Методические указания: профессиональный английский язык для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета




НазваниеМетодические указания: профессиональный английский язык для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета
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ЧАСТЬ 5 РАЗГОВОРНЫЕ ТЕМЫ

I. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMICS

                1. Translate the following expressions into Russian.

Gross national product, needs, society, nation, economy, to regulate, to
deregulate, to strengthen, involvement, significance, consumer, rationale, concern,
mode, private, enterprise, government, facilities, passenger, freight, networks,
vehicles, subfield, tolls, tax, policy, traffic, field, movement, infrastructure, triad,
node, terminal, waterways, canals.

                1. Read the text with a dictionary.

Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from
one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans ("across") and
portare ("to carry").

The field of transport has several aspects: loosely they can be divided into a
triad of infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure includes the transport
networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.) that are
used, as well as the nodes or terminals (such as airports, railway stations, bus
stations and seaports). The vehicles generally ride on the networks, such as
automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, airplanes. The operations deal with the control
of the system, such as traffic signals, air traffic control, etc, as well as policies,
such as how to finance the system (for example, the use of tolls or gasoline taxes).

Broadly speaking, the design of networks is the domain of civil engineering
and urban planning. The design of vehicles of mechanical engineering and
specialized subfields such as nautical engineering and aerospace engineering, and
the operations are usually specialized, though might appropriately belong to
operations research or systems engineering.

Modes of transport

Modes are combinations of networks, vehicles, and operations, and include
walking, the road transport system, rail transport, ship transport and modern
aviation.

                1. Answer the questions:

                  1. What is transportation?

                  2. What aspects does the field of transport have?

                  3. What does infrastructure include?

31




  1. Where do the vehicles generally ride on?

  2. What do the operations deal with?

  3. What are modes?

4. Compare transport modes in the World

Worldwide, the most widely used modes for passenger transport are the
Automobile (16,000 bn passenger km), followed by Buses (7,000), Air (2,800),
Railways (1,900), and Urban Rail (250).

The most widely used modes for freight transport are Sea (40,000 bn ton
km), followed by Road (7,000), Railways (6,500), Oil pipelines (2,000) and Inland
Navigation (1,500).




EU 15 USA Japan World

GDP(PPP) per capita (€)

19,000

28,600

22,300

5,500

Passenger km per capita




Private Car

10,100

22,700

6,200

2,700

Bus/ Coach

1,050

870

740

1,200

Railway

750

78

2,900

320

5. Read the text with a dictionary.

Transportation economics is the study of the allocation of transportation
resources in order to meet the needs of a society. In a macroeconomic sense,
transportation activities form a portion of a nation's total economic product and
play a role in building or strengthening a national or regional economy and as an
influence in the development of land and other resources. In a microeconomic
sense, transportation involves relations between firms and individual consumers.
The demand for and supply of transportation for both passengers and freight,
transportation pricing, and the reasons why the transportation system is both
regulated and deregulated are among its concerns. Finally, the government's
involvement in each mode of transportation differs. In some instances private
enterprise is used; in others, government provides the facilities and equipment,
especially if the rationale for government involvement is that a strong transportation
system is necessary for developing the nation's economy or for its defense.

32

Government's involvement in transportation has both a macro- and a
microeconomic significance.

Answer the questions:

  1. What is transportation economics?

  2. What does transportation involve in a macroeconomic sense?

  3. What does transportation involve in a microeconomic sense?

  4. What are the concerns of microeconomics?

  5. Is the government's involvement in each mode of transport the same?

    1. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an
      annotation.


Экономика транспорта как часть общей экономической системы стра-
ны определяется совокупностью заданных системных объектов, их свойств
и взаимосвязей. Под совокупностью системных объектов в данном случае
следует понимать вход, процесс, выход, цель, обратную связь и ограниче-
ния.

Вход экономической системы транспортной отрасли характеризуется
материально-технической базой транспортных предприятий, трудовыми ре-
сурсами, технологическими способами перевозки и перегрузки грузов и т. п.

Выход экономической системы - это удовлетворение потребностей хо-
зяйства в перевозках грузов и пассажиров. Процесс экономической системы
- осуществление перевозок грузов и пассажиров, перегрузочных работ,
обслуживание транспортных и перегрузочных средств, обеспечение движе-
ния транспорта, взаимоотношения с клиентурой и т. п.

II. MACROECONOMICS OF TRANSPORTATION

      1. Translate the following expressions into Russian.

To facilitate, internal, improvement, growth, development, communication,
commerce, ties, to reach markets, merchandise, service, a fertile ground, inventor,
innovator, entrepreneur, investor, to trade, production process, site, to sell, to
exchange, perishable foods, a producer, quantity, output, economies of scale,
competitive, to widen, opportunity, supplier, buyer.

      1. Read the text with a dictionary.

33


Transportation's role in strengthening the economy

        1. Transportation facilitates communication and commerce. Alexander
          Hamilton, secretary of the Treasury in the 1790s, believed that internal
          improvements were necessary for the nation's economic growth. The word
          "infrastructure" is used to describe all the facilities that an economy has in place,
          including its transportation network of roadways, railroad tracks, and ports, as
          well as the vehicles and vessels to use them. An adequate infrastructure is a
          prerequisite to economic development. Transportation and communications are
          important in developing and strengthening social, political, and commercial ties.
          These ties must be developed before trade can be handled on a regular basis.
          Transportation also is necessary for goods to reach markets where they can be
          sold or exchanged for other merchandise or services. Transportation undertakings
          have proved to be a fertile ground for inventors, innovators, entrepreneurs, and
          their supporting investors.

