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nof-digitise Technical Standards and Guidelines
Version Three: Revised July 2001
This document has been developed on behalf of the New Opportunities Fund (NOF) by UKOLN, University of Bath, in association with Resource: The Council for Museums, Archives & Libraries.
UKOLN would like to thank Bruce Royan, Sandy Buchanan and Mark Bide for their contributions.
This document draws on Scientific, Industrial and Cultural Heritage: a shared approach, a research framework for digital libraries, museums and archives written by Lorcan Dempsey for the European Commission’s Information Society Directorate General.
Scientific, Industrial and Cultural Heritage: a shared approach
The full text of the latest version of this document is available online from:
UKOLN is funded by Resource: The Council for Museums, Archives & Libraries, the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) of the Higher and Further Education Funding Councils, as well as by project funding from the JISC and the European Union. UKOLN also receives support from the University of Bath where it is based.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 5
1.1. The Life Cycle Approach 6
1.2. Requirements and Guidelines 6
1.3. Vocabulary 7
1.4. Other Standards Developments (REVISED 07/01) 7
1.5. Updates to this Document 8
2. Creation 8
2.1. Requirements 8
2.1.1. File Formats (REVISED 07/01) 8
2.1.2. Character Encoding 10
2.1.3. Geographic Information Systems (INCLUDED 07/01) 10
2.1.4. VRML/3D Content (INCLUDED 07/01) 11
2.2. Guidance 12
2.2.1. Data Capture (REVISED 12/00) 12
2.2.2. Metadata (REVISED 07/01) 13
2.2.3. Preservation (REVISED 12/00) 14
3. Management 14
3.1. Requirements 15
3.1.1. Intellectual Property Rights 15
3.1.2. Identification 16
3.1.3. Performance Indicators (REVISED 12/00) 16
3.1.4. Security 16
3.1.5. E-Commerce 17
3.2. Guidance 18
3.2.1. Preservation (REVISED 12/00) 18
3.2.2. Metadata (REVISED 07/01) 18
4. Collection Development 20
4.1. Guidance 20
5. Access 20
5.1. Requirements 20
5.1.1. Access To Resources (REVISED 07/01) 20
5.1.2. Authenticity 21
5.2. Guidance 22
5.2.1. Metadata and Resource Discovery (REVISED 07/01) 22
5.2.2. Watermarking and Fingerprinting 23
5.2.3. User Authentication (REVISED 07/01) 23
6. Re-use 24
6.1. Guidance 24
6.1.1. Learning Resource Creation (REVISED 07/01) 24
The nof-digitise programme supports the creation of a significant body of digital resources. The promise is of a rich digital fabric of learning materials, cultural artefacts and civic resources that offer real support for lifelong learning in a new cultural network space.
This document recommends some agreed approaches to how this resource is created and made available. It incorporates many of the examples of best practise developed by the £15 million UK Electronic Libraries Programme (eLib). Without the implementation of agreed approaches throughout nof-digitise, the promise of networked information for learning and cultural enrichment will not be realised.
Important areas for consideration are:
Failure to address these areas will have serious consequences, as the different parties waste their resources:
A life cycle approach has been used in the discussion of standards as decisions taken at any stage in a resource’s life may have ramifications for cost-effective use at other stages. The stages in this life cycle are:
The use of a life cycle approach means that a number of technical standards are revisited through out the document. Metadata, for example, is relevant to several of the stages of the life cycle and is discussed separately at each of these stages.
This document outlines technical requirements which projects must meet and also offers guidance on developing technical issues. Requirements are standards which are widely accepted and already in current use. All projects must implement any standards that are identified as requirements. This document also offers guidance. The standards covered in the guidance sections are still in development. It is probable that these standards will become widely accepted during the lifetime of the programme but they cannot be identified as a requirement with full confidence yet. Projects should maintain and demonstrate awareness of these standards and their potential applications.
The words ‘must, should and may’ when printed in bold text have precise meanings in the context of this document.
This vocabulary is based on terminology used in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation.
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