Скачать 3.49 Mb.
Harriette Flory, PhD
is Associate Professor of History and Assistant Dean, Educational Services, at Raymond Walters College, University of Cincinnati. She has also taught English and History at the high school level.
is Social Studies Department Head, Walnut Hills High School, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Executive Editor Lyn McLean
Developmental Editor Anne Jensen
Production Director Eduardo Castillo
Project Designer Gayle Jaeger
Production Assistant Katherine Rangoon
Photo Researchers Katherine Rangoon and Barbara Conlon
Maps by J & R Art Services, Inc.
Typesetter Maryland Composition Preparation House Jay's Publishers Services
Longman, 10 Bank Street, White Plains, N.Y. 10606
Associated Companies: Longman Group Ltd., London Longman Cheshire Pty., Melbourne Longman Paul Pty., Auckland Copp Clark Pitman, Toronto Pitman Publishing Inc., New York
Copyright ® 1992 by Longman. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by an means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without Drior Dermission of the publisher.
Supplementary Materials: Teacher's Handbook Worksheet Masters
Contributing Editor: Dean Moore
Supervisor of Social Studies Cincinnati Public Schools
Consultants: Mildred Alpern
Spring Valley Senior High School, New York Wentworth Clarke
Professor of Social Science Education University of Central Florida at Orlando
William R. Dunnagan
Social Studies Teacher
Klein Independent School District, Texas
Program Specialist for Social Studies San Juan School District, California
Mary Lauranne Lifka
Professor of History College of Saint Teresa Winona, Minnesota
Roy R. Pellicano
Professor of Education, Social Studies Teacher Brooklyn, New York
Thomas R. Rumsey
History Teacher Casady School Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Western Civilization Teacher Homewood-Flossmoor High School, Illinois
Past Coordinator of Social Sciences Jefferson County Public Schools, Colorado
Special thanks to:
Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler
for contributing their historical and editorial expertise throughout this project
/ EUROPE ATTHE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN AGE „
(1450-1550)10 ^*T*"*<. , K-
A Trip Through Europe 11; New Forces in Europe Id; '^Northern Renaissance 19
2 THE REFORMATION M ^> Origins of the Reformation 27; Spread^afme Reformation 34; The Catholb ■ r Reformation 39
3 POLITICS, RELIGION, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATION^,' 1560-1M*«
The Empire jatCharies V45; Philip Hand Spain 47; France S&The Tfrrty %ars' War 58
4 EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND, Why Europe? 68; i
* ' sir
Cohmi/.,\thm 69; Dutch Exploration and CohnizatiQnJ&;Fri> Tlir English Colonics Tlv.JSlghificdQSti of thr I
Divisions- ol Fivnch Society BpLouis the King H4; Domestic PqUcKol Louis'. TheXXdisitfUmis XIV 91; Conflicts in Europe tifi
6 THE GROWTH OF CONSTITUTIONAL! SMIN ENGLAND
The Stuarts:Tames 1100:0mrJmI(1625-1648flO3; The wtmegmQM$&® The Restoration 107:77)p Glorious Rcvohtlion 110; The Himovehans
7 EASTERN AND CENTRAl'tiuROPE 317
The Hapsburgs 117: The Rise of Prussia 121; The Emergence .of R Romanovs 120: The Ago of Peter the Groat 130; Catherine the Gro„ p
0 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT H%
The Scientific Revokrtkm 142; ThsBnlightenment 148; TimFrnvArte 154
THE UNDERLYING GAUSS.
