Методические указания: профессиональный английский язык для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета




НазваниеМетодические указания: профессиональный английский язык для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета
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ТипМетодические указания
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9
часть сказуемого;
обстоятельство.

        1. The exam results were disappointed.

        2. Certain kinds of "silent language" that convey revealing information to
          other people give one particular message in one culture but a conflicting message
          in another culture.

        3. Being unable to help her, I gave her some money.

        4. Who is the man talking to Elizabeth?

        5. Most of the people invited to the party didn't turn up.

2. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, об-
ращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий.


Образец: the above mentioned point — выше упомянутый пункт.

9




A fire-breathing dragon, a show-stopping finale, a shifty -eyed criminal, a
sharp-tongued woman, a trend-setting phenomenon.

          1. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, исполь-
            зуя союз that
            .

Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much.

          1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

Marginalism

            1. In marginalist economic theory, the price level is determined by the
              marginal cost and marginal utility. The price of all goods will be the cost of making
              the last one that people will purchase. The price of all the employees in a company
              will be the cost of hiring the last one the business needs. Marginalism looks at
              decisions based on "the margins", what the cost to produce the next unit is, versus
              how much it is expected to return in profit. When the marginal return of an action
              reaches zero, the action stops. Marginal utility is how much more happiness or use
              a person receives from a purchase in contrast with buying less. Marginal rewards
              are often subject to diminishing returns: Less reward is obtained from more
              production or consumption. For example, the 10th bar of chocolate that a person
              consumes does not taste as good as the first, and so brings less marginal utility.

            2. Marginalism became increasingly important in economic theory in the
              late 19th century, and is a tool which is used to analyze how economic systems
              will react. Marginal cost of production divides costs into "fixed" costs which must
              be paid regardless of how many of a commodity are produced, and "Variable costs".
              The marginal cost is the variable cost of the last unit. Marginalism states that when
              the profit from the next unit will be zero, that unit will not be produced. This is
              often termed the marginal revolution in economic thought. The marginalist theory
              of price level runs counter to the classical theory of price being determined by the
              amount of labor congealed in a commodity.

          1. Перепишите и письменно переведите § 1 текста.

          2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

          3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

10


ВАРИАНТ3

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский
язык и определите функцию причастия в предложении:


определение;
часть сказуемого;
обстоятельство.


            1. Most students are interested in Grammar.

            2. "Conversation bubble" is the amount of physical distance maintained
              between people engaged in different kinds of conversations.

            3. Not wishing to continue my studies, I decided to become a hair dresser.

            4. She was crying when I saw her,

5. I found him sitting at a table covered with papers.

              1. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, об-
                ращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий.


Образец; the above mentioned point — выше упомянутый пункт.

A death-defying stunt, a mind -boggling fact, a much-visited attraction, a
well-known grammar book, a fox-hunting man.

              1. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, используя
                союз that.

Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much.

              1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

Price

1. In order to measure the ebb and flow of supply and demand, a measurable
value is needed. The oldest and most commonly used is price, or the going rate of
exchange between buyers and sellers in a market. Price theory charts the movement
of measurable quantities over time, and the relationship between price and other
measurable variables. In Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, this was the trade-off
between price and convenience. A great deal of economic theory is based around
prices and the theory of supply and demand. In economic theory, the most efficient
form of communication comes about when changes to an economy occur through
price, such as when an increase in supply leads to a lower price, or an increase in
demand leads to a higher price.

11




                1. Exchange rates are determined by the relative supply and demand of
                  different currencies — an important issue in international trade. In many practical
                  economic models, some form of "price stickiness" is incorporated to model the
                  fact that prices do not move fluidly in many markets. Economic policy often
                  revolves around arguments about the cause of "economic friction", or price
                  stickiness, and which is preventing the supply and demand from reaching
                  equilibrium.

                2. Another area of economic controversy is about whether price measures
                  the value of a good correctly. In mainstream market economics there are significant
                  scarcities not factored into price. There is said to be an externalization, which is a
                  cost or benefit to actors other than the buyer and seller, of which many examples
                  exist, including pollution (a cost to others) and education (a benefit to others).
                  Market economics predicts that scarce goods which are under-priced because of
                  externalities are over-consumed. Scarce goods that are over-priced are under-
                  consumed. This leads into public goods theory. Governments often tax and restrict
                  the sale of goods that have negative externalities and subsidize or promote the
                  purchase of goods that have positive externalities in an effort to correct the distortion
                  in price caused by these externalities.

