projections 43

Employment rates by gender and age 43

Figure 3.7 Employment rates by gender, working-age, 1997-2008 42

Employment rates by parenthood 43

Figure 3.8 Employment rates of working-age persons, by parenthood, 2007 43

Employment rates by disability 44

Employment rates by ethnicity 44

Figure 3.9 Employment rates for London’s twenty largest working-age populations by nationality, 2007 44

Employment rates by ethnicity, country of birth and nationality 45

Unemployment rates by region 45

Figure 3.10 Model based unemployment rates for London boroughs, 2007 45

Unemployment rates for London Boroughs: New modelled estimates 46

Earnings 46

Earnings by occupation 46

Figure 3.11 Median gross weekly resident-based earnings, by region 2008 46

Figure 3.12 Gross weekly earnings, 2008 47

Trends in full-time earnings 47

Figure 3.13 Gap between median full-time earnings of males and females, 1968-2008 47

Figure 3.14 Year on year increase in earnings 1968-2008 (five year intervals) 47

Figure 3.15 Trends in median full-time gross weekly earnings of employees by gender, 1966-2008 48

Table 3.16 Median weekly earnings - All employee jobs by occupation: UK and London, 2008 49

Table 3.17 Employment and unemployment rates by gender, October to December 2008 50

Table 3.18 Employment rates by region, lowest and highest local authority rates, working-age persons, 2007 50

Table 3.19 Employment rates (working-age) by gender, for London boroughs, including self-employed, part-time and unemployment rates, 2007 51

Table 3.20 Employment rates, working-age, 2007 52

Table 3.21 Projected resident labour force in 2016 (PLP Low): borough summary 53

Table 3.22 Number of people in work by place of residence and work (main job), 2007/08 54

Chapter 4: Skills 55

Author: Richard Prothero

Introduction 56

Qualification levels of London residents 56

Figure 4.1 Highest qualification held, London and UK, working-age, 2007 56

Figure 4.2 Working-age London residents by qualifications and age group, 2007 57

Figure 4.3 Highest qualification of London residents born overseas, by year of arrival to UK, working-age, 1946-2007 57

Table 4.4 Highest qualification of the working-age population by ethnicity, London, 2007 58

Qualifications of London workforce 58

Figure 4.5 People employed in London by highest qualification held, 2007 58

Figure 4.6 Highest qualifications of people in employment, by job location, 2007 59

Figure 4.7 Age profile of residents in employment, 2007 59

Figure 4.8 Percentage of residents in employment with Level 4 and above qualifications by age, 2007 60

Figure 4.9 Qualifications of the London workforce - commuters and resident workers, 2007 60

Qualifications by occupation and sector 61

Figure 4.10 London workforce by occupation and qualification level, 2007 61

Figure 4.11 London workforce by industrial sector and qualification level, 2007 61

Employment rates and worklessness by qualification 62

Figure 4.12 Employment rates of working-age Londoners, excluding students, by qualification level, 2007 62

Qualifications attained by young people in London 62

Figure 4.13 Pupils obtaining five GCSE’s A*-C, 2000-2008 62

Figure 4.14 Pupils with five A*-C GCSEs including English and Mathematics, 2007/08 63

Figure 4.15 Percentage of young people with level 3+ qualifications, 2005-08 63

Figure 4.16 UCAS accepted applicants by London residents, 2003-2008 63

Chapter 5: Economy 65

Author: Tom Knight Introduction 66

Regional GVA 66

Figure 5.1 Workplace GVA in current basic prices: by region, 2007 66

Table 5.2 Gross value added (GVA) at current basic prices, 2004-2007 67

Table 5.3 Growth of headline Workplace-based GVA at current basic prices: by region, 2006/07 68

Regional GVA by Industry 68

Figure 5.4 GVA by broad industry group, 2006 68

Table 5.5 UK, London share of GVA by industry groups at current basic prices, 2006 69

GVA per person decomposition 69

Figure 5.6 London GVA: Business Services & Finance: NUTS3, 1995 to 2006 70

Figure 5.7 Regional percentage differences in GVA per person from the UK average, 2007 71

Regional GDHI 70

Figure 5.8 Components of GDHI: London, 2007 71

Figure 5.9 Headline gross disposable household income per person, 2007 71

Figure 5.10 Growth headline GDHI per person at current basic prices, 2006/07 72

Sub-regional GDHI 72

Components of GDHI 72

Labour Productivity 72

Table 5.11 Headline gross disposable household income per person and components, 2007 73