Nationalism am! DomesticPoiitics 324; The Systems ol Alliances 329;
332; Five Cities on the Kvc of War 333
tfSarajevo-340; Stalemate H44rTlw Allied Drive to Victory 350:
k: FROM AUTOCRACY TO DICTATORSHIP 35.9
tussian Revolution 359; The Bolshvviks in Power 368
WifM^ftJpCS BETWEEN THE WARS 372
>f r '•! 'ftcwfiipfaniacy Versus the Old" 374; Post-war Culture 383
mTAUTABIANISMAND THE DEMOCRACIES BETWEEN THE WARS 387
' -S)tammiani^:l^SovietLm6n 3§9^escistfiaiy 391; Nazi Germany 393: g£*. ; • fheR0^mmtUBosope397^
ONAUSMINASIA: CHINA AND JAPAN (ljjfiQ-1939) 403
'hina 403: Japan Between the Wars 409; World Warltfn Asm 415
^"QpehmgPbw* of the War 4m Ifietory ipt&mpfrtt?: The Bigfhtee 431
jjrfhc CoJfWar 4^^frWh wfjfl Detente 445: The C
tstructi&On Europe 4S<8?kisl*>rn Europe 458: Japan After World Wer1I462
Problems'^Tfe'veloping Nations 466; Decolonfrdtion 469; The British Ex-Colonies 470; #A \ Collapee bt the French Empire 476; France's African Colonies 47&€kher
, ^Kpmde^J^emmts 479; Thj®ffiddle East479: The Philippines 487; Communist - r £hind488; Contemporary l.ali&'A'moriui 490
.t* Postmodci n Setleiu.e and Thchnologv 492; PosUnodorn CulturalDevelopments 500;
Postmodern Political and Social Trends 505
SOURCES SI 3 INDEX 553
Europe in the Mid-16th Century 12 Reformation Europe 36
Europe After the Peace of Westphalia, 1648 60
European Colonization in the Late 17th Century 72-3
The Wars of Louis XIV 92
Eastern and Central Europe 125
Russian Westward Expansion 131
The Napoleonic Empire at its Height 174
Europe in 1815 222
The Black Sea and the Crimean War 260 The Unification of Italy, 1859-1870 275 The Unification of Germany 284 European Spheres of Influence in Asia 300 European Spheres of Influence in Africa, 1914 309 Latin American Nations, Dates of Independence 318 The Western Front 348
The German Empire at Its Greatest Extent, March 1918 353 The Post World War I Peace Settlements 373 China and Japan, 1919-1939 410
Hitler's Empire at Its Greatest Extent, November 1942 422
The Korean War 439
Postwar European Alignments 459
The Partition of India 472
The Middle East 486
absenteeism one of the Church abuses identified during the Reformation: the holding of offices, or benefices, by persons who do not perform the assigned duties, absolute monarch a ruler whose authority is unquestioned and unlimited. In an absolute monarchy, the ruler's wishes are law. apartheid the policy of strict racial segregation practiced by the government of South Africa. Apartheid applies to all public accommodations—restaurants, beaches, transportation, etc.—and to schools and housing, capital resources that may be used to create more wealth. Capital may be in the form of money or other assets such as stocks that are accepted as the equivalent, capitalism the economic system in which capitalists—wealthy individuals—own and operate most businesses, factories, and transportation systems. In the advanced stages of a capitalist economy, government regulations restrict the free activity of the marketplace by regulating prices, wages, etc. Also, giant corporations tend to be formed in which ownership is shared by many stockholders, communism the most radical form of socialism. According to the theory outlined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the workers most exploited in industrialized capitalist societies—the proletariat—would rise in revolt, seizing control of factories, transportation systems, etc. They would then operate these facilities for their own benefit, and establish a worker-controlled government. In practice, a communist system has never been established in this way: the term applies instead to states in which most private property has been abolished, and the government controls and operates the economy.
Counter-Reformation the actions taken by the Roman Catholic Church and Catholic mon-archs in the 16th and 17th centuries to reduce the influence of Protestantism and assert the universal authority of the pope, deductive method the use of reasoning to attain knowledge, usually beginning with a premise, or known fact, and using general logical principles to draw new conclusions, dialectic a method of argumentation and logic, often in question and answer form. Karl Marx and other 19th-century philosophers used dialectic to examine social and economic forces, starting from the premise that each event (thesis) leads to its opposite (antithesis), diet an assembly of princes and other electors. In the Holy Roman Empire, diets convened to elect the Holy Roman emperor and to render opinions on judicial matters, duma a representative assembly whose function was to advise the government of tsarist Russia; one of the reforms initiated by Alexander I (1801-1825).
economic determinism the belief that the pattern of wealth distribution within a society de
termines its political, social, and legal institutions, etc.
the consolidation of communal village lands and scattered strips of land in the hands of large landowners. The enclosure movement led to more efficient agriculture methods and created a pool of landless agricultural laborers. During the 19th century, many of these laborers migrated to urban areas to seek employment in factories.
