The School of Chemistry is an active participant in the European Student Exchange Programme Erasmus, and operates on ects principles. Most visiting students




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Chemistry

2010/11


The School of Chemistry is an active participant in the European Student Exchange Programme Erasmus, and operates on ECTS principles. Most visiting students take modules from the Junior and Senior Sophister years; brief details of the Freshman modules in Chemistry are included to indicate the background in Chemistry expected of students taking these Sophister modules. It is also possible to take modules from either the Junior and Senior Freshman courses as part of a wider programme of study in TCD. Details of all chemistry modules are available on the internet at http://www.chemistry.tcd.ie/. The School's Erasmus coordinator is Dr Eoin Scanlan (email to eoin.scanlan@tcd.ie).


Junior Freshman Chemistry (First Year)

The JF Chemistry course provides a general introduction to the fundamentals of modern chemistry, and forms the basis for further studies, both in chemistry and in other sciences. It consists of two modules, Chemistry 101: General and Physical Chemistry (10 Credits), and Chemistry 102: Introduction to systematic Inorganic and Organic Chemistry (10 Credits).


CH1101 Chemistry 101: General and Physical Chemistry




Duration: Michaelmas Term

Contact hours: 4 Lectures + 1 x 3 hr Practical + 1 Tutorial per week

Assessment: Continuous assessment and end of year examinations

Credits: 10 ECTS

Description: Chemistry 101 includes stoichiometry, atomic structure, principles of bonding, the periodic table, solid state, gas laws, thermodynamics, solutions, acid base equilibria, kinetics, and electrochemistry.


CH1102 Chemistry 102: Introduction to Systematic Inorganic and Organic Chemistry


Duration: Hilary Term

Contact Hours: 4 Lectures + 1 x 3 hr Practical + 1 Tutorial per week

Assessment: Continuous assessment and end of year examinations

Credits: 10 ECTS

Description: Chemistry 102 deals with aspects of main group and coordination chemistry, and of aliphatic and aromatic functional group organic chemistry. Chemistry 101 is a pre-requisite for Chemistry 102.


Senior Freshman Chemistry (Second Year)

Second year courses deepen your knowledge in each of the main areas of the subject.


CH2201 Chemistry 201


Duration: Michaelmas Term

Contact hours: 4 Lectures + 1 x 3 hr Practical + 1 Tutorial per week

Assessment: Continuous assessment and end of year examinations

Credits: 10 ECTS

Description: Chemistry 201 includes Inorganic Chemistry: A study of molecular orbital theory and of the transition metals and their compounds, including coordination complexes. Organic Chemistry: A study of the chemistry of bifunctional compounds, sterochemistry. Physical Chemistry: A general course, including chemical thermodynamics and kinetics. Practical Chemistry: Preparation and analysis of a variety of inorganic compounds and experiments in physical chemistry.


CH2202 Chemistry 202


Duration: Hilary Term

Contact hours: 4 Lectures + 1 x 3 hr Practical + 1 Tutorial per week

Assessment: Continuous assessment and end of year examinations

Credits: 10 ECTS

Description: Chemistry 202 includes Inorganic Chemistry: A study of the main group elements and their compounds, nuclear and medicinal inorganic chemistry. Organic Chemistry: A study of the chemistry of aromatic compounds and spectroscopy. Physical Chemistry: A general course, including basic quantum chemistry and spectroscopy, polymers and colloids, and kinetics. An introduction to molecular modelling. Practical Chemistry: Synthetic organic chemistry and experiments in physical/computational chemistry.


JUNIOR SOPHISTER (Third Year)

Junior Sophisters take modules in organic, inorganic, physical, environmental and medicinal chemistry covering topics such as organic mechanisms and synthetic methods, heterocyclics, natural products, amino acids and peptides, organic and inorganic polymers, group theory, spectroscopy and other physical methods, quantum chemistry and statistical mechanics, advanced thermodynamics, coordination chemistry, organometallics, catalysis and surface chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of the atmosphere, analytical chemistry, metal compounds in the environment, drug design and bio-organic chemistry. Lectures are complemented by practical classes in inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry and computational chemistry; advanced preparative methods and instrumental techniques including computer controlled equipment are introduced.


CH3101 Modern Aspects of Inorganic Chemistry

Duration: Michaelmas and Hilary Term

Contact hours: 36 hours

Assessment: By end of year examinations

Credits: 5 ECTS

Description: This module covers such core topics as bio-inorganic chemistry, transition metal organometallics, homogeneous catalysis and the electronic spectroscopy of transition metal complexes. It currently encompasses, CH3013, CH3014, CH3016, CH3018.


