Учебно-практическое пособие для III курса направление подготовки




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Text C

A Loan Agreement

Article 5 Overdue Payments

If the Borrower falls to make any required payment with respect the repayment of the loan, payment of the Interest, payment of the Management Fee, or any other items payable under this Agreement on the date(s) due, from and including the due date to and including the date of actual payment, at the rate of 2.375% per annum over and above the week, one month, three month or six month LIBOR determined on the due date(s) and from time to time thereafter for successive interest periods for so long as such amount remains unpaid, hereinafter called ‘the Overdue Interest’.

The applicable LIBOR shall be the arithmetic mean, rounded upwards, if necessary to the nearest whole multiple of 1/16 of 1% of the relevant LIBOR for deposits in the United States Dollars as quoted on the Renter’s monitor page ‘LIBO’ as or about 11: 00 a.m., London time on the due date(s) and thereafter for each successive Overdue Interest Period as defined below, on the second business day in London, England prior to the first day of each such Overdue Interest Period.

The Lender shall in its discretion determine the interest period with respect to any overdue amount. Overdue Interest Period. The Overdue Interest shall be calculated on a 360 day year basis, by counting the actual number of days elapsed in that period.

Any payment made by the Borrower after such a failure shall be applied first to the Expenses and the Management Fee, then to the Overdue Interest, then to accrued Interest and then to repayments of the Loan overdue.

Article 6. Method of payment

All amounts payable by the Borrower to the Lender under this Agreement, including, but not limited to, repayments of the Loan, payments of the Interest, the Overdue Interest, the Expenses, the Management Fee, shall be payable in the United States Dollars in net amounts receivable by the Lender and shall be paid by the Borrower in the full amount stated under this Agreement, without deduction or offset of any present or future income or other taxes, levies, charges or other with holdings or impositions of any nature whatsoever. If the Borrower is required to withhold income or other taxes or levies imposed on repayment of the Loan, payment of the Interest, the Overdue Interest, or other payments due to the Lender by or within Russia under this Agreement, the Borrower shall bear the taxes and/or levies regardless of their nature, and pay them to the relevant authorities.

Unless otherwise provided under this Agreement, all payments by the Borrower to the Lender under this Agreement, including, but not limited to repayments of the Loan, payments of the Interest, the Overdue Interest, the Expenses and the Management Fee, shall be made by telegraphic transfer, for good value, in the United States Dollars to the Lender’s account No. 15012 with the Chase Manhattan Bank N.A, London, Wallgate House, Coleman Street, London EC 2, England not later than 10: 00a.m. London time on the date each payment is due.

The Borrower shall sent pre-payment order by telex which provides amount with its value date to be paid, two business days before each due date to the Lender’s Bank as described above.


Unit 5

Text A

Production

Vocabulary

To assemble products

Производить сборку продукции

Batch production

Серийное производство

Capacity

Производительность

Capital intensive

Капиталоемкий

Component

Компонент

Continuous production

Непрерывный процесс производства

Conveyer belt

Конвейерная лента

Credit facilities

Возможность получения кредита

Declining sales

Снижение спроса

Equipment

Оборудование

Formulation

Разработка

Growing sales

Растущий спрос

Guarantee

Гарантия

Half-finished items

Полуфабрикат

Inventory

Инвентарь

Job (unit) production

Мелкосерийное производство

Just-in-time production

Производство точно в срок

Labour intensive

Трудоемкий

Lead time

Время выполнения заказа

Maintenance

Эксплуатация

Make-or-buy decision

Решение о собственном производстве

Manufacture (v)

Производить

Manufacturer

Промышленник

Mass (flow-line) production

Массовое производство

Outsourcing (contracting out)

Получение заказов от других предприятий

Overproduction

Перепроизводство

Plant

Завод

Product defects

Брак продукции

Product life-cycle

Жизненный цикл продукта

Product line

Производственная специализация

Product mix

Ассортимент изделий

Productivity

Производительность

Setback in production

Спад производства

Stable sales

Устойчивы спрос

Stock-piling

Складирование

Subcontractor

Субподрядчик

    1. Read the text and translate it into Russian:

Types of production

Production methods are conventionally divided into three types: job or unit production, mass or flow-line production, and batch production.

  1. Job production

  • In this type jobs are carried out individually and usually to the specific order of a customer. Job production can range from small units such as the production of individually designed piece of pottery to the building of a large cargo ship, from made-to-measure clothing to bridge-building.

  • Job production is usually very labour intensive since it does easily lend itself to mechanization. Further, the labour employed has to be highly skilled for the most part, and supervision must be constant and very technically competent. There is little opportunity for the use of highly specialized machinery, and the machinery that is used must be able to cope with varying work.

  • It is unusual for an organization to be able to make for stock as each order will be different from previous orders and from future ones. In many cases, such as bridge building or in road construction, there can be no question of making for stock.