.an attitude or belief that one's own culture is superior to any other.
the theory that plants and animals develop special genetic characteristics to help them adapt to their environment. A corollary theory is that of natural selection: those individuals who adapt most successfully are likely to reproduce, and thus pass their special characteristics on to succeeding generations.
w -t .ih a family in which parents,
children, and other relatives live together in one household. Such social groupings are especially prevalent in rural areas. See also nuclear family.
.. • k .< » centering upon the earth. In a geocentric world scheme, the heavenly bodies are thought to revolve around the earth.
er <- centering upon the sun. In a heliocentric world system, the planetary bodies revolve around the sun. -».-.•*■« a religious belief which has been condemned by an established church as a possible threat to the well-being of the faithful. •» .m.j" *'f- the secular, or worldly, orientation of philosophers, artists, and writers beginning in the late Middle Ages. Humanists emphasized the potential of man and his works rather than theological doctrines.
!».m a belief that people should be free to pursue their own self-development without conforming to established standards and patterns.
-•j.-i % »Ji:hi.d the listing and categorization of diverse facts in order to arrive at a general conclusion.
•■.baa * a pardon for sins granted by clergy of the Catholic Church. Usually, the sinner completes the sacrament of penance before an indulgence is granted.
\ipi •> relating to the philosophy that social and political change is caused by economic forces rather than intellectual or spiritual developments.
money crop an agricultural commodity intended for sale rather than for the subsistence of farm workers.
nationalism extreme patriotism; the belief that the interests of one's own nation are more important than international concerns, nepotism the practice of showing favoritism to relatives, especially in granting jobs or offices, nuclear famiiv a family in which parents and their children live together apart from other relatives. See also extended family. pluralities one of the Church abuses identified during the Reformation: the holding of more than one office, or benefice, at a time, proletariat the industrial working class, especially laborers employed in factories, rationalism the belief that reason, rather than sensory experience, is the source of human knowledge.
Reformation the name given to the movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church and to the Protestant doctrines that subsequently arose.
relativism a recognition that judgments are subjective—based on individual experiences—and do not have absolute or universal validity.
romanticism an artistic and literary movement which began in the early 18th century. Romantics emphasized the importance of human emotions—rather than the rational qualities extolled by Enlightenment philosophers—and expressed a new appreciation of nature and of the common man.
simony the sale of Church offices or sacraments for gain.
socialism an economic system in which communities, rather than private individuals, own and operate the means of production—the factories, transportation systems, etc. soviet a governing council of local leaders. In the Soviet Union, village and town Soviets report to the Supreme Soviet composed of top Communist Party leaders, theocracy a government ruled by a religious authority or authorities in the name of a supreme being.
• "History is bunk."'
|Professor of History, the University of London, King’s College||Dr. Darya Pushkina, Associate Professor, Smolny College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Bard College and St. Petersburg State University)|
История Средней Азии, Самарканд, Ташкент, Хивинское, Бухарское и Кокандское ханства, Туркестан: Сборник исторических произведений...
|Janice Dean, EdD(c), msn, apn-bc clinical Assistant Professor & Course Coordinator Office: ed II, 5/134c Pager: (501) 688-9423||Assistant Professor, The University of Texas of the Permian Basin|
|Dept of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University. 1997-8 Associate Professor||Visiting Associate Professor, Ohio State University, joint appointment with the Mathematical Biosciences Institute & osu medical Center|
|Department of english university college dublin||Karen Meier Reeds received her Ph. D. in the history of science from Harvard University. She has been a Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow at Bryn Mawr College and currently is a Research Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley|
|College of veterinary medicine north carolina state university m. Christine McGahan, Professor and Department Head||“Friel and Directors: Tyrone Guthrie and Hilton Edwards” by Professor Tony Roche, University College Dublin|