Учебно-практическое пособие для III курса направление подготовки

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Text B

Products and brands

    1. Read the following text, and write a brief heading for each paragraph:


Marketing theorists tend to give the word product a very broad meaning, using it to refer to anything capable of satisfying a need or want. Thus, services, activities, people (politicians, athletes, film stars), places (holiday resorts), organizations (hospitals, colleges, political parties), and ideas, as well as physical objects offered for sale by retailers, can be considered as products. Physical products can usually be augmented by benefits such as customer advice, delivery, credit facilities, a warranty or guarantee, maintenance, after-sale service, and so on.


Some manufacturers use their name (the ‘family name’) for all their products, e.g. Philips, Colgate, and Yamaha. Others, including Unilever and Procter&Gamble, market various products under individual brand names, with the result that many customers are unfamiliar with the name of the manufacturing company. The major producers of soap powders, for example, are famous for their multi-brand strategy which allows them to compete in various market segments, and to fill shelf space in shops, thereby leaving less room for competitors. It also gives them a greater chance of getting some of the custom of brand-switchers.


Most manufacturers produce a large number of products, often divided into product lines. Most product lines consist of several products, often distinguished by brand names, e.g. a range of soap powders, or of toothpastes. Several different items (different sizes or models) may share the same brand name. Together, company’s items, brand names and products constitute its product mix. Since different products are always at different stages of their life cycles, with growing, stable or declining sales and profitability, and because markets, opportunities and resources are in constant evolution, companies are always looking to the future, and re-evaluating their product mix.


Companies whose objectives include high market share and market growth generally have long product lines, i.e. a large number of items. Companies whose objective is high profitability will have shorter lines, including only profitable items. Yet most product lines have a tendency to lengthen over time, as companies produce variations on existing items, or add additional items to cover further market segments. Additions to product lines can be the result of either line stretching or line filling. Line-stretching means lengthening a product line by moving either up-market or down-market, i.e. making items of higher or lower quality. This can be carried out in order to reach new customers, to enter growing or more profitable market segments, to react to competitors’ initiatives, and so on. Yet such moves may cause image problems: moving to the lower end of a market dilutes a company’s image for quality, while a company at the bottom of a range may not convince dealers and customers that it can produce quality products for the high end. Line-filling – adding further items in that part of a product range which a line already covers – might be done in order to compete in competitors’ niches, or simply to utilize excess production capacity.

    1. Answer these questions:

  1. What meaning does the word product have?

  2. What things does it include?

  3. How do manufacturers create their brand names?

  4. What do most product lines consist of?

  5. What can be called a product mix?

  6. Why are companies always looking to the future?

  7. What product lines do companies whose aims are high market share have?

  8. What product lines do companies whose aims are high profitability?

  9. Describe line-stretching

  10. Why do companies use it?

  11. Describe line-filling

  12. Why do companies use it?

III Find words or expressions in the text which mean the following:

  1. the possibility of paying for a product over an extended period

  2. a promise by a manufacturer or seller to repair or replace defective goods during a certain period of time.

  3. a surface in a store on which goods are displayed

  4. consumers who buy various competing products rather than being loyal to a particular brand

  5. the standard pattern of sales of a product over the period that it is marketed

  6. the extend to which an activity provides financial gain

  7. possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs in sectors in which the company can produce goods or services effectively

  8. the sales of a company expressed as a percentage of total sales in a given market

  9. the set of beliefs that the public at large holds of an organization

  10. a small, specialized, but profitable segment of a market

IV .Preparing a report

Imagine that an international vending machine operator is hoping to increase its activities in your country, and has hired you to report on the existing market and to suggest new products that could be distributed via vending machines.

First you have to prepare a report outlining:

  • which products are currently sold in vending machines in your country

  • where such machines are usually situated

  • what kind of customers generally use them and in what circumstances

Then you have to suggest further products that could perhaps be distributed in this way.

    1. Read and complete the gaps using the following words:

Assembled, costs, defects, expenditure, implications, investment, pretest, recall, resultant, share, suppliers, unchanged

Management of quality control

Perhaps low warranty (1)……….mean spending a lot of money on quality control and the prevention of (2)……….? Not at all. It appears that (3)……….on prevention and inspection is much less than the cost of failure, and the (4)……….need to rework, scrap, recall, and service. On average it appears the cost of quality is less than one half the cost of failure. Obviously, failures must be more expensive to put right after a unit has been (5)………. The cost of the extra hours used to (6)……….a design is cheap compared to the cost of product (7)……….Field service costs are higher than the cost of inspection.

But quality has even wider (8)………..: for example, for market (9)……….and return on (10)……….Thus, businesses with a high product quality have a return three or four times greater than businesses with a low product quality. And businesses which improve their quality increase their market five to six times faster than those whose quality remains (11)……….

It would appear that counterattack is possible. According to the Harvard Business Review, in 1980, Hewlett-Packard tested 300,000 semiconductors from three American and three Japanese (12)………. At that time, the Japanese chips had a failure rate one-six that of the American chips. When the test was repeated two years later, the American companies had virtually closed the gap. In cars and trucks, the gap is also rapidly closing.

