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British English versus American English



Lesson Introduction


British and American Variants of English


Although most individuals who learn English as a second language are unware of it, the British and American variants of English are very different. However, native speakers of English are easily able to recognize the differences between the two dialects. There are a number of words that exist in the British variant of English that do not exist in the American variant of English and vice versa. There are also grammatical, spelling, and sentence contruction differences between the two variants. Although native speakers of American English and British English can usually communicate with one another with few misunderstandings there are many instances where clear communication may be made difficult due to the differences between the two variants. The likelihood of misunderstandings is even higher when non-native speakers of English mix together British and American English. This typically confuses the native speaker of English and can lead to many misunderstandings. It is important to note that although British English is widespread in use it is becoming second to American English in terms of popularity. This is especially true in terms of business and business communications. American English is quickly becoming the standard of English that is expected of those who learn English as a second language.


Common Words in Everyday Speech

British English words defined in American English


Blag (verb)- to mooch or get something for free

Blimey (exclamation word)- “wow” or “my goodness”

Brill (adjective)-shortened version of the word “brilliant”

Busk (verb)-to busk is to sit in the street playing music and hoping people will give you money for it.

Cheerio (exclamation word)-a light-hearted way of saying “goodbye”

Cheers (exclamation word)- “thank you” in informal conversations

Crikey (exclamation word)- an expression of surprise

Dear (adjective)- when used as an adjective it means, “expensive”

Fluke (noun)- a rather fortunate chance win, a stroke of luck

Give Over (exclamatory phrase)- equivalent to the American expression “Give me a break”.

Gobsmacked (adjective)- someone is very surprised or taken aback

Haver (verb)- to ramble incoherently, or to speak nonsense

Hire (verb)- the American word is “to rent”

Kip (noun)- sleep, a short nap

Natter (noun)- to gossip or to talk about nothing

Nick (verb/adjective)- as a verb it means to steal, as an adjective it means to be in some state of condition.

Phut (adjective)- something is described as such when it has died, expired, or breathed its last

Pinch (verb)- to steal

Post (noun)- equivalent to the American word, “mail”

Queue (noun)- a line of people

Rubbish (noun)- everyday waste, in American English, “trash” or “garbage”

Skive (verb)- to be absent for no real reason, “to play hookey”

Smashing (adjective)- describes something as being good or great

Sterling (adjective)- also describes something as being good or great

Tad (noun)- American equivalent is the word “bit” or “a bit”

Tick (noun)- a checkmark or a short space of time similar to a second

Wee (adjective)- equivalent to the American English word, “small”

Whinge (verb)- American equivalent is the word “whine”, “to whine”

Whoops-a-Daisy! (exclamatory phrase)- American equivalent is the phrase “Oops”

Wonky (adjective)- American equivalent is to say that something “just isn’t right”

Yonks (noun)- an unspecific length of time but typically used to describe some period of time from a minute to years.


Some Facts about American English and British English


  • American English is the language spoken by U.S. government officials, network newscasters, et. It does not include Canadian English which falls outside of the definition of “American English”. Canadian pronunciation is similar to American English but the spelling is more often like the Commonwealth form of English. American English is also used by countries and organizations like Japan, Philippines, and Liberia where English is the most influenced by the United States.

  • British English is otherwise known as “Commonwealth English” and is assumed to be the form of English spoken in southeast England and the BBC and understood in other parts of the United Kingdom. Various forms of pronunciations exist throughout the region. Commonwealth English is written in most of the English-speaking world including Australia (though the dialect is different), New Zealand (different dialect like the one in Australia), South Africa and the United Kingdom. The dialect differs some from country to country but is much like Commonwealth English versus American English. British English, or Commonwealth English is widespread throughout the areas that Britain had or currently has as colonies.

  • Although British English and American English are similar there are enough differences between the two languages to cause some awkward situations and misunderstandings. Sometimes the differences between the two languages can even lead to a complete communication failure. There is a famous quote by George Bernard Shaw that the United States and United Kingdom are “two countries divided by a common language”.



