1. Alterations of Intra and Extra Mitochondrial Enzyme in the Muscle Fibersof Rat Hind Limbs: Role of Exercise




Название1. Alterations of Intra and Extra Mitochondrial Enzyme in the Muscle Fibersof Rat Hind Limbs: Role of Exercise
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Method


The study was carried out in Osun State in the Southwestern Nigeria. The respondents were former workers in the private sector, the Military and the para-Military, such as the Police and the Customs Services, Research Institutes, Federal Ministries and Parastatals, Teaching, Local Government and the Civil Services of Osun, Ondo, Ogun and Lagos States (four of six states in the region).

The 954 retirees were selected purposively and through systematic sampling techniques because of the following reasons:

The retirees were heterogeneous and were spread all over the state, thereby necessitating the use of the techniques. There was also no reliable sampling frame; offices worked on estimates because of inaccurate data of the actual population of the pensioners. The pensioners were lumped together irrespective of their cadres, thereby making stratification difficult. The study only covered retirees with associations, which could provide information on members.

Structured questionnaire was used in eliciting information from the respondents and the analysis was largely descriptive.

The culture of the people calls for an investigation into whether the actual sources of assistance to the retirees were really their desired sources of help. If not, how does the network of support affect morale?

Findings


The study found a preponderance of male retirees over the female retirees. Male retirees constituted 80.2 percent of the retirees and this might be a result of unwillingness of parents in the past to educate a girl-child.

The majority of the retirees were also Christians accounting for 81.2 percent and others were Muslims. This was probably responsible for the majority being monogamists, 79.5 percent.

Even as the retirees who could be described as young and middle-aged retirees, 40-59 years, constituted 49.1 percent, they were still considered relevant because, age notwithstanding, retirement is always a period of increased disabilities. Their inclusion also allowed for variations in needs and adjustment capabilities.

In all, 49.7 percent had children who have been working, ranging from one to ten; hence the question on whether children assisted them could be asked. Even as retirees, a little below 40 percent still had children in schools and among the retirees themselves, only 7 percent did not have formal education. The illiteracy level would have been higher if the study were to be conducted either in the North or the East of the country. More so, the Fredman test to evaluate the need preferences of the retirees revealed that the retirees preferred economic independence of children to adequate retirement income. This definitely portrays how important children’s education and economic independence were to the retirees and the importance of assessing return of support to needy parents.

Table 1 : Table showing the coping mechanisms of the respondents

Coping mechanisms Percentages


Reliance on proceeds from personal trading 33.1

Assistance from appeals made to friends 16.0

Assistance from appeals to children and/or other relations 7.2

Reliance on farm proceeds 6.6

Assistance from spouse 0.6

Reliance on retirement entitlement 37.5

Total 100.0


Source: Author’s fieldwork October 2005 – March 2006


The table presented first the order of dependence on sources of aid for the retirees about whom retirement entitlements could be said to be inadequate. It reveals that personal trading was of assistance to greater percentage of the retirees who supplemented retirement incomes with other things. If personal efforts would be considered altogether, yields from farming and trading constituted 39.7 percent.

Future Implications of Findings


Lessons to be drawn from the findings are many; but the earlier discussions have highlighted reasons for the incapability of children, or other family members to be atop the sources of assistance for the retirees.

The findings have revealed a shift from one principle of living among the Yorubas to another. In the earlier times, children were not allowing their aged, needy parents to suffer hunger or any form of neglect such that the expression: bí òkété bá dàgbà tán, o?mún o?mo? rè? ni ó n? mún, that literally means that: rodents feed on the teat of the children in old age became a popular saying. This has become cliché and changing to: àte?le?wó? e?ni nìkan ni kì í tan ni je?, meaning: only the reliance on personal handiwork/efforts does not fail. The greater reliance on personal trading and farming can then be explained by the latter guiding principle of living.