              1. Перепишите и письменно переведите §1,2 текста.

              2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

              3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

ВАРИАНТ4

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский
язык и определите функцию причастия в предложении:


определение;
часть сказуемого;
обстоятельство.


  1. The snack was quite satisfied.

  2. Seriously depressed individuals actually have more easily compromised
    immune system than people who are not suffering from depression.

  3. Used economically, one tin will last for six weeks.

  4. This time tomorrow I will be lying on the beach.

  5. Rescues are still working in the ruins of the collapsed hotel.

12




    1. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, об-
      ращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий.


Образец: the above mentioned point - выше упомянутый пункт.

A weight-reducing machine, face-saving maneuver, a store-bought cake, a
handmade sweater, English-speaking Canadians.

    1. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, исполь-
      зуя союз that
      .

Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much.

    1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

Opportunity cost

      1. Although opportunity cost can be hard to quantify, the effect of opportunity
        cost is universal and very real on the individual level. In fact, this principle applies
        to all decisions, not just economic ones. Since the work of the Austrian economist
        Friedrich von Wieser, opportunity cost has been seen as the foundation of the
        marginal theory of value.

      2. Opportunity cost is one way to measure the cost of something. Rather
        than merely identifying and adding the costs of a project, one may also identify
        the next best alternative way to spend the same amount of money. The forgone
        profit of this next best alternative is the opportunity cost of the original choice. A
        common example is a farmer that chooses to farm his land rather than rent it to
        neighbors, wherein the opportunity cost is the forgone profit from renting. Similarly,
        the opportunity cost of attending university is the lost wages a student could have
        earned in the workforce, rather than the cost of tuition, books, and other requisite
        items (whose sum makes up the total cost of attendance).

      3. Note that opportunity cost is not the sum of the available alternatives, but
        rather the benefit of the single, best alternative. Possible opportunity costs of the
        city's decision to build the hospital on its vacant land are the loss of the land for a
        sporting center, or the inability to use the land for a parking lot, or the money that
        could have been made from selling the land, or the loss of any of the various other
        possible uses—but not all of these in aggregate. One question that arises here is
        how to assess the benefit of dissimilar alternatives. We must determine a dollar
        value associated with each alternative to facilitate comparison and assess
        opportunity cost, which may be more or less difficult depending on the things we
        are trying to compare. For example, many decisions involve environmental impacts
        whose dollar value is difficult to assess because of scientific uncertainty. Valuing

13




a human life or the economic impact of an Arctic oil spill involves making subjective
choices with ethical implications.

    1. Перепишите и письменно переведите §1,2 текста.

    2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

    3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

ВАРИАНТ5

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский
язык и определите функцию причастия в предложении:


определение;

часть сказуемого;
обстоятельство.


      1. People were depressed by the news.

      2. Having failed my medical exams, I took up teaching.

      3. The window was broken in the storm.

      4. He came the first runner, closely followed by the second.

      5. The man speaking to John (not the man dancing in the corner or the man
        standing by the punch) told him some shocking information.

        1. Перепишите следующие словосочетания и переведите их, об-
          ращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык причастий.


Образец: the above mentioned point — выше упомянутый пункт.

A belt-tightening economic policy, a fast-disappearing custom, a well-trained
employee, a male-dominated society, quick-growing trees.

        1. Образуйте предложения со словосочетаниями из упр.2, исполь-
          зуя союз that
          .

Образец: a much loved story - a story that is loved much.

        1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

1. The theory of supply and demand usually assumes that markets are perfectly
competitive. There are many buyers and sellers in the market and none of them
have the capacity to significantly influence prices of goods and services. In many

14




real-life transactions, the assumption fails because some individual buyers or sellers
or groups of buyers or sellers do have the ability to influence prices. Quite often a
sophisticated analysis is required to understand the demand-supply equation of a
good. However, the theory works well in simple situations.