Figure 5.12 Index GVA per hour worked, 2007 73

Figure 5.13 Comparison of regional economic indicators: by region, 2007 74

London Productivity by Industry 74

Table 5.14 GVA generated by different industry groups, 2006 75

Figure 5.15 London GVA per employee job, by industry groups, 2006 75

Economic Deprivation 76

Figure 5.16 EDI Income score data by region, 1999-2005 76

Map 5.17 Rank of overall Economic Deprivation Index score 2005 77

Figure 5.17 Population weighted average rank overall Economic Deprivation Index 2005 78

Figure 5.18 Rates of employment and income deprivation by region, 2005 78

Table 5.19 Workplace-based gross value added (GVA) at current basic prices, 1992 to 2007 79

Table 5.20 Gross disposable household income, 2000 to 2007 80

Table 5.21 Gross disposable household income, 2004 to 2007 81

Table 5.22 Labour Productivity, 2000 to 2007 82

Chapter 6: Business 83

Author: Richard Prothero

Introduction 84

Enterprises in London 84

Figure 6.1 Enterprise counts and enterprises per 10,000 residents: by region, 2007 84

Figure 6.2 Share of total UK registered enterprises, by location and industrial sector, 2008 85

Figure 6.3 Share of total UK registered enterprises, by location and employment size band, 2008 85

Figure 6.4 Share of total UK registered enterprises, by turnover size band, 2008 85

Employment 86

Figure 6.5 Workforce jobs in London 1996 Q1 – 2008 Q3 86

Figure 6.6 Employee jobs, by sector London 2007 86

Figure 6.7 London share of GB employee jobs, by sector, 2007 87

Map 6.8 Employee jobs, by ward, 2007 87

Figure 6.9 Private sector London employment, by size of firm, 2007 88

Figure 6.10 Stock of VAT-registered enterprises per 10,000 resident adult population, 1998-2008 88

Business start-ups and closures 89

Figure 6.11 Business start-up and closure rates, 1995-2007 89

Figure 6.12 Percentage of enterprises surviving three years: by year of birth and region, 2003, 2004, 2005 90

Figure 6.13 Share of total UK registered enterprises, by age of business, 2008 90

Table 6.14 Number of VAT and/or PAYE based enterprises in London by industrial sector, 2008 91

Table 6.15 Employee jobs in London, by industrial sector, 2007 92

Table 6.16 Employee jobs in London in Business Services, by sector, 2007 93

Table 6.17 Self-employment in London by industrial sector, 2007 94

Chapter 7: Income and Lifestyles 95

Author: Richard Walker

Introduction 96

Income 96

Figure 7.1 Households with high and low weekly incomes, 2006/07 96

Table 7.2 Distribution of income liable to tax, 2006/07 97

Savings and Banking 97

Table 7.3 Households by type of savings and assets 2005/06-2006/07 98

Benefits 98

Table 7.4 Households by state support receipt and region, 2006/07 99

Expenditure 99

Figure 7.5 Average household expenditure on Health and Education in relation to the UK 2005/06-2006/07 100

Figure 7.6 Expenditure on household food & drink, 2005/06-2006/07 100

Lifestyles 100

Table 7.7 Household purchases for consumption outside of the home 2004/05-2006 100

Table 7.8 Percentage of households with selected durable goods, 2005/06-2006/07 101

Figure 7.9 Households with Internet access, 2005/06-2006/07 101

Figure 7.10 Households with Internet access 2000-2007 (Three-year rolling averages) 102

New cars 102

Figure 7.11 Number of new vehicle registrations per 1,000 population 1996-2007 102

Cinema admissions 102

Table 7.12 Cinema admissions by television region, 2007 102

Holidays 102

Figure 7.13 Household weekly spending on package holidays in the UK and overseas, 2005/06-2006/07 103

Tourism 103

Figure 7.14 Tourism spend of UK and overseas visitors, 2007 103

Figure 7.15 Number of overseas tourist visits, 2003-2007 104

Figure 7.16 Expenditure from overseas tourists, 2003-2007 104

Table 7.17 Tourism by residents, 2007 104

Table 7.18 Households by total weekly household income, 2006/07 105

Table 7.19 Household income: by source, 2006/07 106

Table 7.20 Household expenditure: by commodity and service, 2005/06-2006/07 107

Table 7.21 Expenditure on household and eating out food & drink, 2005/06-2006/07 108