Another implication is that if children are not forthcoming in times of help, parents may want to de-emphasise great investment in them so as not to have vain hope of security in times of needs. Instead, they will prefer to invest in friends, religious associations and other outside associations, where assistance will seem forthcoming.

This inference is made drawing from one of the assumptions of Homans (1974), the first proponent of exchange theory. The first of Homans’ Aggression – Approval propositions states that:

when a person’s action does not receive the reward he expected, he will be angry; he becomes more likely to perform aggressive behaviour, and the results of such behaviour become more valuable to him.

Since the concept of reciprocity is so vital in explaining networks of care and support relationship, how much encouragement will the retirees with probable records of losses in their ventures on children, give to other parents to give good nurture and education to children? Even, if the retirees are admitting fate, there is a popular Yoruba adage that Eni tí ó jìn sí kòtò máa n' kó ará yòókù lógbón, meaning, the mistakes of some teach others some good lessons; when a person falls into a ditch, others learn to open their eyes well as they walk.

George Homans’ proposition helps to infer a possibility that if it were to be a longitudinal study where the retirees could still be asked whether they would be prepared to spend so much money on the education of their children, there would definitely be a drop. When the love for education of children wanes, it portends great danger not only for the direct would be children but for the region of southwestern Nigeria, the entire country and possibly, the whole world.

There will be an increase in the rate of drop-outs from schools, juvenile delinquencies and alcoholism. Child labour, teenage pregnancies, pilfering trafficking in girls, prostitution, among others will also be accompanying problems of disinterest in the education of children in Southwestern Nigeria.

The region will also be losing out on its regional identity. The Southwestern part of Nigeria is one of the old three regions Nigeria was comprised of. And in the national relation and politics, the East is prominent for commerce, creativity and invention, the North, for extensive agriculture and the southwest, education. Each region is respected for what it is noted for in the politics of the country and if a region loses its relevance through loss of regional identity, its lots in politics will just be shared out.

This clearly shows that the relations of care, love and affection between parents and children are beyond moral issues but also developmental ones. Even in the absence of any statistical data, the Southwest can boast of accounting for fifty percent of literacy level in Nigeria; and when the region is affected, the pivotal roles of education will make the country’s developmental efforts a ruse. The following conclusions and recommendations are made to avert the possible danger.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Many studies in the past were parochial in nature focusing only on present situations without projecting into the future. The dearth of indigenous literature has also made reliance on foreign literatures inevitable. This usually has its weakness, as recommendations will be based, not on the peculiarity of home situation but on foreign realities.

The study recommended that the government can either enhance the saving capacity of workers through increased pay or empower children by reducing unemployment rate and this would improve upon the lot of retirees.

If possible also, the suggestion by justice Karibi-Whyte that property right be conferred on job holders to enjoy recourse to law if unlawfully deprived of job, or retrenched, should be given a trial to replace master – slave relations between job holders and employers.

Since begging for alms is a distasteful act in the Southwestern region, it is imperative, that the government and policy makers attend to the recommendations.

References

Adisa, A.L. (2000). Impact of changes in family relations on the care of the aged in Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Anthropological and Sociological Association (Special Edition), pp. 200-208.

Amann, A. (ed.) (1980). Open Care for the elderly in Seven European Countries. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Amoss, P. and Harrel, S. (1981). Other Ways of Growing Old. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Antonovsky, A. (1974). “Conceptual and methodological problems in the study of resistance resources and life stressful life events”. In B.S. Dohrenwend and B.P. Dohrenwend (eds.) Stressful Life Events: Their Nature and Effects. New York: Wiley.

Bussia, K.A. (1965). The Ashanti in African Worlds. Daryll Forde.

Coser, L. (1956). The Functions of Social Conflict. New York: Free Press.

Durkheim, E. (1893/1964). The Division of Labour in Societies. New York: Free Press.