Spelling Differences between American English and British English


-or/-our

American words ending in –or may end in –our in Commonwealth English.

American English Examples: color, flavor, honor, favorite, savory

Commonwealth English Examples: colour, flavour, honour, favourite, savoury


-er/-re

Some words of French or Greek origin in Commonwealth English end in consonants and are followed by –re which is unstressed and pronounced “r”. Most of these same words have a –er ending in American English. This is especially true of words in Commonwealth English that end in –bre and –tre.

American English Examples: fiber, saber, center, specter, theater

Commonwealth English Examples: fibre, saber, centre, spectre, theatre


-se/-ce

American English retains the noun/verb distinction in certain words which are indicated by their endings. For example, advice/advise, device/devise, licence/license, practice/practice.

American English Examples: defense, offense, pretense

Commonwealth English Examples: defence, offence, pretence


-ction/-xion

American English Examples: inflection, deflection, reflection

Commonwealth English Examples: inflexion, deflexion, reflexion


-ize/-ise

American English Examples: colonize, harmonize, realize, organize

Commonwealth English Examples: colonise, harmonise, realize, organize


-yze

This ending is possible only in American English.

American English Examples: analyze, catalyze, hydrolyze, paralyze

Commonwealth English Examples: analyse, catalyse, hydrolyse, paralyse


-og/-ogue

American English Examples: analog, catalog, dialog,

Commonwealth English Examples: analogue, catalogue, dialogue


Miscellaneous Spelling Differences between American English and British English


American English

Commonwealth English

Aluminum

Aluminium

Ax

Axe

Check

Cheque

Disk

Disc

Forever

For ever

Jail

Gaol

Gray

Grey

Jewelry

Jewellry

Curb

Kerb

Tire

Tyre

Percent

Per cent

Program

Programme



Class Exercises


Exercise A: What do you think the following British English words mean? Match them with what you think to be their correct American English definitions.


1) Blimey

A) Small or to be small

2) Cheerio

B) To steal

3) Cheers

C) To be surprised or taken aback

4) Crikey

D) Checkmark or a second in time

5) Gobsmaked

E) “Wow” or “My goodness”

6) Kip

F) To rent

7) Hire

G) A way of saying “goodbye”

8) Wee

H) “Thank you” in informal conversation

9) Tick

I) An expression of surprise

10) Pinch

J) A short nap, or to sleep


Exercise B: What do you think the following British English Expressions mean in American English?


1) There was a queue of people waiting to pay their phone bills.

2) The car was phut, there was no way to repair it or fix it any longer.

3) He is just totally brill! I have never met anyone so smart in my life!

4) A bill for electricity just arrived in the post today.

5) People just don’t seem to care about the city. There is rubbish everywhere on the streets.

6) It’s positively smashing that you could join us tonight!

7) Whoops-a-daisy! It appears that I’ve lost my car keys.

8) He was not feeling well so he havered on about nothing and we were not able to understand what he was talking about.

Exercise C: Is it British English or American English?Place an “A” next to those sentences with an American spelling of the word and a “B” next to sentences with a British spelling of the word.


1) This disc doesn’t work on my computer.

2) The sky is really gray today.

3) I need to buy new tyres for my car.

4) I am 100 per cent sure that I can find a new job.

5) This television program is not very good.

6) I think that I have a high level of organizational skills.

7) The company placed an advert in the newspaper last week.


*Please read on to Lesson 8 and read the introduction to the lesson and complete the homework assignment before Lesson 8 so that you are prepared to participate in class discussions.


Lesson 8

Country Studies, How Culture Affects Business Communications


Lesson Introduction


Country Studies


It is important to be aware of not only your own country and culture but also the world around you, especially in terms of business communications. In order for a business to survive in such a global marketplace it must have a good understanding of how its own country and other countries as well. It is important to note that every country has its own form of culture, history, habits, ideas, style, language, manners of speech and so on. Even countries that border one another and speak the same language contain their own culture. It is also possible that even within the borders of one country, communication can be hindered by different subcultures. A good example of this is the US where subcultures have developed throughout the country. These various subcultures sometimes make it difficult for people of the same country from different regions of the country to communicate with one another even though they speak the same language. This proves the fact that language is not the only key to successful communication. In order to be successful in business communications you must be knowledgable and mindful of the cultural climate in which you are operating. The differences between different cultures can make for horrible problems in business communications and the complete failure of a business. This is why it is good to learn more of the world around us and how it operates.