CH3013 Bioinorganic Chemistry: Introduction to bio-inorganic chemistry. Background, terminology, occurrence of inorganic elements in biological processes, roles of metal ions (structural/functional), review of biologically relevant elements. Biological molecules as ligands, amino acids and proteins. Iron in biology, metallo-porphyrins, haem proteins. Oxygen, activation, storage and transport, model studies with Co, Fe and Cu complexes. Electron transfer in biology, background, redox potentials and their meaning, blue copper proteins, iron-sulfur proteins, cytochrome C and other oxidases, electron transport chains. Nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis.


CH3014 Transition Metals Organometallics: The factors that determine the reactivity, stability and chemistry of transition metal organometallic compounds are investigated. The transition metal organometallics are classified according to the number of electrons donated by the ligand: alkyl, alkenyl, allyl, cyclopentadienyl and cyclohexadienyl. Each species is examined in turn, detailing their characteristic reactions and the manner in which they can be used in syntheses.


CH3016 Homogeneous Catalysis: Comparison with heterogeneous systems, catalysis cycles. Group VIII, chemistry for low oxidation states, illustrated mainly with (Ph3P)3RhCl. Electronic effects, d8, 16e-18e, p-bonding, soft ligands. 4,5- and 6-coordination, cone angle, isomerisation in 5-coordinate systems. Coordination unsaturation, oxidative addition. H2 activation by oxidative addition, homolytic addition, heterolytic addition. Ligand reactions: reductive elimination, beta-elimination, insertion/migration. Alkene hydrogenation via (Ph3P)3RhCl. Effect of phosphine variation. Hydrogenation with Co(CN)5H and with (Ph3P)3RuCl2. Hydrocyanation for adiponitrile, hydrosilylation. Alkene isomerisation via metal alkyl and allyl pathways. CO reactions. Hydroformylation with Co and with Rh. Synthesis of CH3CO2H. Oxidation via radical pathways for p-xylene (Co/Br). Wacker process.

CH3018 Transition Metals, Compounds and Complexes: The subject of this course is the electronic spectroscopy of transition metal complexes, which can be observed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The course looks at the wavelength and intensity of the light absorbed by complexes and the ways in which this indicates the nature of transitions between electronic energy levels.


CH3102 Materials and Methods


Duration: Michaelmas and Hilary Term

Contact hours: 36 hours

Assessment: by end of year examinations

Credits: 5 ECTS

Description: This module covers topics such as a survey of inorganic polymers, chemical applications of group theory, diffraction methods and clusters. It currently encompasses CH3011, CH3012, CH3017, CH3110.


CH3011 Inorganic Polymers: Main definitions and comparison of organic and inorganic polymers. Homo- and hetero-catenation; survey of catenation in the Periodic Table. Characterisation and evaluation of inorganic polymers. Boron and aluminium containing polymers: borates, borides, B-N systems, carboranes, aluminoxanes. Silicon-containing polymers: silicates and alumosilicates (zeolites), polysilanes, polisiloxanes, polisilazanes and polysilazoxanes. N,-P- and S- containing polymers: phosphates, P-N systems, polymeric sulphur, S-N compounds and polymers. Organometallic and coordination polymers. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymeric materials.


CH3012 Chemical Applications of Group Theory: Revision of group theory and manipulation of matrices. Molecular point groups and how to recognize them. Representation of symmetry operations by matrices; matrices as symmetry operators. Commutation rules for symmetry operators. Reducible and irreducible representations. The reduction of a representation. The orthogonality theorem and its applications. The character table. Applications and construction using the orthogonality theorem and its riders. The total representation. Vectors as a basis for their representation and the assignment of vibrational modes to symmetry types. Infrared and Raman activity of molecular vibrations. Projection operators. Construction of hybrid orbitals sets. Symmetry adapted linear combinations, and their chemical applications. The Direct Product. Transition Moment integrals as examples. Matrix elements.


CH3017 Diffraction Methods: General Introduction to principles of diffraction - neutron diffraction, electron diffraction and diffraction of x-rays. Introduction to Lattices - crystal systems and Bravais Lattices - space group notation and space group diagrams in the International Tables. Elementary discussion of Diffraction - the reciprocal lattice - Bragg's Law in reciprocal space - space group extinctions. The powder method - indexation of reflections. Single crystal diffraction - the four-circle diffractometer and other practical aspects of modern x-ray diffractometry. The solution of a straightforward small structure - scattering factors - Fourier Synthesis - structure factors -the phase problem - the Patterson function -the direct method- structure refinement. Synchrotron Sources - the principles of EXAFS and its use as a structural technique. The course includes demonstration of the powder and four-circle instruments.