VI Look at the words which can be used with the word ‘investment’ to make word partnerships, for example ‘capital investment’.










Capital investment’ is investment in capital goods, such as machinery or buildings needed for the production process.

Which of the other ‘investment’ word partnerships have the following meanings?

    1. Investment in goods and services needed for the benefit of the community, not for financial gain investment.

    2. The use of money to buy a security or commodity with the intention of selling it at profit.

    3. An investment which earns interest at an agreed fixed rate.

    4. The gross investment reduced by the amount of capital consumption.

    5. An investment which gives the holder a right to receive a share in the profits, usually in the form of dividend.

    1. Role-play. Work in pairs to decide on the capital investment program. After you have decided, present it to the rest of the group.

    1. Translate into English:

  1. Сейчас наиболее распространенным является производство точно в срок.

  2. Отдел производства занимается эксплуатацией оборудования, гарантией продукции, контролем качества, то есть отслеживает брак продукции.

  3. Производственная специализация и ассортимент продукции зависят от состояния рынка.

  4. Жизненный цикл продукта состоит из трех фаз: растущий спрос, устойчивый спрос и снижение спроса.

  5. При закупке компонентов для сборки у субподрядчика необходимо точно рассчитать время выполнения заказа.

  6. При реализации продукции необходимо предоставлять возможность получения кредита постоянным покупателям.

Text C

A Loan Agreement

Article 7. Disbursement

  1. For the purpose of the Loan provided in article 2, the parties hereto agree that the disbursement shall be made directly to the Seller’s bank account upon the Borrower’s request.

The Borrower shall send the drawdown notice by telefax in the form of Exhibit attached hereto, the ‘Drawdown Notice’. Such Drawdown Notice must be accompanied by the Seller’s invoice.

The disbursement shall be made on the fifth business day after, not including, the Lender’s receipt of Drawdown Notice.

The final Drawdown Date shall not be later than November 29, 20….

  1. In case any payment hereunder becomes due on a day which is not a business day, the payment shall be made on the next succeeding business day unless such next succeeding business day fall in the next calendar month, in which case the payment shall be made on the immediate business day. Business day means a day on which banks are open in London and New-York for the type of business contemplated by this Agreement.

Article 8. Representations and warranties

The Borrower covenants, represents and warrants that:

  1. This agreement when executed and delivered does and will constitute the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Borrower enforceable in accordance with its terms;

  2. All sums to be disbursed to and the obligations of the Borrower hereunder rank and will rank pari passu with all other unsecured indebtedness and contingent liabilities of the Borrower;

  3. All acts, conditions and things required to be done and performed and to have happened prior to the execution and delivery of this Agreement in order to constitute all the obligations of the Borrower under this Agreement valid and binding obligations in accordance with their terms, have been done, have been performed and have happened in due and strict compliance with all applicable laws and regulations and the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, have been duly authorized by law and do not and will not violate any provision of any law to which the Borrower is subject or result in the breach of any agreement or instrument to which the Borrower is a party;

  4. No event has occurred and is continuing or would result from the drawdown of the Loan which constitutes the obligation or which, upon a lapse of time or the giving of notice or both, would become one of those events mentioned in Article 11;

  5. The Loan under this Agreement shall be used solely for the payment by the Buyer to the Seller for purchase of the Equipment under the Addendum.

  6. All sums to be disbursed all sums to be paid all obligations to be fulfilled.

  7. The sum has been disbursed the sums have been paid all the obligations have been fulfilled.

Unit 6

Text A

Labour Unions


Bonus scheme

Система поощрений

Casual job

Временная работа

Collective bargaining

Переговоры о заключении коллективного договора

Cost of living

Прожиточный минимум

Free market

Свободный рынок


Забастовка, при которой замедляется темп работы

Gross salary

Оклад до удержания налога

Group pension plan

Коллективный пенсионный план

Industrial action

Промышленный конфликт

Industrial relations

Отношения между администрацией и работниками

Labour market deregulation

Дерегулирование рынка труда

Labour union


Minimum wage

Минимальная заработная плата

Occupational pension

Пенсионное обеспечение на рынке труда


Платежная ведомость

Personal equity plan

Программа продажи акций служащим компании



Piecework wages

Сдельная оплата труда

Professional associations

Профессиональное объединение


Оплата, вознаграждение

Represent the needs of employees

Представлять нужды работников



Social partner

Социальный партнер



Tax exempt special saving account

Специальный сберегательный счет, освобожденный от налогов

Time wage

Повременная оплата труда


Плата сверх принятого уровня

Trade union


Unskilled job

Неквалифицированная работа

Vacation pay

Оплата отпуска

Wage rate

Ставка оплаты труда

Wage schedule

Шкала заработной платы

Work force

Рабочая сила

Working conditions

Условия труда

Working hours

Рабочее время


Работа строго по правилам

Worth of job

Стоимость труда

Fair wages

Справедливая оплата труда
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