Chapter 8: Poverty 109

Author: Richard Walker

Introduction 110

Risk of being in income poverty by age 110

Table 8.1 Risk of being in income poverty by age, London and UK 2004/05-2006/07 110

Child poverty 110

Table 8.2 Risk of children Living in households with low income, 2004/05-2006/07 110

Figure 8.3 Percentage point difference between before and after housing cost risk of children living in poverty, 2004/05-2006/07 111

Working-age poverty 111

Table 8.4 Percentage of working-age adults living in households with low income, 2004/05-2006/07 111

Pensioner poverty 112

Table 8.5 Percentage of pensioners living in households with low income 2004-07. 112

Worklessness 112

Figure 8.6 Percentage of work-rich and workless households: Second quarter 2008 112

County Court Judgements 113

Table 8.7 County Court Judgements, 2004-05 113

Figure 8.8 Value of CCJs per person, 2004-05 113

Benefits 113

Table 8.9 Claimant rates by benefit type - summary, August 2008 114

Table 8.10 Benefit claimants, 2001-2007 116

Figure 8.11 Housing Benefit and Council Tax Benefit claimant rates, August 2007 117

Table 8.12 Working-age households by combined economic activity status of household: second quarter 2008 118

Table 8.13 Income Support claimants: rates and borough rankings, August 2008 119

Table 8.14 Children in families dependent on benefits: rates and borough rankings, August 2007 120

Chapter 9: Emergency Services 121

Author: Richard Gittings (Police), Michael Damiani (Ambulance) and Andrew Mobbs (Fire)

Police 122

Introduction 122

Recorded crime at regional level 122

Table 9.1 Total recorded crime by region, 2007/08 122

Table 9.2 Recorded crime rates by region, 2007/08 122

Figure 9.3 Crime rates in most similar police force areas, 2007/08 123

Recorded crime across London’s Boroughs 123

Map 9.4 Recorded crime per borough 2007/08 123

Map 9.5 Crime rates per 1,000 population, 2007/08 123

Types of Crime 124

Table 9.6 Top ten recorded crime rates by crime type and police force area, 2007/08 124

Figure 9.7 Crime types as proportions of all recorded offences, 2007/08 124

Table 9.8 Recorded crime trends in Metropolitan Police area by type, 1998/99-2007/08 125

Long term trends in London Crime 125

Police priorities 125

Table 9.9 Crime types in London, 2006/07 and 2007/08 126

Detections 127

Table 9.10 Crime detection rates by region, 2007/08 126

Detections by type 127

Table 9.11 Crime detection rates by type and region, 2007/08 127

Demand for policing 127

Number of CAD calls by borough 128

Map 9.12 Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) calls received by borough, 2007/08 128

Number of I grade calls per borough 128

Figure 9.13 Number of I grade calls to police, by borough, 2007/08 128

Trends in emergency calls 129

Figure 9.14 Numbers of I and S calls, 2001/02-2007/08 129

Calls by type 129

Figure 9.15 Most common CAD calls by type 2007/08 129

Map 9.16 CAD calls related to traffic offences in London, 2007/08 130

Map 9.17 CAD calls for Anti-Social Behaviour in London, 2007/08 130

Young people as the victims of crime 131

Table 9.18 Youth victims by total offences and persons accused that were young people, 2007/08 130

