The Statewide Independent Living Council of Illinois




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The Statewide Independent Living Council of Illinois


When You Go Visiting &

Invite the Company Home!


Center for Independent Living:

Outreach Planning Manual



“When You Go Visiting & Invite the Company Home!”

Center for Independent Living: Outreach Planning Manual


Table of Contents:


Acknowledgments & Funding: .............................................................Page -2-


Preface: ................................................................................................Page -3-


Purpose: ...............................................................................................Page -6-


Who Should Use This Manual?: ..........................................................Page -6-


Terms Used In This Manual: ...............................................................Page -7-


The Independent Living and Civil Rights Movements: ........................Page -9-


Five (5) Elements of Effective Outreach: ..........................................Page -19-


I. Identifying the Unserved and Underserved: ..................Page -20-


II. Understanding Cultures and Needs: ...............................Page -24-


III. Marketing and Public Relations: ....................................Page -27-


IV. Staff and Board Outreach Planning: ..............................Page -31-


V. Eliminating Service Barriers: .........................................Page -32-


Implementation and Evaluation: .......................................................Page -34-


References: ..........................................................................................Page -37-


Acknowledgments:


The Statewide Independent Living Council of Illinois would like to acknowledge the following individuals who were involved in the development of this manual:

Matt Abrahamson, Concie Aramburu, Anthony Arellano,

Lori Clark, Tara D. Dunning, John M. Eckert,

Mike Egbert, William Fielding, Linda Foley,

Ann Ford, Edwin Gonzalez, Ceceilia Haasas,

Catherine Holland, Sue Johnson-Smith, Gail Kear,

Elizabeth Miller, Violet Nast, Kyle Packer,

Gary Paruszkiewicz, Burton D. Pusch, Juliana Recio,

Sue Riddle, Fran Sager, Elizabeth Sherwin,

Shirley Thomas, Randy Wells, Sharon White,

Ken Williams, Paul Zaragoza.


Special thanks go to the following individuals who have seen this project through to the end, and were the initial trainers in 1998:


Ken Williams, Elizabeth Sherwin, Catherine Holland,

William Fielding, Lori Clark.


Funding:


Funding for this manual and for the initial Illinois training were allocated through the Rehabilitation Services Administration: Title VII-B (Illinois Department of Human Services; Office of Rehabilitation Services [Statewide Independent Living Council of Illinois; Capacity Development Grant #98-54-11-001R]).


Preface:


Statewide Independent Living Council of Illinois Study:


The 1995 Illinois Independent Living Services Capacity/Needs Assessment commissioned by the Statewide Independent Living Council of Illinois (SILC) indicated that Illinois Centers for Independent Living (CILs) are often under-funded and overwhelmed with community demands on their resources and time. In addition, CILs reported only nominal success using formally structured outreach plans. Most CILs rely on their networks with local organizations and their work with local consumers to keep them up-to-date on the needs of their communities. Many CILs indicated they would like information on how to maximize the effectiveness of their outreach efforts to unserved and underserved populations in their service delivery area.


The need to increase outreach was identified by the 1995 SILC study and was included as part of the Illinois State Plan for Independent Living Services and Centers for Independent Living: 1996-1998 (SPIL). Members of SILC voted to develop an Outreach Planning Manual that would help Illinois CILs increase the effectiveness of their outreach activities. This manual will provide CILs with the basic information necessary in developing, implementing, and evaluating outreach efforts.


1992 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act:


A Rehabilitation Act finding supports the need to promote outreach. In Section 21 of the 1992 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Congress found that:

Changing Racial Profile:


“The racial profile of America is rapidly changing. While the rate of increase for white Americans is 3.2 percent, the rate of increase for racial and ethnic minorities is much higher: 38.6 percent for Latinos, 14.6 percent for African-Americans, and 40.1 percent for Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. By the year 2000, the Nation will have 260,000,000 people, one of every three of whom will be either African-American, Asian-American or Latino.”


Rate of Disability:


“Ethnic and racial minorities tend to have disabling conditions at a disproportionately higher rate. The work-related disability for American Indians is about one and one half times that of the general population. African-Americans are also one and one half times more likely to be disabled than whites and twice as likely to be severely disabled.”


Inequitable Treatment:


“Patterns of inequitable treatment of minorities have been documented in all major junctures of the vocational rehabilitation process. As compared to white Americans, a larger percentage of African-American applicants to the vocational rehabilitation system are denied acceptance. Of applicants accepted for service, a larger percentage of African-American cases are closed without being rehabilitated. Minorities are provided less training than their white counter parts. Consistently, less money is spent on minorities than their white counter parts.”


Title VII- CIL Requirement:


“In awarding grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under titles I, II, III, VI, VII, and VIII, and section 509, the [Rehabilitation Services Administration] Commissioner and the Director of the National Institute on Disability and Research, where appropriate, shall require applicants to demonstrate how they

will address, in whole or in part, the needs of individuals from minority backgrounds.”


SILC Outreach Committee:


In the summer of 1996, the SILC Outreach Committee put together an ad-hoc work group composed of staff from Illinois CILs and statewide minority organizations to develop an Outreach Planning Manual. During 1996 and 1997, the work group met on numerous occasions, and via conference calls, to develop a comprehensive document that will help CILs implement outreach activities to reach unserved and underserved populations in their service area. In 1998, a handful of original participants developed regional CIL training and made final changes to this manual.