Homework to prepare for Lesson 8 before the class


Please bring with you to Lesson 8 some information on any country that you find interesting. You will need to learn about some of the cultural differences between that culture and your own and you will need to find out some of the following information about the country:

  • Population

  • Geograhpich location

  • Literacy rate

  • GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per household/family

  • Currency

  • Main language(s)

  • Type of government

  • Main religion(s)

  • Main export

  • Main import

  • Percentage of population below the poverty line

  • One interesting fact about the country’s culture


*You are welcome to look up any additional information about the country that you would like. You will need to discuss the information that you find out about your country during the next lesson.


*There are many sources on the Internet that will help you to find the information above. One of the best sources that will help you to find this information is www.ciaworldfactbook.gov This site has all of the information listed above for every country in the world and the information is up to date. It should take you approximately 15 minutes to complete this assignment.


Below are some ideas of countries that you may be interested in researching. Please feel free to look up information on any country aside from your own country.


Saudi Arabia China Chad Canada

Germany Japan Zimbabwe Venezuela

France Singapore South Africa Cuba

Spain Taiwan Egypt Argentina

Britain Malaysia Austrailia Brazil


Lesson 9

Entry into Foreign Marketplaces


Lesson Introduction


Foreign Marketplaces


Business is truly global. More so than ever we live in a global world where international business is unavoidable and many business markets are already very dependant upon one another. Although many businesses are already deeply involved in international trade and international business, there are many other businesses that are seeking to expand into even more countries or to expand out of their home marketplace for the first time. It is important to be able to recognize how businesses go about expanding into a new marketplace and how the environmental factors of any country outside of your own can seriously affect your business. Every country has its own language, culture, history, habits, infrastructure, laws, and unique way of doing business and when entering into a foreign marketplace a company must be very aware of what they are getting themselves into. Whether the company is a global giant like Microsoft or a small, family owned company the differences that exist in a foreign marketplace must be researched and the necessary changes must be made in order to ensure the success of the company’s future operations in its new market.


In-Class Reading Exercise: Barham, John. Dell Tries to crack South America. The Financial Times, Pearson Education Limited, 2001


Dell Tries to crack South America


Dell computers, the Texas-based computer-maker that was among the pioneers of online ordering, is preparing to attack the difficult Latin American market. Soon, Dell will start making computers at a new factory in the small, southern Brazilian city of Eldorado in its first manufacturing venture in South America. With a few hours flying time of Eldorado lie four of the continent’s main metropolitan regions-Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Santiago- which generate about half the region’s wealth and where most of the computer-using populace is concentrated. Dell hopes to serve all these markets- including more distant regions in northern Brazil and the Andean countries-from Eldorado.

According to Dell’s plan, aircraft from Miami will land at a nearby international airport carrying computer components that will be sent straight to Dell’s factory. Together with parts delivered from suppliers in Brazil, they will be assembled to order, packed and delivered to consumers across the continent.

The challenge for Dell is not only to mount an effective marketing campaign to educate customers about online ordering, it must also manage a complex logistics system and deal with the problems of unreliable road and air networks. And it must operate in half a dozen volatile Latin countries, with unpredictable governments and consumers as well as well-established competitors.

Dell could not afford to ignore the South American market much longer. It currently exports computers to a few Latin American countries such as Mexico and Colombia, but has never sold to markets in Argentina or Brazil. Latin American consumers last year bought 5 million PC’s and demand is growing at 15 per cent a year. Growth is likely to remain strong for some time to come: in Brazil, the region’s largest market, only 3-4 percent of the population owns a PC.

