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ribs Old Testament (" Rain­bow Bible ), Leipaic, London, and Baltimore, 1894 eq '

P. Schaff, History of ~ Christian Church, vole. i. iv., vi., vii., New York 1882 92, Vol. v., art 1, by D. $. $chajk, 1907

iP. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, 3 vole. New York, 1877 84

E. Schrader, Cuneiform Inecriytions and the Old Testament, 2 vole., London, 188b 88

Schrader, KAT . ~ E• Schrader, Die Kealinachriften and dace Alts Testament, 2 vole., Berlin, 1902 03

; E. Schrader, KeilinsckrijUiche BibGioh,

Schrader, KB. .. 8 vole., Berlin, 1889 1901

~E. $chflrer, Geachichte dace jiidiachen

S ll Y olkes im ZeitalterJeau Christi, 3 vole.,

Ghte Leipaie, 1898 1901; Eng. tranal., 5

vole„ New York, 1891

Script . Scr_iptoree, ters . .

$orivener, F. H. A. $criivwriener, Introduction !o Ness Tea­

Introductian , . ~ lament Criticism, 4th ed., 1.ondou,1894

Sam . 3enkntid Sentences

$. J. . . . . . . . .Societaa leeu, Society of Jesus "

Theologiaehe 3tudien and Rritiken. Ham­

SK . burg, 1828 sqq.

BMA : Sitzu~to der Mqnchensr Aka­

demch, 1880 sqq.

$BE ..........

AYBOT ..........

Schaff Chris&# Church .......

Schaff, Creeds...

Schrader, COT. .

Smith, KinehiP.. ~ W Early Smitabh, labia Kinshipondand Marriage in

Smith, OTJC. . . ~ W'
R. Smith, The Old Testament in the

Jewish Church, London, 1892

Smith, Prophets W. R. Smith, Prophets of Israel . . to

the Eighth Centurp, London, 1895

Smith, Rel. of W. R. Smith, Religion of the Semites,

Sem . 1 London. 1894

$. P. C. Ii. . , . , , ( $°eiety for the Promotion of Christian


$. P. G. . . . . . , , , ~ Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

in Foreign Parts

sq., eqq and following

Strom . . . . . . . . . . ..Stromata, Miscellanies "

e.v aub voce, or sub verbo

Swete, Indroduc )H. B. Swats, Introduction to the Old Tea 

tion .. . . . torment in Greek, London, 1900

Syr . $yriac

TB9. . . . .Trinitarian Bible Society

Thatcheaand oMcN,S~ O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal, A

Source Book for  Mediaeval History.

Book New York, 1905

I Thesa . Firat Epistle to the Thessalonians

II These . 8econd Epistle to the Thessalonians

ThT . . . . . , , , , , Theolpgiddu Tijdachrift, Amsterdam and

Leyden, 1887 sqq.

Tillemont, M6 ~ L'. $• le Nain de Tillemont, Menwarea ecclearaatiquea dace six premiers m°q'~s"""" aikclea, 18 vole., Paris, 1693 1712

I Tim ......... First Epistle to Timothy

II Tim . . . . . . . ... . Second Epistle to Timothy

Theologiecher Jahreabericht, Leipaic, 1882 

TJB ... ... . . .. . 1587. Freiburg, 1888. Brunswick, 1889 

1897, Berlin, 1898 sqq.

TLB 77 °Z°gi°ch" Lirblatt, Bonn. 1888

TLZ l q Litteratu'Teitu'g• Leipeio,

Tob . . . . . . . . . . . Tobit

TQ .. . ~ Th°°logiacha Quarta7achrift, TBbingen,

1819 sqq.

TS. . . .. .. . . . „ , J. A. Robinson, Texts and Studies,

Cambridge, 1891 sq q~

TSBA . Transactions of the Societg of Biblical

Arrhceologlt London, 1872 eqq

TSK .. . . . . . . . ~ The°s Studien und Xratiken, Ham­

burg, 1828 sqq.

(Texts and Unteraurhungen cur Geachichtt

TU . ........ . de'' altchnathchert Ls:kratur, ed. O. von

Gebhardt and A. Harnack, Leipsic,.

( 1882 sqq.

TZT. . . . ~ Tabi°'ger Zeitaehrift /fir Theolopie, Tii­

bingen 1838 40

Ugolin'i, Thesau ~ B. Ugolinus, Thesaurus anlaquitatum

rue aacrarum, 34 voleVieux Venice, 1744 89

V. T VetuaTeatamentum, Teetamant. 'Old

Testament '

Wattenbach, W• Wattenbaeh, Deutachlanda Geaehichta­

. _ , llen, 5th ed., 2 vole., Berlin, 1885; gue

ed., 1893 94

Wellhausen, ) J. Wellhausen, Rests arabiachen Heidett 

Heidentum .... f lama Berlin, 1887

Wellhausen, J• R'ell6ueen, Prolegomena our Geachichte

Prolegomena... ~ I"r°els8th ed., Berlin, 1905, Eng.

tranal.; Edinburgh, 1885

Ztitaehrift iir Aasyriologie, LeipeiR.

