Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D

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BATES, WILLIAM: English Presbyterian; b. at

London Nov., 1625; d. at Hackney July 14, 1899.

He was graduated at Cambridge 1647, and was

vicar of St. Dunstan'e in the West, London, until

1662, when he lost the benefice for non conformity;

he was one of the commissioners to the Savoy Con­

ference (q.v.) in 1661 and represented the non­

conformists on other occasions in negotiations

with the Churchmen; was chaplain to Charles II

and had influence in high places both under Charles

and his successors. He is said to have been a

polished preacher and a sound scholar. Perhaps

the beat known of his works is The Harmony of

the Divine Attributes in the Contrivance and Accom­

plishment o f Man's Redemption (2d ed., London,

1675). A collected edition of his works, with

memoir by W. Farmer, was published in four vol­

umes at London in 1815.

BATHING: The bath in the East, because of the heat and the duet, is constantly necessary for the preservation of health, and to prevent Bkin­diseases. The bathing of the newly born is men­tioned in Ezek. xvi, 4; bathing as part of the toilet in Ruth iii, 3; Ih Sam. xii, 20; Ezek. xxiii, 40, and elsewhere. As the Law attached great. religious value to the purity of the body, it pre­scribed bathing and ablutions for cases in which it was apparently impaired (Bee DEFILEMENT AND PURIFICATION, CEREMONIAL). Ablution was re­quired when one approached the deity (cf. Gen.. xxxv, 2; Exod. xix, 10; Lev. xvi, 4, for the high priest on the Day of .Atonement). Bathing in " living" (i.e., running) water was regarded as most effective in every respect (Exod. ii, 5; II Kings v, 10; Lev. xv, 13). More accessible and convenient were the baths arranged in the houses. To a well­furniBhed house belonged a courtyard, in which was: a bath according to II Sam. xi, 2, an open basin. Susannah (verges 15 eqq.) bathes in a hedged garden and uses oil and some kind of soap; the Hebrew women aged bran in the bath, or to dIy themselves, (Mishnah Pestthim ii, 7). The feet, being pro­tected by sandals only, were exposed to dust and dirt, and no attentive host omitted to give to his. guests water for their feet before he entertained them (Gen. xviii, 4; xix, 2; I Sam. xxv, 41; cf. Luke vii, 44; John xiii, I 10). The washing of hands before meals was customary for obvious. reasons; but it is not expressly attested before New Testament time, and then as a religious enact­inent which the Pharisees rigidly observed (.Matt. xv, 2; Luke xi, 38); so in general with reference to washings and bathingB the punctilious were at that time more exacting. The efficacy of warm springs wag recognized at a very early period (cf. Gen. xxxvi, 24, R. V., and the name Hammath, Josh. xix, 35; xxi, 32). They were found near Tiberias (JoeephuB, War, II, xd, 6; Ant.,

Bath 801


XVIII, ii, 3; Life, avi; Puny, v, 15), Gadara, the capital of Persea, and Callirrho8, east of the Dead Sea (Josephus, War, I, xxxiii,
5; Pliny, v, 16). Public baths are mentioned in Josephus, Ant., X1X, vii, 5, but their existence in Palestine can not be proved before the Grew Roman time.

C. VON OaErii.

Abuses connects with the public baths in early Christian times called forth protests from many of the heathen and led some of the emperors to attempt restrictive precautions. The Church Fathers also raised their voices, but it is noteworthy that though therewsepubliccensure (e.g., of women, particularly of virgins who were immodest in the bath), there was no formal, ecclesiastical prohibition of the public baths. The use of the bath was re­mitted during public calamities, penance, Lent, and for the first wok after baptism. From the time of Constantine it was usual to build baths near the basilicas, partly for the use of the clergy, and partly for other ecclesiastical purposes.

Brsr.roossray: For J3ebr. custom consult DB, i, 257 258. On the Christian. DCA, i, 182 183: the article "Baden" in %L, i, 1843 48, covers both subjects.

BATH gOL: Literally" daughter of the voice,"

an expression which signifies in itself nothing

more than a call or echo, for which it is also

used. When the term is applied to a divine

manifestation, i6 implies that it was audible to the

human hearing without a personal theophauy.