Dell is not the first company to view South America as a single market. For a decade, Ford and Volkswagen and many other multinational companies have operated in the region’s main countries as if they formed one integrated market. That was a natural reaction to falling import tariffs and consolidation of the Mercosur customs union linking Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. However, the distances, the red tape, and the animosities between national governments often make fulfillment of this strategy difficult.

Dell decided to locate in Brazil because it is the region’s biggest market and because the government gives computer companies substantial tax incentives as part of its plan to develop local high technology industries. If Dell meets Brazilian local content criteria and attains agreed production volumes, its products are considered to be 100 percent locally made and automatically gain duty-free access to Mercosur countries.

However, there is little Dell can do about the internal transport networks in Brazil or the bureaucracy in neighboring countries. Although roads, air transport and delivery systems are tolerably efficient in south eastern Brazil and parts of Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina, Dell may still find it is struggling to co-ordinate operations and sales over a vast region.


In-Class Exercises


Exercise A: These phrases summarize the main idea of each paragraph. Match each phrase to the correct paragraph.


1) the challenge for Dell a) paragraph 1

2) reason for choosing Brazil b) paragraph 2

3) an overview of Dell’s intentions c) paragraph 3

4) reason to enter the South American market d) paragraph 4

5) how Dell’s plan will work e) paragraph 5

6) other companies’ experiences f) paragraph 6

7) problems Dell may face in Brazil and elsewhere g) paragraph 7

8) advantages of Eldorado’s location h) paragraph 8


Exercise B: Find a word or phrase in the text that has a similar meaning.


1) one of the first to do something (paragraph 1)

P_ _ _ _ _ _ _


2) buying something through the internet (paragraph 1)

O ____________ O _____________


3) business activity with some element of risk (paragraph 2)

V _________________


4) general population in a country (paragraph 2)

P _________________


5) a difficult task which needs skill and determination (paragraph 4)

C _________________


6) describes something or someone that can change quickly and suddenly (paragraph 4)

V__________________


7) lots of rules and regulations, which often seem to have no purpose (paragraph 6)

R _________________ T ________________


8) strong dislike between people or groups (paragraph 6)

A _________________


9) reach or achieve an objective (paragraph 7)

A__________________


10) trying very hard to do something under difficult conditions (paragraph 8)

S______________________


Exercise C: For each part match the words on the left to their pairs on the right.

Part A- Match these nouns as they occur together in the text.

1) tax a) venture

2) manufacturing b) incentives

3) import c) system

4) customs d) tariffs

5) production e) volumes

6) logistics f) union


Part B-Match these verbs as they occur together in the text.

1) mount a) access

2) serve b) criteria

3) generate c) a campaign

4) gain d) a market

5) meet e) wealth


Exercise D: Use an appropriate phrase from Exercise C to complete each sentence.


1) Many countries offer companies ___________ to encourage inward investment.


2) When we launch our new internet service we will need to __________ a big marketing

___________.


3) In order to be successful, the new manufacturing plant will have to reach target ______

within six months.


4) Assembling to order and delivering to each customer means managing a complex

______________.


5) When importing is expensive due to high ________ the alternative is to manufacture

locally.


6) In order to have free access to other EU market, Japanese car manufacturers in the UK

need to _________ minimum content ___________.


7) In some countries the only way to _______ well is to have local production.


8) Most countries in Europe are now a part of a ________ which allows free movement

of goods.


Management Style Test


Circle your answer to the following questions

1) Question: I need to keep my eye on my employees to ensure the job gets done.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


2) Question: Incentives such as bonuses and prizes keep my employees motivated.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


3) Question: My employees’ personal problems won’t affect their ability to work.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


4) Question: I instinctively know when my employees are unhappy.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


5) Question: I feel unable to praise my staff as I know it would stunt (lessen) their

efforts.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


6) Question: I share an interest in the lives of my employees and whatever they feel is

important to them.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


7) Question: I am open to employee suggestions in the workplace, and willing to change

how things are done.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


8) Question: My employees are aware of the impact their work contributions have on my

company.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


9) Question: There is no need to share the company’s progress and achievements with

my employees.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


10) Question: All employees should be encouraged to move towards a more demanding

role.

