1. Alterations of Intra and Extra Mitochondrial Enzyme in the Muscle Fibersof Rat Hind Limbs: Role of Exercise

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 The strength of an economy lies in its productive forces, which is based on youth of the country. Due to population ageing country’s economy will suffer in the next millennium.

 A large proposition of the labour force will cease to work due to retirement. There will be inadequate replacement by the youth due to low fertility rate in ageing societies. Country will become a pensioner’s paradise.

 More rural elderly will contribute to their higher labour force participation mainly in agricultural sector. In urban areas, there will be much unorganized labour in the service and manufacturing sectors.

 The burden of dependents of the aged will increase.

 Old age dependency will increase and economic care provider will be less in the family.

 The aged will face economic hardship more and this hardship will be more among the rural aged.

 Large number of women will not be engaged in gainful occupations.

 Non-working women will always be grater, and their economic dependence will increase.


 Elderly will suffer more from a variety of ailments.

 Mortality rate will further decline and life expectancy will also increase both at birth and at the age of 60 years.

 In comparison to earlier ages mortality rate of elderly females will continue to be lower.

 Increased environmental pollution along with hazards will continue to contribute to much physical impairment to the urban aged than rural aged.

 To provide better health care services to the rapidly increasing number of elderly, geriatric health care services are positively required.

 Geriatric care arrangement will suffer due to inadequate geriatric care education, management and infrastructure.

 Elderly women will suffer more from nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases and disabilities.

 Cost effectiveness and quick recovery of allopathic medicine will be considered more effective.


 Elderly women will suffer more from widowhood. In a male dominated society , mostly dependent elderly females will have unhappy family relationship.

 Widowhood along with lower status of elderly women will lead to the difference in their living arrangements.

 Rapid urbanization along with globalization will create more stress and strain to maintain co-living with aged parents.

 Instead of extended family structure, a trend will be more towards tiny atomic nuclear family where the intra-family role and status of the elderly persons will be devalued.

 Individualistic and self-achievement oriented outlook of the youth will increase more.

 Work participation rate of younger women will increase more. They will be unable to play dual role of earner and care giver.

 Instead of informal family support, institutional support will be required more.

 Carrier aspirations will lead the younger generation live away from their aged relatives. Modern communication and technologies will play an important role in fulfilling their responsibilities.

 Many emotional problems will crop up due to estrange relationships of household members.

 Aged will face newer problems and challenges of adjustment (social, behavioural and attitudinal) in an emerging industrial culture.

 Aged couple or lonely aged will be more exposed to the hazards of ageing, isolation and loneliness.

Issues and Policy Guidelines


The above discussions on population ageing and its obvious consequences on demographic, economic, health and psychosocial aspect have raised some emerging issues which are extremely important for government (central, state and local), policy makers, social workers and non-governmental organizations about the present and future of graying population. These are –

 Due to rapid urbanization, extended family structure is changing drastically. In this transition, how far the informal support system can be sustained? If it is not sustained what will be the alternative support system for the aged in future?

 Informal family support system will be weakening more due to economic crisis in family. How this support can be strengthened?

 In urban areas more elderly labour force will be in unorganized sector, which does not provide any old age benefits. So how does the scope for this population can be developed in the unorganized sector?

 Being a developing country India is restructuring its economy in the light of globalization. How it can safeguard the interest of the aged population?

 Demographic transition, gradual disappearance of informal family support, changing priorities of younger generation, increasing trend of women’s workforce participation have raised the fundamental issues of social security of graying population in today and tomorrow. Who will bear the responsibility, family or community or the state?

Policy Guidelines

In the light of the above issues some policy guidelines have been identified for better living of our parental generation.

 Problems of ageing should require a holistic approach for solution.

 Aged are a class, which is not homogenous. So, plan, priority should be worked out considering of age, gender, marital status, religion, language, economic, social categories and cultural tradition.

 Regarding planning, priority should be given on education, economy, health and psychosocial aspects.

 Viable social security system for elderly women that will meet their health and other needs.

 Government has to reconsider their retirement policies keeping in mind the demographic transition.

 Geriatric assessment and health services needed.

 Agreement of health education for preventive geriatrics is of utmost importance.

 Effective implementation of the ‘Maintenance-Care and Protection’ law.

 Policies should emphasize social security (particularly in unorganized sector), health care, living arrangement, housing and other life satisfaction.

 G.I.S (Geographical Information System) should be implemented for aged data base, which will help in information updating, monitoring, and dissemination for researchers, academic courses and policy formulations.

 To support policy and development programs the exchange of researchers and research findings between national and international agencies should be privileged for international co-operation on ageing.

 Courses should be included on ageing issues in the university, college and school curriculum focusing the importance of aged persons in the society with a backdrop of Indian tradition.

In conclusion, it appears that population ageing is one of the most important and challenging issues in this millennium. It may be inferred that in this country, the ageing process has been largely influenced by the socio-economic development of the society. But the problems require serious thinking on the part of the government and the civil society. Unless we find proper answers and solutions to mitigate such problems like population ageing, the large sections of the aged population in this country will face more hardships both economically and socially. To address this problem we will expect the government to rise and mould its economic policies in a more planned manner and offer enough relief and social security to the aged population in India. On the part of the civil society it is expected that more awareness will be generated with regards to the problems of the gerons and a special emphasis need to be stressed upon to address the adverse gender inequality in terms of the female aged.


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Indian Journal of Gerontology

2008, Vol. 22, No. 1. pp 107 -118

Working and Non-working Rural and Urban Elderly: Subjective Well being and Quality of Life

Sunil K. Verma

Department of Psychology

University of Allahabad


The present study is an attempt to explore the experience of subjective well being and quality of life among working and Non-working elderly across rural and urban settings. The measures used in this study were P.G.I. health questionnaire, Satisfaction with life scale and Quality of life scale. Results show that elderly of this study have low levels of health problems. Elderly are more satisfied with future and experience better quality of life. Rural elderly showed more physical health problems compared to urban elderly. On the other hand urban elderly were more satisfied with past. Rural elderly showed more satisfaction with future. Urban elderly experience more independence, better social relations, environment and total quality of life in comparison to rural elderly. No significant differences were, however, found for working and Non-working elderly.
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