In the Old Testament the notion is found in Dan.

iv, 28 (A. V. 31), " a voice fell from heaven." In

the New Testament similar ideas are the heavenly

voice at the baptism of Jesus (Matt. iii, 17; Mark

i, 11; Luke iii, 22), at his transfiguration (Matt.

xvii, 5; Mark ix, 7; Luke ix, 35), before his passion

(John xii, 28), and the voices from heaven heard

by Paul and Peter (Acts ix, 4; cf. axii, 7 and xxvi,

14; x, 13, 15). A voice from the sanctuary is

mentioned by Josephus (Ant., XIII, x, 3; cf. Bab.

Sotah 33a; Jeras. Sotah 24b), and was called bath kol

by the rabbis, who were of opinion that such heav­

enly voices were heard during all the time of Israel's

history, even in their own time. According to

Bab. .Sotah 48b; Yomah 9a, this "voice" was the

only divine means of revelation after the extinction

of prophecy. They narrate legendary stories of

such divine voices which settled religious difficulties.

Different from the bath kol proper is the idea that

natural sounds or words heard by accident

are significant heavenly voices. This superstition

was not uncommon, as Jerus. Shabbat 8c shows.

Rabbi Joshua was of the opinion that such things

must not influence any legal decision (Bab.

Paba Meti'a 59b; Berakot 51b). Rabbi Johanan

lays down as general rule that that which was

heard in the city must be the voice of a man, in the

desert that of a woman, and that either s twofold

"Yea" or twofold "Nay" is heard (Bab. lkfegillah

32a). (G. DAL ".)

Brsrroassrar: F. Weber. 8ysirw der alltynapapaka palbeh­»ixAer Theotoyie. PR 187,194, Lei~ 1880: W. Bate. AOada der TanraiEsn, i, 88. note 3. 9traebaB,1884: ice. Ayada der pal"dmoa0e, i, 351, note 3, ii, 24, ib. 1892r98: 8. Loins, Ancisnt Trades' of 3~parnoterai Yoion: Bath %oi, in T3Bd, ix, 18; .7E, ii, bBB 592.


BATIFFOL, PIERRE HENRI: French Roman Catholic; b. at Toulouse Jan. 27, 1861. He was educated at the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Paris (1878 82), and the University of Paris (1882 86; Docteur & lettres, 1892), and since 1898 has been rector of the Institut Catholique at Toulouse. He was created a domestic prelate to the Pope in 1899, and in theology is an orthodox Roman Catholic, inclining toward the critical school in matters of history. Since 1896 he has been the editor of the Biblioth6que de l'enseignement de t'his­toire ecdksiastique,
founded by him in that year, and since 1899 has also edited the monthly Bulletin de littkrature ecclsidstique. He has written L'Ab­baye de Romano, contribution a L'histoire de la Vati­eane (Paris, 1892); Histoire du breai,6re romain (1893); Six lel'ons sur lea .9varegiles (1897); Trac­tatus is in lnros sartarum scripttrarum (1900)~des d'histoire et de thtologie positive (1902); sad L'Enaeignement de J&us (1905).

BATTER, LORING WOART: Protestant Epis­

copalian; b. in Gloucester County N. J., Nov.

12, 1859. He was educated at Harvard Uni­

versity, the Philadelphia Divinity School, and

the University of Pennsylvania. He was ordered

deacon in 1886 and ordained priest in the following

year, and was instructor and professor of the Old

Testament in the Philadelphia Divinity School from

1888 to 1$99, when he became rector of St. Mark's,

New York City. He is also lecturer on the Old

Testament in the General Theological Seminary,

New York City. In addition to numerous briefer

studies, he has written The 01d Testament from

the Modern Point o f View (New York, 1889) and

The Hebrew Prophet (London, 1905).

BATTERSOlY, HERMON GRISWOLD: Prot­estant Episcopalian; b. ax Marbledale, Conn., May 27, 1827; d. in New York City Mar. 9, 1903. He was educated privately, was rector at San Antonio, Texas, 1860 61, and at Wabasha, DS'mn.,1862 66. In 1866 he removed to Philadelphia and was rector of St. Clement's Church there 1869­1872, of the Church of the Annunciation 1880 89; became rector of the Church of the Redeemer, New York, 1891, but soon retired. He published The Missionary Tune Book (Philadelphia, 1867); The Churchmans Hymn Book (1870); A Sketch Book of the American Episcopate (1878; 3d ed., enlarged, 1891); Christmas Carols and Other Verses (1877); Gregorian Music, a manual of plait, song for the offices of tile American Church (New York, 1884; 7th ed., 1890); Vesper Bells and Other Yeraes (i895).

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