Your Answer: Agree or Disagree


Management Style Test Answers


1) Question: I need to keep my eye on my employees to ensure the job gets done.

Answer: Disagree/No. Trusting your staff will help to build their respect for you.


2) Question: Incentives such as bonuses and prizes keep my employees motivated.

Answer: Disagree/No. These are only short-term measures and only act to instantly

boost levels of motivation but this level of motivation is only short-lived.


3) Question: My employees’ personal problems won’t affect their ability to work.

Answer: Disagree/No. Countless business days are lost due to employees personal

Problems, being aware and able to identify potential problems can help the situation.


4) Question: I instinctively know when my employees are unhappy.

Answer: Disagree/No. Don’t rely on your instincts, instead ask your employees. It

is bound to eliminate guesswork and avoid other communication problems.


5) Question: I feel unable to praise my staff as I know it would stunt (lessen) their

efforts.

Answer: Disagree/No. Employee recognition is one of the greatest tools to boost

Employee motivation levels.


6) Question: I share an interest in the lives of my employees and whatever they feel is

important to them.

Answer: Agree/Yes. Employees will feel you value them as a person and not just as a

work unit.


7) Question: I am open to employee suggestions in the workplace, and willing to change

how things are done.

Answer: Agree/Yes. This is a good way to help your employees feel as if they are a

part of your company.


8) Question: My employees are aware of the impact their work contributions have on my

company.

Answer: Agree/Yes. Your employees will feel valued and have a sense of belonging

your organization.


9) Question: There is no need to share the company’s progress and achievements with

my employees.

Answer: Disagree/No. Your employees make a large contribute to the growth of your

Company and should be kept informed at all times.


10) Question: All employees should be encouraged to move towards a more demanding

role.

Answer: Agree/Yes. Not all employees are against the idea of a challenge and should

at least be given the opportunity to progress in their careers.

Lesson 9: English Grammar Exercise

Suffixes


Suffixes are just as important as prefixes. Suffixes are added to the end of words and can also change the part of a speech a word represents in the English language. If you do not understand how a suffix impacts the meaning of a word it could lead to a business communications nightmare. This is why it is important to review the suffix chart below and review it often to make sure you know what each of the following suffixes mean.


Suffix

Part of Speech

Examples

-er,-or

Noun

Teacher, Director

-ance, -ence

Noun

Difference, Attendance

-ant, -ent

Noun

Deviant, President

-ee

Noun

Employee, Trainee

-ess

Noun

Stewardess, Waitress

-ian

Noun

Electrician, Beautician

-ism

Noun

Communism, Theism

-ist

Noun

Capatalist, Artist

-ity

Noun

Rarity, Velocity

-ment

Noun

Achievement

-ness

Noun

Happiness

-ship

Noun

Friendship

-tion, -ation

Noun

Action, Coronation

-ate

Verb

Deviate, Create

-ify

Verb

Typify, Solidify

-ize

Verb

Tenerize, Authorize

-able, -ible

Adjective

Realiable, Sensible

-al

Adjective

Comical, Radical

-ful

Adjective

Wonderful, Helpful

-ish

Adjective

Sheepish, Squeamish

-ive

Adjective

Creative, Sensitive

-ous, -ious

Adjective

Dangerous

-ly

Adverb

Quickly, Happily


Exercise A: Identify the part of speech for the underlined word based upon the chart above.

1) He was not satisfied with the results of his exam.

2) People rarely apply for jobs without resumes.

3) He had infuriated her with his words.

4) She is the Princess of Spain.

5) She slowly picked up her bags and walked away.

6) He has a very serious personality.

7) Her parents were proud of her for the accomplishments she had made in life.

8) It was a logical solution to our problem.

9) She was capable of doing the work assigned to her.

10) She is a very thoughtful person.