Figure 9.19 Youth Victims by selected category, 1998/99 to 2008/09 131

Youth Crime 131

Figure 9.20 Youth Accused by selected category, 1998/99 to 2008/09 131

Table 9.21 Youth Victims and Accused by major and minor category, 2008/09 132

London Ambulance Service 133

Introduction 133

Annual Trends 133

Figure 9.22 Number of emergency incidents responded to, 2000/01-2008/09 133

Triage system 133

Figure 9.23 Incidents recorded on Triage system, by category, 2008/09 133

Table 9.24 Chief Complaints, by number and share, 2008/09 134

Peaks in demand 135

Figure 9.25 Monthly demand pattern, 2008/09 135

Figure 9.26 Hourly and day of the week demand pattern, 2008/09 135

Demand by borough 136

Map 9.27 Number of incidents per 100 population, 2008/09 136

Age profile of patients 136

Figure 9.28 Age profile of patients, by sex, 2008/09 136

Fire 137

Introduction 137

Map 9.29 Fire Stations in London, 2008/09 137

Emergency Calls 137

Figure 9.30 Emergency calls and incidents attended, 2001/02-2008/09 137

Incidents 138

Table 9.31 Incidents attended in 2008/09 138

Figure 9.32 Total incidents attended, 2001/02-2008/09 138

Map 9.33 Total incidents attended, 2008/09 138

Home Fire Safety Visits 138

Fires 139

Map 9.34 Primary fires attended, 2008/09 139

Figure 9.35 Proportion of primary fires by type, 2008/09 139

Map 9.36 Secondary fires attended, 2008/09 139

Special Services 140

Figure 9.37 Special service incidents attended by type, 2008/09 140

Figure 9.38 Incidents of people shut in lifts attended, 2001/02-2008/09 140

Map 9.39 Special service incidents attended by ward, 2008/09 140

False Alarms 141

Figure 9.40 False alarms originating in non-domestic buildings, 2001/02-2008/09 141

Figure 9.41 Hoax calls attended and not attended, 2008/09 142

Table 9.42 Incidents by borough, 2008/09 143

Chapter 10: Health 145

Author: Allan Baker, Co-author: Oliver Meller-Herbert Introduction 146

Healthy Lifestyles 146

Smoking 146

Figure 10.1 Smoking prevalence by ethnic group, London, 2006 146

Alcohol consumption 147

Figure 10.2 Adults who did not drink alcohol in previous week, 2007 147

Figure 10.3 Adults who did not drink alcohol in previous week, by ethnic group in London, 2006 148

Physical activity 148

Diet 148

Adult obesity 148

Childhood Obesity 149

Figure 10.4 Children at risk of being obese at Reception and Year 6, English Strategic Health Authorities, 2007/08 149

Figure 10.5 Prevalence of children at risk of being obese at Year 6 by PCT, 2007/08 150

Sexual Health - Sexually transmitted infections 150

Figure 10.6 Numbers of selected STIs diagnosed in London GUM clinics by year of diagnosis, 1998-2007 151

HIV 150

Figure 10.7 HIV infected persons accessing care, London and the rest of England, 1998-2007 151

Teenage conceptions 151

Map 10.8 Under-18 conception rates per 1,000 girls aged 15-17, London boroughs, 2007 152

Life Expectancy 152

Figure 10.9 Life expectancy at birth, by sex, London and England, 1995-97 to 2005-07 152

Table 10.10 Life expectancy at birth, directly age-standardised mortality rates, and infant mortality, England, London and London boroughs, 2005-07 154

Chapter 11: Housing 155

Author: James Gleeson

Introduction 156

Demographic pressures 156

Housing supply 156

Figure 11.1 Net conventional housing completions in London, 1998 to 2007/08 156

Affordable housing delivery 156

House prices 157

Figure 11.2 Mix-adjusted average price of new and existing homes in London, 2002 to 2008 157

Figure 11.3 Housing sales by region, third quarters 2007 and 2008 157

Housing sales 157

Affordability 157

Figure 11.4 Affordability of first-time buyer mortgages in London, April 2005 to January 2009 158

Repossessions 158

Figure 11.5 Index of mortgage possession orders made, 1987 to 2008 158

Empty homes 159

Figure 11.6 Empty homes in London, 1978 to 2008 159

Private sector rents 159

Figure 11.7 Trend in average weekly rent by property type and size, London, 2002 to 2008 159

Homelessness 160

Overcrowding 160

Figure 11.8 Overcrowding rates by tenure in London, 1995 to 2007 160

Gypsies and Travellers 160

Table 11.9 Net conversions of houses and flats by London borough, 2004/05 to 2007/08 161

Table 11.10 Net housing supply by borough 2007/08 162

Table 11.11 Median and lower quartile house prices and ratios of prices to earnings, by London borough, 2008 Q2 163

Table 11.12 House purchase loans, all buyers, number, value and affordability, UK standard regions, 2009, Q1 164

Table 11.13 Homeless households in priority need accepted by local authorities, by region, 2008 164

Chapter 12: Environment 165

Author: Richard Walker

Introduction 166

Carbon dioxide emissions 166

Table 12.1 Carbon dioxide emissions, 2006 166

Ecological Footprint 166

Table 12.2 Ecological Footprint, 2004 166

Air Quality 167

Figure 12.3 Relative annual mean pollutant concentrations (CO, PM10 and SO2) monitored at several sites in London, 1996-2009 167

Figure 12.4 Relative annual mean pollutant concentrations (NOx, O3, NO2) monitored at several sites in London, 1996-2009 167