  • Where jobs of high value and extended time-span are the rule problems are often experienced with financing the projects, especially in view of the high labour content which means that large sums for wages have to be regularly found.

  1. Mass production

  • This method, which is also known as flow-line production, is a process of continuous production where large numbers of more or less identical units are manufactured continuously. It is the exact opposite of job production. Little or no individuality can be introduced into the product, and the processes are extremely capital intensive. The labour content is relatively small compared to the capital investment, and most of it is unskilled or semi-skilled. Highly specialized machinery is used and in the most modern mass-production plants practically all of the work and machines are controlled by computer. The small proportion of skilled labour required is employed to set up the machines for production, and is highly paid. This small, very skilled, work-force is a vital element in continuing production and disruption of their operations normally causes severe setbacks in manufacturing volume, and can cause production to cease altogether.

  • Mass-produced products which, range from such items as breakfast cereals and paper products to motor-cars, are manufactured in advance of sales, and sales forecasting and marketing of a high order are essential for the success of the manufacturing enterprise.

  • A distinction is usually made between two aspects of this method of production. The term ‘mass production’ (or flow-line production) is used for the continuous production of manufactured goods such as those just mentioned. Where the nature of the product is the result of formulations such as petrol-chemical products, adhesives and jams, process production or continuous flow process production are the terms normally used.

  • In order to remain profitable it is necessary for enterprises employing mass-production methods to utilise machinery to virtually full capacity. When orders fall short of full capacity it is often more advantageous to keep the plant running and to produce for stock rather than to reduce the volume of output. An example of this is a stock-piling of motor-cars when sales are low. This situation cannot, of course, continue indefinitely. In the case of domestic consumables, such as washing-powders, attempts are made to stimulate sales by variety of means including ‘special offers’, competitions and free gifts.

  1. Batch production

  • This is a method that falls between job and mass production, and may be said to be repeated production but not continuous production. It is employed where orders consist of a significant number of similar items but these orders are not sufficient to justify continuous manufacture.

  • Industries offering choices of design or sophistication in their products make use of batch production, a notable one being the furniture industry. A batch of one design will be made and then a batch of another, and then perhaps the first will be run again. Labour is more skilled in this method of production than in mass production because of the variety of the work entailed, and machines are more versatile. It uses more labour, proportionately, than mass production and less machinery.

  • Whether goods are made in advance of orders or subsequent to them depends not so much on the type of production method as on the situation in the market. A manufacturer using batch production will set a production run when orders for a particular item are received, but has the problem of making the run economically viable; in other words producing sufficient quantity to make the run profitable. He does this by adding a stock quantity to the ordered quantity. One of the most difficult problems in batch production is, in fact, this one of the deciding what is the economic batch size.

  • Batch production can offer some of the cost saving advantages of mass production, but also allows the manufacturer to satisfy individual job orders if necessary because of his more versatile machinery and skilled workers. At no time, however, can the user of batch production methods compete in price with mass-production items.

    1. Match the equivalents:

      1. Batch production

      a) Капиталоемкий

      2. Capital intensive

      b) Конвейерная лента

      3. Continuous production

      c) Массовое производство

      4. Conveyer belt

      d) Мелкосерийное производство

      5. Equipment

      e) Непрерывный процесс производства

      6. Formulation

      f) Оборудование

      7. Job (unit) production

      g) Промышленник

      8. Labour intensive

      h) Разработка

      9. Manufacturer

      i) Серийное производство

      10. Mass (flow-line) production

      j) Складирование

      11. Setback in production

      k) Спад производства

      12. Stock-piling

      l) Трудоемкий

    2. Answer the questions:

  1. Which types of production do you know?

  2. What can job production range from?

  3. What kind of labour is used in job production?

  4. Is machinery widely used in job production? Why?

  5. Does an organization make goods for stock in job production? Why?

  6. What problems does job production have?

  7. Does mass production have any individuality? Why?

  8. What kind of labour is used in mass production? Why?

  9. What kind of machinery is used in mass production? Why?

  10. Why is skilled labour required in mass production?

  11. What mass-produced products can you name?

  12. When can mass production be profitable?

  13. Does an organization make goods for stock in mass production? Why?

  14. What is usually done to increase profits in mass production?

  15. How batch production can be characterized?

  16. In what industries is it used?

  17. What kind of labour is used in batch production?

  18. Does an organization make goods for stock in batch production? Why?

    1. Match up these words with the definitions which follow:

Capacity, component, inventory, lead time, location, outsourcing or contracting out, plant, subcontractor

  1. Any company that provides goods or services for another one.

  2. Any of the pieces or parts that make up a product, machine, etc.

  3. Buying products or processed materials from other companies rather than manufacturing them.

  4. The (maximum) rate of output that can be achieved from a production process.

  5. The buildings, machines, equipment and other facilities used in the production process.

  6. The geographical situation of a factory or other facility.

  7. The stock of any item or resource used in an organization (including raw materials, pans, supplies, work in process and finished products).