Lesson 10

Leadership vs Management


Lesson Introduction


Leadership and Management


The idea of leadership and management are closely related but are not the same. A leader and a manager require different traits of character and different perspectives. These days it is far more common for companies to seek out the traits of character that exist within a leader. Leadership is becoming far more valued in the workplace than pure management. This is a result of a change in western business practices and perceptions. Due to a heavy investment in human resources, western companies are very focused upon their employees and have found that a leader interacts and motivates their employees much better than a person who is only able to manage and not lead. The ability to lead has become very valuable in the eyes of most companies. However, in the eyes of any company the ideal candidate for a job must possess both the qualities of a leader and the qualities of a manager. A person who lacks the ability to be a leader or a manager is at a serious disadvantage. Companies are now seeking out those who can be both leaders and managers. Such people are in high demand.


Both a manager and a leader may know the business well. But the leader must know it better and in a different way. S/he must grasp the essential facts and the underlying forces that determine the past and present trends in the business, so that s/he can generate a vision and a strategy to bring about its future. One telling sign of a good leader is an honest attitude towards the facts, towards objective truth. A subjective leader obscures the facts for the sake of narrow self-interest, partisan interest or prejudice.

Effective leaders continually ask questions, probing all levels of the organization for information, testing their own perceptions, and rechecking the facts. They talk to their constituents. They want to know what is working and what is not. They keep an open mind for serendipity to bring them the knowledge they need to know what is true. An important source of information for this sort of leader is knowledge of the failures and mistakes that are being made in their organization.

To survive in the twenty-first century, we are going to need a new generation of leaders — leaders, not managers. The distinction is an important one. Leaders conquer the context — the turbulent, ambiguous surroundings that sometimes seem to conspire against us and will surely suffocate us if we let them — while managers surrender to it.

Leaders investigate reality, taking in the pertinent factors and analyzing them carefully. On this basis they produce visions, concepts, plans, and programs. Managers adopt the truth from others and implement it without probing for the facts that reveal reality.

There is profound difference — a chasm — between leaders and managers. A good manager does things right. A leader does the right things. Doing the right things implies a goal, a direction, an objective, a vision, a dream, a path, a reach.

Lots of people spend their lives climbing a ladder — and then they get to the top of the wrong wall. Most losing organizations are over-managed and under-led. Their managers accomplish the wrong things beautifully and efficiently. They climb the wrong wall.

Managing is about efficiency. Leading is about effectiveness. Managing is about how. Leading is about what and why. Management is about systems, controls, procedures, policies, and structure. Leadership is about trust — about people.

Leadership is about innovating and initiating. Management is about copying, about managing the status quo. Leadership is creative, adaptive, and agile. Leadership looks at the horizon, not just the bottom line.

Leaders base their vision, their appeal to others, and their integrity on reality, on the facts, on a careful estimate of the forces at play, and on the trends and contradictions. They develop the means for changing the original balance of forces so that their vision can be realized.

A leader is someone who has the capacity to create a compelling vision that takes people to a new place, and to translate that vision into action. Leaders draw other people to them by enrolling them in their vision. What leaders do is inspire people, empower them.

They pull rather than push. This "pull" style of leadership attracts and energizes people to enroll in a vision of the future. It motivates people by helping them identify with the task and the goal rather than by rewarding or punishing them.

There is a profound difference between management and leadership, and both are important "To manage" means "to bring about, to accomplish, to have charge of or responsibility for, to conduct." "Leading" is "influencing, guiding in direction, course, action, opinion." The distinction is crucial.

Management is...                                   Leadership is....

Coping with complexity                        Coping with and promoting change

Planning and Budgeting                          Setting a Direction

Organizing and Staffing                          Aligning People

Controlling and Problem Solving            Motivating and Inspiring People

Effective Action                                       Meaningful Action

*Both are necessary and important.

Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing. The difference may be summarized as activities of vision and judgment — effectiveness —versus activities of mastering routines — efficiency. The chart below indicates key words that further make the distinction between the two functions:

  • The manager administers; the leader innovates.