Purpose:


The purpose of this manual is to give Center for Independent Living (CIL) staff and boards ideas on how they might develop, implement and evaluate effective outreach efforts. It has been designed to be flexible in order to meet the unique needs of each CIL and the many neighborhoods and communities in their service area. It is the intention of the SILC Outreach Committee to provide a manual that covers a comprehensive range in which each CIL will find information that is helpful to improving their local outreach efforts. The manual will help CILs tailor their outreach activities to met the needs of their community.


Who Should Use This Manual?:


This manual is intended to provide useful information for staff members as well as board members by providing ideas and examples of how CILs can enhance their ability to reach unserved and underserved populations. With increasing state and federal emphasis on outcomes, this document will assist CILs in developing an outreach plan that can be applied. This manual will help to increase the likelihood that CIL board composition and consumer service demographics will reflect their service area. This manual is meant to be a tool to help CILs work smarter, not harder.


Terms used in this Manual:


1. Traditionally Unserved and Underserved Populations:


In your service area this might include one or more of the following:


Age:

Both seniors and children.


Gender:

Males and females tend to be equally unrepresented.

Racial and Ethnic:

African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans.

Disability:

Persons with hearing, visual, cognitive, developmental, psychological disabilities, and multiple chemical sensitivities.


Institutions:

Persons who live in developmental disability institutions, nursing facilities, group homes, retirement communities, rehabilitation units, hospice and other congregate settings.


Socio-economic status:

Persons living in economically depressed areas.


Geography:

Most of Illinois is rural. Many rural areas do not have a Center for Independent Living. In addition, statistics indicate that 74 percent of the individuals currently receiving direct services by an existing CIL, are people who live in the county where their CIL is located.



Other groups:

Some unserved and underserved groups may have a higher than average representation in a service area. For example, persons in rehabilitation facilities, workshops, and persons in retirement communities.


The demographic and geographic profile of each Center for Independent Living will be unique. The potential population of persons who could benefit from CIL services and activities can be complex because individuals and their families may fall into one or more of the demographic and geographic categories cited above.


2. Ethnic Groups:

Of or relating to large groups of people classed according to common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, cultural origin or background.

3. Bicultural:


Someone who is of two cultures, as well as, may have the ability to read and/or speak two languages.


4. Latino:


Anyone whose ancestry derives from a Latin country (e.g., Mexico, Puerto Rico, Columbia, Brazil).


5. National Disability Organizations:

Independent Living Research Utilization Project (ILRU).

National Council on Independent Living (NCIL).

National Council on Disability (NCD).

National Center for Latinos with Disabilities (NCLD).




The History of Independent Living [and Civil Rights Movements]:


Gina McDonald and Mike Oxford

(reprinted with permission)


This account of the history of independent living stems from a philosophy which states that people with disabilities should have the same civil rights, options, and control over choices in their own lives as do people without disabilities.


The history of independent living is closely tied to the civil rights struggles of the 1950s and 1960s among African Americans. Basic issues-- disgraceful treatment based on bigotry and erroneous stereotypes in housing, education, transportation, and employment-- and the strategies and tactics are very similar. This history and its driving philosophy also have much in common with other political and social movements of the country in the late 1960s and early 1970s. There were at least five movements that influenced the disability rights movement.


Social Movements


The first social movement was deinstitutionalization, an attempt to move people, primarily those with developmental disabilities, out of institutions and back into their home communities. This movement was led by providers and parents of people with developmental disabilities and was based on the principle of “normalization” developed by Wolf Wolfensberger, a sociologist from Canada. His theory was that people with developmental disabilities should live in the most “normal” setting as possible if they were to expected to behave “normally.” Other changes occurred in nursing homes where young people with many types of disabilities were warehoused for lack of “better” alternatives (Wolfensberger, 1972).


The next movement to influence disability rights was the civil rights movement. Although people with disabilities were not included as a protected class under the Civil Rights Act, it was a reality that people could achieve rights, at least in law, as a class. Watching the courage of Rosa Parks as she defiantly rode in the front of a public bus, people with disabilities realized the more immediate challenge of even getting on the bus.


The “self-help” movement, which really began in the 1950s with the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous, came into its own in the 1970s. Many self-help books were published and support groups flourished. Self-help and peer support are recognized as key points in independent living philosophy. According to this tenet, people with similar disabilities are believed to be more likely to assist and to understand each other than individuals who do not share experience with similar disability.


Demedicalization was a movement that began to look at more holistic approaches to health care. There was a move toward “demystification” of the medical community. Thus, another cornerstone of independent living philosophy became the shift away from the authoritarian medical model to a paradigm of individual empowerment and responsibility for defining and meeting one’s own needs.


Consumerism, the last movement to be described here, was one in which consumers began to question product reliability and price. Ralph Nader was the most outspoken advocate for this movement, and his staff and followers came to be known as “Nader's Raiders.” Perhaps most fundamental to independent living philosophy today is the idea of control by consumers of goods and services over the choices and options available to them.


The independent living paradigm, developed by Gerben DeJong in the late 1970s (DeJong,1979), proposed a shift from the medical model to the independent living model. As with the movements described above, this theory located problems or “deficiencies” in the society, not the individual. People with disabilities no longer saw themselves as broken or sick, certainly not in need of repair. Issues such as social and attitudinal barriers were the real problems facing, people with disabilities. The answers were to be found in changing and “fixing” society, not people with disabilities. Most important, decisions must be made by the individual, not by the medical or rehabilitation professional.


Using these principles, people began to view themselves as powerful and self-directed as opposed to passive victims, objects of charity, cripples, or not-whole. Disability began to be seen as a natural, not uncommon, experience in life, not a tragedy.

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