Table 12.5 Average SOA indicator scores for air quality, Indices of Multiple Deprivation, 2007 167

Map 12.6 Combined Air Quality indicator from the Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2007 168

Energy Consumption 169

Figure 12.7 Total Final Energy Consumption by sector, 2006 169

Table 12.8 Electricity Consumption, 2007 169

Table 12.9 Gas Consumption, 2007 170

Land use and Planning 170

Figure 12.10 Land use, 2005 170

Figure 12.11 Density of new dwellings per hectare, 1989-2007 170

Figure 12.12 Proportion of new dwellings built on previously developed land, 1989-2007 171

Figure 12.13 Proportion of planning applications granted, third quarter 2008 171

Flooding 171

Figure 12.14 Proportion of new dwellings built in within areas of high flood risk, 1989-2007 172

Map12.15 Properties located within a floodplain, 2006 172

River quality 172

Figure 12.16 Percentage of river length in the Thames region graded good or better for chemical quality, 1993-2007 172

Table 12.17 Percentage of river length in the Thames region with high levels of selected nutrients, 1990-2007 173

Map 12.18 Biological river quality, 2007 173

Recycling 174

Table 12.19 Household waste recycled or composted, 2006/07 and 2007/08 174

Figure 12.20 Percentage of municipal solid waste sent to landfill, 2007/08 174

Figure 12.21 Disposal of municipal solid waste by method, 2007/08 175

Table 12.22 Fly tipping incidents, 2007/08 175

Table 12.23 Proportion of properties located within a floodplain, 2006 176

Table 12.24 Local Authority waste statistics, 2007/08 177

Chapter 13: Transport 179

Author: Richard Walker

Introduction 180

Travel 180

Figure 13.1 Mean time taken to travel to work, fourth quarter 2008 180

Figure 13.2 Passenger journeys on London Underground 1987/88 to 2007/08 180

Figure 13.3 Passenger kilometres on London Underground 1987/88 to 2007/08 181

Table 13.4 People entering central London during the morning peak 7-10am, by mode of transport: 1997-2007 181

Table 13.5 Bus Traffic in London, 1997-2007 182

Traffic 182

Figure 13.6 Road Traffic on Major Roads, 2007 182

Figure 13.7 Motor vehicle traffic per household 1993-2006 183

Accidents and Casualties 183

Table 13.8 Distribution of accidents on major roads, 2007 183

Figure 13.9 Percentage reduction in fatal or serious road accidents, 1994-1998 to 2007 183

Figure 13.10 Casualties by type of road user, 2007 184

Vehicle Ownership 184

Figure 13.11 Households with regular access to cars, 2007 184

Aviation 185

Figure 13.12 Air Transport Movements, 1998-2008 185

Figure 13.13 Terminal Passengers, 1998-2008 185

Table 13.14 Time taken to travel to work by mode of travel, fourth quarter 2008 186

Table 13.15 Usual method of travel to work, fourth quarter 2008 186

Table 13.16 Contributory factors attributed to accidents by vehicle type, in London and in the rest of Great Britain: 2007 187

Table 13.17 Licensed Vehicles per thousand population by type of vehicle, 2007 187

Notes and Definitions 189

Websites, references and further reading 209

UK regions map 216

London borough map 217

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Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format iconThis rich text version does not include all images. For a full version please view the pdf

Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format iconThis rich text version does not include all images. For a full version please view the pdf

Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format iconThis rich text version does not include all images. For a full version please view the pdf

Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format icon[Version 1 (Jul 07 02). If you find and correct errors in the text, please update the version number by 1 and redistribute.]

Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format iconEbook version 0—please increment version number if you make corrections to this text. Thanks! The Toad exploring the world of lucid dreaming

Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format iconThis ebook is an updated version of the book Francis: Life and Lessons which was first published in print format by Authorhouse in 2010

Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format iconChris, Geoff and others: make sure the final printed version has apostrophes (they’re lost in my version) and that Rick’s equations print ok

Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format iconBrian Current program notes and info in Rich Text Format

Rich Text Version (rtf) – this version of the report has been produced in rtf format and all maps, tables and charts have been removed. A full version is available on this website in pdf format iconLa demande de financement doit parvenir par courrier électronique. L’envoyer en format rtf, pdf ou ps, en document attaché, à : martine revillon@cnrs-dir fr
«surveys» couvrant plusieurs années. Plusieurs de ces thèmes de recherche devraient déboucher à terme sur des applications plus pratiques...
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