  • The manager is a copy; the leader is an original.

  • The manager maintains; the leader develops.

  • The manager accepts reality; the leader investigates it.

  • The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people.

  • The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.

  • The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.

  • The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.

  • The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader has his or her eye on the horizon.

  • The manager imitates; the leader originates.

  • The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.

  • The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person.

  • The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing.

The most dramatic differences between leaders and managers are found at the extremes: poor leaders act like dictators, while poor managers are bureaucrats in the worst sense of the word. While leadership is a human process and management is a process of resource allocation, both have their place and managers must also perform as leaders. All first-class managers have quite a lot of leadership ability.


Managerial Functions and Activities

1-Formulating objectives and strategy

2-Planning and organizing the work

3-Handling disturbances

4-Directing subordinates

5-Motivating commitment

6-Facilitating cooperation and teamwork

7-Disseminating information

8-Monitoring operations and the environment

9-Recruiting and maintaining networks

10-Building and maintaining networks

11-Representing the organization to outsiders


Communication Process in Organization

Downward communication- flowing from top management down

Upward communication- flowing from lower level positions up to top management

Lateral communication- flow of information between people of the same amount of power in the organization

Informal communication- “Watercooler talk”


Influences on Communication

  • Task interdependence

  • Physical facilities

  • Interaction of the individuals (parties, lunches, etc.)\

  • Status of the individual- higher level individuals tend to dominate conversation

  • Cultural norms- specific to cultures: ex-Japanese vs American culture


Requirements for Communication

  • Attention

  • Comprehension

  • Acceptance

  • Feedback


Barriers to Understanding

  • The use of SRC- self-reference criterion, seeing things only from your perspective

  • Over interpretation- inferring the meaning from an incomplete message

  • Projection- trying to make others feel the way we do about something

  • Stereotypes- having preconceived notions about others

  • Arrogance- believing that your views are superior

  • Evaluative responses- judging a message as either right or wrong


Steps to Improving Communication

  • Determine the objectives and analyze the situation

  • Clarify relevance and purpose

  • Use simple language

  • Avoid redundancy (stating the same thing over and over again)

  • Ensure appropriate feedback



The 4 Main Types of Corporate Culture


1) Power Cultures

In these cultures self-reliant and highly competitive self-development provides the basis of relations. A manager’s success is related to their charisma, ambition, and influence, rather than their knowledge and experience. The style of the chief executive (CEO) is the model for other mangers. In organizations of this type mangers need to be tough-minded and aggressive.


Highlights: Charisma, ambition, influence, self-reliance are all important. This type of organizations has a highly competitive environment where aggression is rewarded.


2) Role Cultures

In these cultures a manger’s role is completely related to their place within a centralized system. Their success depends on how well they adhere to rules, procedures, and precedents. Individualism and aggression are NOT valued in these cultures. Employees in these organizations should NOT exceed the limits of their roles. Empowerment is not a management theory that is put into practice in this type of corporate culture.


Highlights: Organizational structure, rules, regulations, and job titles are all very important. Individualism, aggression and assuming responsibility for job functions outside of your job are NOT highly valued.


3) Task Cultures

In organizations of this type, they value everything that makes it possible to get the work done and get company goals accomplished. The main concern in these types of organizations is to be successful with the completion of projects. A manager’s success is related to their knowledge and experienced required to achieve tasks, rather than to meet the requirements of their role. If something does not help the company to meet its goals, it is not considered to be of any value.


Highlights: Things and people in the organization only have value if they add to the ability to get the job done. The “bottom line” is highly valued.


4) Individual Cultures

In organizations of this type freedom of expression is valued the MOST. Effectiveness of any activity in these organizations is rated by how much the activity satisfies the staff rather than by how well it conforms to the company’s business plans. Independence, creativity, and innovation are highly valued in these types of organizations.


Highlights: Freedom of expression and individualism are highly valued. People in the organizations are valued more highly than the “bottom line”. Independence, creativity, and innovation are all highly valued as well.

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