  8. The time needed to perform an activity (i.e. to manufacture or deliver something).

    1. After it has been decided what to manufacture, operations managers have to decide where to manufacture the different products, how much productive capacity their factories and plants should have, and how much inventory to maintain. Read 15 sentences below, and classify them under the following six headings. Some sentences may fall under two headings:

  1. The consequences of insufficient capacity

  2. The consequences of excess capacity

  3. The advantages of large facilities

  4. The disadvantages of large facilities

  5. The advantages of having a large inventory

  6. The disadvantages of having a large inventory

    1. A long lead time may allow competitors to enter the market.

    2. Average fixed cost per unit drops as volume increases because each succeeding unit absorbs part of the fixed costs, giving economies of scale.

    3. Finding staff and coordinating material flow become expensive and difficult

    4. If lead time increases, some customers may go to other suppliers.

    5. Lost sales and market share are usually permanent

    6. The working environment might worsen and industrial relations deteriorate

    7. There are costs of storage, handling, insurance, depreciation, the opportunity cost of capital, and so on.

    8. You can be more flexible in product scheduling, and have longer lead times and lower cost operation through larger production runs with fewer set-ups.

    9. There is always the risk of obsolescence, theft, breakage, and so on.

    10. You can meet variation in product demand

    11. You may be under-utilizing your work force.

    12. You have protection against variation in raw material delivery time (due to storages, strikes, lost orders, incorrect or defective shipments, etc).

    13. You may be forced to produce additional less profitable products.

    14. You can take advantage of quantity discounts in purchasing.

    15. You may have to reduce prices to stimulate demand.

    1. Read the text below, and insert the words in the gaps:

Capacity, component, inventory, lead times, location, outsourcing, plants, subcontractor

Just-in-time production

Manufacturing companies are faced with a ‘make-or-buy decision’ for every item or (1)………. they use (as well as for every process and service). Do they make it themselves or do they outsource, and buy from a (2)……….? If a company assembles products supplied by a large number of subcontractors, they face the problem of how much (3)………..they require.

In Just-In-Time (JIT) production – also called lean production, stockless production, and continuous flow manufacture – nothing is bought or produced until it is needed. Each section of the production process makes the necessary quantity of the necessary units at the necessary time – which is when it is required by the next stage of the manufacturing process, or by distributors or customers.

The JIT system is usually credited to Taiichi Ohno, who was a vice-president for manufacturing with Toyota in Japan in the early 1950s – although he stated that he got the idea from American supermarkets! JIT is wholly contrary to the European and American logic of encouraging greater productivity, and welcoming production that exceeds the agreed schedule or quota, and stocking extras in case of future problems. JIT minimizes the cost of holding inventories, which are regarded negatively, as avoidable costs, rather than assets. The large Japanese manufacturing companies have long practiced (4)………., and generally use extensive networks of small subcontractors. Of course, if a single subcontractor fails to deliver a component on time, the whole production process is sabotaged, but the Japanese industrial system relies on mutual trust and long-term relationships. Small supplies often attempt to situate their facilities close to the (5)……….of a larger company with which they work.

The Japanese also prefer small, specialized production (6)……….with a limited (7)………., in which, wherever possible, all the machines required for a certain job are grouped together. This avoids all the waiting and moving time involved in sending half-finished items from one department to another, although it often requires flexible, multi-skilled employees.

JIT thus greatly reduces transportation and inventory costs, and should ensure that there is no waste from overproduction, or from idle workers waiting for parts. It allows increased productivity because of shortened throughput time. If factories are equipped so that set-up times are short, very small production runs are possible. Any quality problems or product defects should be noticed more quickly, production (8)……….are reduced, and the firm can react more rapidly to demand changes.

    1. Translate into English:

    1. Существует три основных вида производства: мелкосерийное, серийное и массовое.

    2. Мелкосерийное производство является самым трудоемким.

    3. Массовое производство является самым капиталоемким из-за большого количества инвестиций в оборудование для обеспечения непрерывного процесса производства.

    4. Самым сложным является производство, связанное с различными разработками, такое как нефтехимическое производство.

    5. В случае перепроизводства промышленники занимаются складированием продукции.

    6. Производительность предприятий зависит от ряда факторов, среди которых производственная мощность.

    7. На предприятиях массового производства используется конвейерная лента.

    8. При создании предприятия необходимо принять решение о создании собственного производства.

    9. Некоторые компании производят сборку изделий из компонентов или полуфабрикатов, поставляемых другими компаниями.

    10. Иногда завод получает заказы от других предприятий, которые являются субподрядчиками.

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