I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs)




Скачать 397.3 Kb.
НазваниеI organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs)
страница3/15
Дата01.10.2012
Размер397.3 Kb.
ТипДокументы
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15

I.2. WATER POLLUTANTS


I.2.1. TYPES OF WATER POLLUTANTS



Mihaela Carmen CHEREGI


For years, the quality of drinking water has been an important factor in determining the human welfare. Frequently, waterborne diseases that have decimated the population of many cities were caused by fecal pollution. Water pollution by natural sources has caused great hardship for people forced to drink it or use it for irrigation.

Bacterial and viral diseases carried by infectious agents in drinking waters have in general been controlled, and drinking waters in the technologically advanced countries are now free of the disease-causing agents that were common water contaminants only a few decades earlier.

Nowadays, the growth of the industrial and agricultural modern techniques has as result the obtaining of new synthetic chemicals. Many of these chemicals have contaminated water supplies. There are two types of water chemical contamination, one is the permanent contamination that includes wastes from industrial production, municipal wastes, fertilizers and pesticides runoff from agricultural lands and the other is the occasional contamination that includes transport accidents, leakage of toxic or radioactive substances. Also, there is a threat to groundwater from waste chemical dumps and landfills, storage lagoons, treating ponds, and other facilities.

It is clear that water pollution must be a concern of every citizen. Understanding the sources, interactions, and effects of water pollutants is essential for controlling and monitoring the contaminants in an environmentally safe and economically acceptable manner.

Analytical methods were developed to document the presence of pollutant in the environment and to describe the extent to which an area was contaminated. The pollutants monitoring in the environment continues to be of interest to today’s scientists, who desire to understand the long-term, health effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of pollutants. As instrumental detection limits improve and as newer detection techniques, such as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), become more widely used, polar environmental contaminants, for example water disinfection by products, degradation products of pesticides, pharmaceutical compounds, are being discovered, identified and quantified.

Water pollutants can be classified among general categories, as Table I.2.1 shows. An enormous number of publications related to this subject come out each year and it is impossible to present it all in this chapter. Some journals and books dealing with water pollution are listed in the Reference section at the end of this chapter.

Table I.2.1 Types of water pollutants.


Class of pollutant

Significance

Trace elements

Heavy metals

Metalloids and organically-bound metals

Inorganic pollutants

Acidity, alkalinity, salinity

Algal nutrients and bacterial toxins

Bio- and chemical oxygen demand

Trace organic pollutants

Polychlorinated biphenyls

Pesticides

Petroleum wastes

Sewage, human and animal waste

Radionuclides

Pathogens

Detergents

Chemical carcinogens

Sediments

Taste, odor, color

Health, aquatic biota, toxicity

Health, aquatic biota, toxicity

Metal transport

Toxicity, aquatic biota

Water quality, aquatic life

Eutrophication, toxicity, aquatic biota

Water quality, oxygen levels

Toxicity

Possible biological effects

Toxicity, aquatic biota, wildlife

Effects on wildlife, esthetics

Water quality, oxygen level

Toxicity

Health effects

Eutrophication, wildlife, esthetics

Incidence of cancer

Water quality, aqua biota, wildlife

Esthetics



1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15

Похожие:

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) iconOxygenated volatile organic chemicals in the oceans: inferences and implications based on atmospheric observations and air-sea exchange models

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) iconA. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) iconChem 6v39: Organic Electronics (Special Topics in Organic Chemistry)

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) icon11/13/2007 -the following are letters written by organic consumers in response to his comments that buying organic and local is dumb. Collin Peterson, chairman

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) iconUpdated general technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (pops)

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) icon* Ecology Ecotoxicology Aquatic Toxicology Environmental analytical chemistry of organic compounds Environmental Chemistry (Fates of trace substances in aquatic ecosystems) *

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) icon教科書為Advanced Organic Chemistry: Part B: Reaction and Synthesis (Advanced Organic Chemistry / Part B: Reactions and Synthesis)

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) iconNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) iconVariability of bulk organic δ

I organic air pollutants I 1 Volatile Organic Compounds (vocs) iconPrinciples of inorganic and organic chemistry

Разместите кнопку на своём сайте:
Библиотека


База данных защищена авторским правом ©lib.znate.ru 2014
обратиться к администрации
Библиотека
Главная страница