          1. Mainstream economics does not assume a priori that markets are preferable
            to other forms of social organization. In fact, much analysis is devoted to cases
            where so-called market failures lead to resource allocation that is suboptimal by
            some standard (highways are the classic example, profitable to all for use but not
            directly profitable for anyone to finance). In such cases, economists may attempt
            to find policies that will avoid waste directly by government control, indirectly by
            regulation that induces market participants to act in a manner consistent with optimal
            welfare, or by creating "missing markets" to enable efficient trading where none
            had previously existed. This is studied in the field of collective action. It also must
            be noted that "optimal welfare" usually takes on a Paretian norm. This norm in its
            mathematical application of Kaldor-Hicks method, does not stay consistent with
            the Utilitarian norm within the normative side of economics (which studies
            collective action, namely public choice). Market failure in positive economics
            (microeconomics) is limited in implications without mixing the belief of the
            economist and his or her theory.

          2. The demand for various commodities by individuals is generally thought
            of as the outcome of a utility-maximizing process. The interpretation of this
            relationship between price and quantity demanded of a given good is that, given
            all the other goods and constraints, this set of choices is that one which makes the
            consumer happiest.

        1. Перепишите и письменно переведите § 2 текста.

        2. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию.

        3. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

15


ЧАСТЬ 3 РАЗГОВОРНЫЕ ТЕМЫ

3.1 ECONOMICS

  1. Translate the following expressions into Russian:

Goods, services, to pro-duce, limited, quantity, resources, labor, land, scarce,
raw materials, de-sires, to satisfy, production, distribution, consumption,
microeconomics, macroeconomics, positive economics, normative economics,
economic, choice, decisions, to invest, to manufacture, to hire, to charge, to spend,
to raise, tax, to borrow, value, supply, demand, price, scarcity, marginalism.

  1. Read the text and translate paragraph 2,3.

    1. Every society must solve three basic problems every day:

What goods and services should be produced and in what amounts?

How should those goods and services be produced?

For whom should the goods and services be pro-duced?

What, how, and for whom to produce are universal problems. Human wants
are practically un-limited, but all societies have only limited quantities of resources
that can be used to produce goods or services. (Productive resources include labor,
land, buildings, ma-chinery, and raw materials.) If resources were not scarce, we
could all have everything we ever wanted: continuous vacations, fine paintings,
fast sports cars, elegant fur coats, or whatever else our dreams are made of.

    1. The central economic problem is the conflict between people's essentially
      unlimited de-sires for goods and services and the limited resources that can be
      used to satisfy those desires.

Economics is the study of how societies with limited, scarce resources

decide what gets produced, how, and for whom.

    1. Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution,
      and consumption of goods and services. The term economics is dated from the
      publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776. Smith referred to the
      subject as 'political economy', but that term was replaced by 'economics' after
      1870.

Areas of economics may be divided or classified in various ways, including:

  • microeconomics and macroeconomics

  • positive economics ("what is") and normative economics ("what ought to

be")

16




- fields and broader categories within economics.

The core concepts of economics are value, supply, demand, price, scarcity,
marginalism.



The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a
balance between product availability and demand. The graph depicts a right-
shift in demand from D
1 to D2 along with the consequent increase in price and
quantity required to reach a new equilibrium point on the supply curve (S).


3. Answer the questions:

  1. What are three basic problems of the society?

  2. Why are they universal?

  3. What would happen if resources were not scarce?

  4. What is the central economic problem?

  5. What is economics?

  6. When is the term economics dated?

  7. How did Smith refer to the subject?

  8. What are the areas of economics?

  9. What are the core concepts of economics?

4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an
annotation.


17

The great nineteenth-century English economist Al-fred Marshall (1842-
1924) described economics as "the study of mankind in the ordinary business of
life." This description reflects the fact that economic choices are so common that
often we do not notice that we are making them virtually every minute. You decide
how best to use your scarce time. Economic choices are decisions about how to
use scarce resources to satisfy people's wants and desires. For instance, you choose
between work, play, and sleep. If you choose to work, you still have to decide
whether to go to class, read a textbook, or do a problem. If you choose to go
shopping, you may have to decide between an expensive pair of shoes on the one
hand and an inexpensive pair but a larger bank account on the other.

Businesses and governments also make economic choices every day. A farmer
must decide when and what to plant and how much to invest in new machinery.
General Motors must decide which cars to manufacture, how many of each to
produce, whether to invest in robots or hire more workers, whether to produce
here or abroad, and how much to charge for the cars. The gov-emment must choose
how much to spend on education, defense, research, and many other programs;
how much to raise in taxes of various kinds; and how much to borrow. These
choices all arise because resources are scarce.

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