Homans, G.C. (1974). Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. (Revised Edition), New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Quadagno, J. (1999). Aging and the Life Course: An Introduction to Social Gerontology?. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shahrani, M.N. (1981). Growing in respect: Aging among the Kirgiz of Afganistan. In P. Amoss and S. Harrel (eds.) Other Ways of Growing Old. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.


Indian Journal of Gerontology

2008, Vol. 22, No. 1. pp 53 -61


Age Related Loss of Hand Grip Strength Among Rural and Urban Brahmin Females


Maninder Kaur

Department of Home Science

Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India


Abstract


The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine age related loss of hand grip strength among rural and urban females, ranging in age from 40 to 70 years. Both the rural as well as urban Brahmin females show a decline in the mean values of grip strength (both right and left hand) with increasing age. Urban Brahmin females show statistically non-significant higher mean values of grip strength than their rural counterparts. Percentage magnitude of loss of hand grip strength ( both right and left hand ) is more among rural females than the urban Brahmin females. Right hand grip strength of rural and urban Brahmin females exhibit greater mean value than left hand grip strength.


Key Words: Hand grip strength, Rural–urban brahmin females, Muscle strength, Aging

Aging has a degenerative effect on hand function, including declines in hand and finger strength and ability to control submaximal pinch force and maintain a steady precision pinch posture, manual speed, and hand sensation. Hand grip strength is an important predictor of disability and mortality among elder people. The proportion of elder people in the world is growing. According to the official projections of the Registrar General, India in 2016 the elderly population is estimated to be 14 million, which will be approximately 8.9 percent of the total Indian population. Unfortunately there is still a paucity of studies that include older people in developing countries (WHO, 1995).

Numerous studies on grip strength with regard to post- operative complications and deaths (Klidjian et al., 1980; Guo et al., 1996), nutritional status (Vaz et al., 1996; Chilima and Ismail, 2001; Pieterse et al., 2002 ), functional ability (Jette et al., 1990; Hyatt et al.,1990; Proctor et al., 2006), physical performance (Samson et al., 2000; Onder et al., 2002), effect of hand dominance (Incel et al., 2002; Kamarul et al., 2006) have appeared, but there is a limited information regarding the rural and urban differences of this aspect among aged females. Hence, the primary goal of this study is to gauge the loss of hand grip strength among rural and urban Brahmin females.

Methods

The present cross-sectional study are based on a sample of 870 Brahmin females (rural = 450, urban = 420), ranging in age from 40 to 70 years. The data were collected in two phases from the year 1999 to 2001 from rural and urban areas of district Roop Nagar (Punjab). The subjects were selected at random. All the subjects were physically and mentally normal and were not suffering from any chronic disease at the time of data collection. Subjects with history of upper limb injury or deformity were excluded.

The data were arranged in six age groups, each of five years duration except the first age group , which is of six years duration for both rural and urban Brahmin females. Age in years had been obtained from the date of birth, which most of the urban females could recall; whereas in majority of rural females and some aged urban females age had to be ascertained by association with some important events like age at marriage, age of the first child, any important festival etc. With this cross-questioning, it was possible to ascertain nearly the correct age of the subject.

Hand grip strength (kg) was measured with Dynamometer. Subjects were encouraged to exert their maximal grip. They performed three grip tests with each hand. The best result was chosen for analysis. Student‘s t-test was used to find out the magnitude of rural and urban differences at all ages.


Results

Table 1 shows mean and s.d. values of grip strength for right hand. In rural females, mean values of grip strength of right hand at 40-45 years is 20.92 kg , with a net decline of 10.84 kg, when they reach the age of 66-70. In urban Brahmin females highest mean value of grip strength was observed at 40-45 years (21.20 kg) and minimum value was registered at 66-70 years (11.08 kg ). Urban females reveal higher mean values of right hand grip strength than their rural counterparts at all age groups, but it was statistically significant only at 51-55 years group. Percentage of loss was more among rural females (51.81%) as compared to the urban females (47.73 %).

Table 1: Grip strength (kg) of right hand against different age groups in rural and urban brahmin females.
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