CH3110 Clusters: General electron counting rules are considered for predicting the core geometrics of main group and transition metal clusters. The eighteen electron rule, styx rules for boranes, the isolobal analogy and the extented polyhedral skeletal electron pair repulsion theory are examined and applied to a variety of cluster systems. The failings in these theories are explored. The synthesis and spectroscopic techniques used to examine transition metal chemistries are covered.


CH3201 Synthetic Organic Chemistry


Duration: Michaelmas and Hilary Term

Contact hours: 36 hours

Assessment: By end of year examinations

Credits: 5 ECTS

Description: This module gives a basic grounding in the general methodology employed in organic synthesis. Topics covered include a description of the oxidative and reductive transformations of functional groups, halogenation and carbon-carbon bond formation methods. The chemistry of organophosphanes, organosilanes and organosulfur compounds. Chemistry and reactivity of aromatic and aliphatic heterocyclic ring systems. The module currently encompasses CH3022, CH3023, CH3026.


CH3022 Organic Synthesis: Methods for organic functional group transformations. Reagents for reductions. Reagents for oxidations. Reagents for halogenation. Selectivity in organic FG transformations. Asymmetric processes. Hydroxylation and hydration processes. Methods for C-C bond formation with particular emphasis on carbanionic reactions related to the aldol condensation. Synthetic methods based upon the chemistry of carbanions and di-anions derived from 1,3-dicarbonyl systems. Synthesis of 3-and 4-membered ring systems. Aliphatic Friedel-Crafts reactions.


CH3023 Synthetic Methodology: Newer methods for organic synthesis. This course develops the themes presented in course CH3022 (Organic Synthesis), focussing especially on the use of an expanded range of elements to design methods exhibiting enhanced chemoselectivity, steroselectivity etc. Among the topics which may be covered are: Phosphorus: Phosphonium ylids. Wittig reaction, using "reactive" and "stabilized" ylids. Phosphonate anions in Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction. Ph3P/CX4 and Ph3P/DEAD. (RO)3P in Corey-Winter Olefin synthesis. Silicon General features, compared to C (esp. electronegativity and Si-X bond strengths). The -silyl effect. Loss of R3Si from organic molecules. Arylsilanes, vinylsilanes, alkynylsilanes and allylsilanes as C-nucleophiles. Peterson olefination. Oxidative removal of Si. Silyl enol ethers as C-nucleophiles. Si-based O-protecting groups. Sulphur: Survey of organosulphur compounds - variation in oxidation level. Sulphonium ylids in epoxide synthesis and cyclopropanation. Sulphides; sulphenylation of enolates. 1,3-Dithianes as carbonyl anion equivalents (umpolung reagents). Sulphoxides; a-deprotonation and reaction with electrophiles, elimination of RSOH, 2,3-sigmatropic rearrangement in allylic sulphoxides, asymmetric induction from chiral sulphoxides. Sulphones; a-deprotonation and reaction with electrophiles, removal of ArSO2 by reduction. Cheletropic elimination of SO2. OSO2R as leaving groups.


CH3026 Heterocyclics: Introduction to heterocyclic chemistry. Systematic nomenclature for monocyclic and fused ring systems. Pyridine. Structure of molecule. Aromaticity. Idea of retrosynthetic analysis in the design of heterocyclic synthesis. General approach illustrated by detailed treatment of several pyridine synthesies, including the Hantzsch and Guareschi syntheses. Chemical properties of pyridine treated in terms of the structure of the pyridine molecule. Inertness to electrophilic substitution; susceptibility to nucleophilic substitution. Reaction of the pyridine nitrogen with electrophiles and acids. Reduction of pyridine. The NADP system. Pyridine N-oxides. Hydroxy pyridines. Hydroxpyridine/pyridone tautomerism. Pyridine thiols. Aminopyridines. Picolines. Quinoline. Skraup, Conrad-Limpach and Knorr, Combes, and Friedlander syntheses. Isoquinoline. Bischler-Napieralski, Pictet-Spengler, Pomeranz-Fritsch syntheses. Reactions of quinolines and isoquinolines Electrophilic and nucleophilic substitution. Reduction. Basicity. Hydroxy derivatives. N-Quaternary derivatives. Diazines. Brief survey. Pyrmidine synthesis. Substitution reactions of pyrimidines. Dimroth rearrangement. Furan, pyrrole and thiophene. Synthetic approaches. Structure and aromaticity. Electrophilic substitution reactions. Furan as diene. Indole. Electrophilic substitution. Mannich reaction. Fischer indole synthesis. Azoles: Brief survey of types and synthetic approaches. Tautomerism of imidazoles. Electrophilic substitution.

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