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1 David S. Cloud, “Here’s Donny! In His Defense, a Show Is Born,” The New York Times, April 19, 2006, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A02E6DD143FF93AA25757C0A9609C8B63&scp=4&sq=%22I+decide+what%92s+best.%22&st=nyt
2 Inspired by the declaration, the cable television humor program “The Daily Show” launched the action-packed adventures of “The Decider,” featuring Bush as a comic book hero. In Washington City, the corridors of power were menaced by crippling indecision until…The Decider. http://politicalhumor.about.com/od/dailyshow/v/thedecider.htm
3 Hansen, J. et. al. Earth’s Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications. Science 3 June 2005: Vol. 308. no. 5727, pp. 1431–1435.
4 Hansen, J. et. al. Earth’s Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications. Science 3 June 2005: Vol. 308. no. 5727, pp. 1431–1435.
5 In the United States, the largest methane emissions come from the decomposition of wastes in landfills, ruminant digestion and manure management associated with domestic livestock, natural gas and oil systems, and coal mining. Table 1 shows the level of emissions from individual sources for the years 1990 and 1997 to 2003.
U.S. Methane Emissions by Source (TgCO2 Equivalents)
Source: US Emissions Inventory 2005: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2003, http://www.epa.gov/methane/sources.html, accessed Feb. 14, 2007.
6 Ramanathan, V. & Carmichael, G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Geoscience March 23, 2008. TK TK
7 A very readable and accurate summary of methane sources and controls is “Methane May Pack Double the Climate Punch of Earlier Estimates,” Environmental News Service, http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jul2005/2005-07-19-01.asp.
8 Peter Brimblecombe, “The Big Smoke: A History of Air Pollution in London since Medieval Times,” Methuen, London (1987/88). One of the most entertaining and enlightening books ever written on the subject of air pollution. This is essential reading for a person in the field or aspiring to a career.
9 Mark Z. Jacobson, Atmospheric Pollution: history, science and regulation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England (2002), p. 124.
10 Cooke, W.F.; Wilson, J.J.N. A global black carbon aerosol model. J of Geophys R. VOL. 101; ISSUE: D14 ; PBD: 27 Aug 1996.
A global inventory constructed for emissions of black carbon from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning was implemented in a 3D global transport model and run for 31 model months, and results for January and July compared with measurements from the literature. The modeled values of black carbon mass concentration compared within a factor of 2 in continental regions and some remote regions but are higher than measured values in other remote marine regions and in the upper troposphere, explained by the coarse grid scale of the model, the simplicity of the current deposition scheme, and possibly too much black carbon being available for transport, which would also account for the disagreement in the upper troposphere. The disagreement may also be due to problems associated with the measurement of black carbon. Emissions from this database appear to provide a reasonable estimate of the annual emissions of black carbon to the atmosphere. Biomass burning emissions amount to 5.98 Tg and that from fossil fuel to 7.96 Tg. A local sensitivity analysis showed that black carbon has a lifetime between 6 and 10 days, depending on the transformation rate between hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon.
11 Forbes, M.S., Raison, R.J., Skjemstad, J.O. 2006. Formation, transformation and transport of black carbon (charcoal) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment 370, 190–206. Also, Preston, C.M., Schmidt, M.W.I. 2006. Black (pyrogenic) carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions. Biogeoscience 3, 397–420.
12 Brodowski S., Amelung, W., Haumaier, L., Abetz, C., Zech, W. 2005. Morphological and chemical properties of black carbon in physical soil fractions as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Geoderma 128, 116–129. Also, Forbes, M.S., Raison, R.J., Skjemstad, J.O. 2006. Formation, transformation and transport of black carbon (charcoal) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment 370, 190–206.
13 Bhugwant, C., et. al. Impact of traffic on black carbon aerosol concentration at la Réunion Island (Southern Indian Ocean). Atmospheric Environment Volume 34, Issue 20, 2000, Pages 3463–3473.
To gain information on particle pollution by mobile sources, 3 experiments were conducted during the 1996–1998 period at Saint-Denis, the biggest urban site of La Réunion island (21.5°S; 55.5°E), situated in the Indian Ocean. Black Carbon (BC) concentrations were recorded with an Aethalometer which show high levels whatever the season (daily average: 270–650 ng m-3). At this site, a marked diurnal BC concentration variation is also evidenced in accordance with the observed traffic pattern. Measured daytime BC concentrations are 2–4 times greater than nighttime values. Neither MBL height obtained by radio soundings nor wind speed or direction could explain satisfactorily the BC variations. A comparison with BC concentrations measured at other more remote sites of the island (Sainte-Rose and the altitude site Piton Textor) suggests that the background concentrations of the island are of the order 50 ngC m-3. These background values are almost never encountered in the main city (range: 80–2800 ngC m-3). We show that due to a singular convergence of parameters (topography of the island, road network, movement of population, quality of fuel), the city of Saint-Denis appears as polluted as continental European big cities.
14 Novakov T.; Bates T.S.; Quinn P.K. Shipboard measurements of concentrations and properties of carbonaceous aerosols during ACE-2. Tellus, Volume 52, Number 2, April 2000
Mass concentrations of total, organic and black carbon were derived by analyzing the supermicron and submicron aerosol fractions of shipboard collected samples in the eastern Atlantic Ocean as part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2). These analyses were complemented by experiments intended to estimate the water-soluble fraction of the submicron carbonaceous material. Results: Depending on the sample, between 35% and 80% of total aerosol carbon is associated with the submicron fraction. Total submicron carbon was well correlated with black carbon, a unique tracer for incomplete combustion. These correlations and the approximately constant total to black carbon ratios, suggest that the majority of submicron total carbon is of primary combustion derived origin. No systematic relationship between total submicron aerosol carbon and sulfate concentrations was found. Sulfate concentrations were, with a few exceptions, significantly higher than total carbon. Experiments demonstrated that water exposure removed between 36% and 72% of total carbon from the front filter, suggesting that a substantial fraction of the total submicron aerosol organic carbon is water-soluble. An unexpected result of this study is that water exposure of filter samples caused substantial removal of, nominally insoluble, submicron black carbon. Possible reasons for this observation are discussed.
15 BERUBE, K.A., JONES, T.P., WILLIAMSON, B.J., WINTERS, C., MORGAN, A.J., & RICHARDS, R.J.Physicochemical characterisation of diesel exhaust particles: factors for assessing biological activityAtmospheric Environment 33 (1999) 1599-1614From Cardiff. Source was a 1985 Japanese ISEKI tractor burning Esso 2000 Diesel and a 20/30 mixture of Esso light engine oil. Operated at 2000 rpm. Details of methodology.Define four basic shapes:
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