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The guide is written for two kinds of reader:
The contents of this guide may also be of some use to other support staff who are involved in some way either with the learning needs of visually impaired students, or with field teaching (see Section 4.3).
The importance of sight to humans has been discussed in Section 1. Here, the significance of being able to see is discussed in relation to geography and fieldwork.
Until relatively recently, when maps and map making began to lose their eminent place in the discipline, geography (along with its cognate disciplines), has traditionally been an intensely visual discipline. Many of the subject skills acquired by geography students, from map reading to field recording, lab work to sketching, all demand visual skills. And even the modern technologies that are increasingly used to supplement or enhance field study, particularly multimedia CAL (computer assisted learning), desktop mapping, GIS (geographical information systems) and remote sensing software all make heavy demands on the student's visual information processing system. (See Shepherd, 1995 on the visual discrimination of GIS technology.)
Sight plays a significant role in many aspects of classical geographical discourse, and has made a central contribution to mapping, graphics and visualisation. (It was a geographer, W.G.V. Balchin, who put the key skill of ‘graphicacy’ on the map.) However, sight also makes a not insignificant contribution, albeit rather more metaphorically, to the ‘gaze’ of modern human geography.
In terms of the craft of the modern geographer, sight is intimately related to most learning activities, including reading, writing, sketching and drawing. Few skills, whether key or specialist, can normally dispense with the faculty of sight, whether it involves calibrating a strain gauge in a geological laboratory or maintaining eye contact during inter-personal exchanges.
Although the nature of the field experience is typically taken as synonymous with the sighted fieldworker, it is worth enquiring as to the exact nature of this relationship, and asking whether fieldwork is impossibly difficult for the visually impaired student.
Various visual skills are deployed/required for fieldwork, including:
However, it is important to recognise that not all field study situations are alike. Indeed, field study takes a number of forms and guises, each of them posing a different mix of problems for the visually impaired student. Here are some typical examples:
These are discussed further in Healey et al., 2001. The mix of study activities, and this the relative disadvantage to visually impaired students, can vary considerably between these formats. We can go further than this, and suggest that the field experience of visually impaired students varies along a number of dimensions, including:
One indication of changing social attitudes is that blind people, and those with a visual impairment, participate in a wide variety of pursuits that might previously have been thought out of bounds. These include: blind sports (BSI, 2000; IBSA, 2000), mountain climbing (NFB, 2000a) and exploration (Ananova, 2000a). Geographers have a lot to learn from these activities, not only in terms of the narrow practicalities of 'how to do it', but also in terms of the broader motivational factors involved. The participation of the blind or visually impaired in these pursuits suggests that we should not longer ask the question 'Can they do it?' when considering visually impaired students undertaking fieldwork. Rather, the question should be: 'How shall we do it?'.
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