        2. Transportation allows each geographic area to produce whatever it does
          best and then to trade its product with others. It is also possible to use transportation
          to link together a number of different steps in the production process, each occurring
          at a different geographic site. Speedy modes of transportation (such as air) allow
          perishable foods to be distributed to wider market areas. Transportation also allows
          workers to reach their job sites. Lastly, because of transportation, it is possible for
          a producer to reach a large number of markets. This means that the quantity of
          output can be large enough that significant production economies of scale will
          result.

        3. A transportation network makes markets more competitive. Economists
          often study resource allocation—that is, how specific goods and services are used.
          A transportation system improves the allocation process because it widens the
          number of opportunities for suppliers and buyers.

3. Answer the questions:

          1. What does the word infrastructure describe?

          2. Does transportation develop and strengthen social, commercial and
            political ties?

          3. Why is it necessary?

          4. What are the benefits of transportation?

          5. What does transportation system do?

4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an
annotation.


34




Gross national product (GNP) expresses a nation's total economic activities,
of which transportation forms a part. In the late 20th century in the United States,
between 17 and 18 percent, or about one-sixth, is associated with transportation.
The figure can be broken down into passenger and freight transportation. About
11 percent of GNP is accounted for by movement of people and about 6 percent
by movement of freight. More than four-fifths of expenditures for movement of
people in the United States are associated with the private automobile—its purchase,
operation, and maintenance. About one-tenth of the expenditure on intercity travel
is for travel by air; the remaining tenth is spent for rail, taxi, transit bus, and school
bus. The vast majority (four-fifths) of money spent for intercity movement of freight
goes to highway carriers; rails receive only about one-tenth, and the remainder is
divided between air, water, and pipeline. It should be noted that more than four-
fifths of the expenditures for both personal and freight intercity transportation
goes to highway users. In economic terms, this represents by far the most important
segment of transportation in the United States. At one time, railroads were the
most important, but their role has steadily declined since World War I.

III. MICROECONOMICS OF TRANSPORTATION

            1. Translate the following expressions into Russian.

Provision, capacity, load, to tend, to obscure, perspective, public, private,
boundary, to include, to exclude, accounting, analysis, to supply, size, range, to
provide, to carry out, safety, defense, mix, entities, profit, to support, profitable,
subsidization schemes, hazardous materials, to detect, controversial, matter, to
limit, length, weight, axle spacings, to own, to restrict, carrier, to capture, treaty,
fare, liner, rate, to charge, route, value, shipper, carriage, an aggregate, cost.

            1. Read the text with a dictionary.

              1. Transport can be considered in the economic terms of'supply' or provision
                of service, and 'demand' or requirement for service. In engineering terms these
                are 'capacity' and 'load'. Demand is often referred to as 'need' which the 'elasticity'
                of price and time associated with a traffic load.

              2. Transportation can be analyzed from either a 'public' or society
                perspective, or from a 'private' localized set of rules. Each transport system and
                activity exists from several perspectives. Generally the perspective determines
                where the between what should be included and what can be excluded from an
                accounting or analysis. Transportation is supplied by individual firms of all sizes
                and by government agencies. The range of government involvement differs by

35




type, or mode, of transportation and the geographic or political areas of jurisdiction.
Governments are involved in providing transportation because it is necessary for
economic development, for carrying out certain other functions of government
(such as public safety or making it easier for individuals to reach schools or
hospitals), and for national defense. So, in the supply of transportation services, a
mix of public and private entities is usual. Private firms are responsive in situations
where there is a profit to be made. If the market will not support profitable operators,
a variety of government subsidization schemes are used.

              1. In addition to economic regulation, all levels of government regulate
                transportation safety and movements of hazardous materials. Testing transportation
                operators to detect possible drug use is a controversial matter. States also limit the
                lengths, weights, and axle spacings of heavy trucks.

              2. Economic regulation is handled differently in various other countries. A
                common pattern is for the government to own the railroads and airlines and to
                restrict other carriers if they appear to be capturing traffic from the government
                operations. International airline operations and services are regulated by strict
                treaties between the nations exchanging airline service. Actual fares are established
                by the International Air Transport Association (IATA), a cartel (or organization)
                of all the world's air carriers. Cartels known as conferences also regulate the by
                ocean liners that carry cargo on a regular basis. Each conference is made up of
                member lines that serve certain routes, say, between U.S. gulf ports and ports
                along the Baltic.

3. Answer the questions:

                1. How can transport be considered?

                2. What does the perspective determine?

                3. How is transportation supplied?

                4. Why are governments involved in providing transportation?

                5. When are private firms responsive?

                6. What is a cartel?

                7. What do they do?

4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an
annotation.


Demand for freight transportation is generally a function of demand for a
product. A simple definition of demand for freight transportation is that it reflects
the difference between a commodity's value in two different markets. Freight is
time-sensitive. Fresh seafood is perishable; newspapers must be delivered promptly.

36




Shippers have money invested in inventory and often want to use faster modes of
transportation to reduce the amount of time they must wait for payment.

For some goods, the cost of transportation is nearly the same as the cost of
the product, and it thus influences demand for both the product and its carriage.
Steel-mill slag (a by-product of the steel-making process) has almost no market
value, and sometimes steel mills must pay to have it carried away. It can be used as
an aggregate in concrete but competes with other materials, such as sand, which
are very low in cost. Many recycled products also have almost no market value,
and transportation costs become the major factor viewed by those who may want
to buy the recycled products for some subsequent use.

37


ЧАСТЬ 6 ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ И ПЕРЕВОДА

Economics

No one has ever succeeded in neatly defining the scope of economics.
Economists used to say, with Alfred Marshall, the great English economist, that
economics is "a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life; it examines that
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