ZA . . . . . . . . . . . .; 1886 88 lierlin 1889 sqq.

Zahn, Einlei  ~ T. Zahn, hinleitung in dace New Teata 

tunp . . . . . . 3d ed., Leipaic, 1907

( T. Za~nl~ Geaehichte dace neututamenb

lichen liariOnd 2 vole., Leipeie, 1888=92

ZATiV . ~Znft far die aitteatamenUiche Wia­

aenachaft, Giessen. 1881 sqq.

ZDAL. . . . . . . . . ~ Zeitechritt ftir deutachea Alterthum and daub

scheLUemtw Berlin,

ZDMG ... . .. .. . ~ Zift rice deutachen morgenLSndischen

Geaellacha LeiPaie, 1847 sqq.

Zeitarhri/t far deutsche Phildopie, Halle.

1889 sqq.

Zeitachrift dace deuterhsn Paltktina Var 

eina, Leipaic, 1878 eqq .

... Zephaniah

i Zeitachrift far die hiatoriache Theologie,

published successively at Leipai0.

Hamburg and Goths 1832 75

iZeitaehrift jw' Kircherpeechichfe, Goths,

1878 eqq.

i Zeitechrijt igr Xirchenrxht, Berlin, Ta 

bingen Freiburg, 1881eq q.

Zeitachrift fvr katkoliaehs Thaologie, Inns 

bruck, 1877 sqq.

i Zeitadvrift fAr kirchliche Wieaenechajt and

kirchliehea Le6en. Leipeie. 1880 89 .

Zeitaehrif! for Proteatantiamue and Kirche,

Erlangen, 1838 78

i Zeitachntt~r uiassruchaf

Jena, 18$8 80, Halle, 1881 87, Leipai0. 1868 eqq.

Zahn, Kanon .

ZDP .........

ZDPV....... Zech.......... Zeph.......... ZHT.........








The following system of transliteration hoe been need for Hebrew:

~ _ ' or omitted at the 1= z p = .

beginning of a word. n=4 B=p

2=b d=1 D=phorp

3=bhorb `=y


'=g ~_>< P=V

t=ghorg ~=khork 1=r

~=a 5=1 m  _'S

~=dhord n=m

;~=h 1=n P1 =t

j=w p=s n=thort

The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, n, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Aug* and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Greek is written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being use&


When the pronunciation is self evident the titles are not respelled; when by mere division and atxen­tuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, sad the anted

syllables indicated.

a as in sofa a VA
m not in an in duration

N rr arm a tr rr nor e =k rt tr cat

a a sr at a if a fall s eh " rt Aurch

rt u fan fl if a X18 eW  qu as in queen

e u sr phi Q a tr but dh (9h) a tt As

16 rr tr fate Q " tt burn f « tt'a1W

i a N tin yt a pi" 1 B (hard) rt tt •90

u rt machine au a is put g u tt look (h)

st re obey ei if n oil hw (u]<) a rt why

er a no IQ Is rr f1w, i u .r haw

3 >'n accented syllables only: in unaccented ey ILibles it sppcorimatee the eoumd of a in over. The letter n, with a dot

beneath i mdicstee the Bound of a r in iok. Nasal n (ae in ~oh words) a rendered n,

~ In ~ and F=V names a approximates the wand d u in dune:



BASILICA: 1. Legal codes. Since the great

codification of the Roman law by Justinian, the

Corpus juria civilia, was written in Latin, it could

not meet the needs of the East, and required Greek

translations. To do away with the uncertainty

which had arisen from such versions, in $78 the

emperor Basil the Macedonian had a handbook

put together, covering forty titles, and put out a

revision in 885. A further revision and codifica­

tion of the. older laws, edited once more under Leo

the Wine (888), bears the Greek name of to hasilika.

It is in sixty books, based on Justinian's compila­

tion from the older versions and commentaries,

with extracts from his later constitutions known

as the Novella, and from Basil's handbook men­

tioned above. (E. FHIEI)HERti:)

2. Early form of Christian churches. See Aacax­xrcrua.>e, Ecc~lesTlcal..

Bxszsoaasrar: C. E. Zachsris, Historic juris (1rmva Romani daiineoMo. PP 35 aa. Heidelberg, 1839; Mortxeuil. His­biro du droit Bysanbin, part ii, pp. 1 B9Q..
Dart iii. PD. 230 mm., Pans. 1843 48; Srumtaaher, Oeachirhts. pp. 171, 257 258. 806, 607. 808, 610, 977.

BA6ILIDEB, bas i lai'dfz, AND THE BASILID­

IAlIS: Basilidea, a famous Gnostic, was a pupil

of as alleged interpreter of St. Peter, Glsucisa by

name, and taught at Alexandria during the reign of

Hadrian (117 138). He may have been previously

a disciple of Menander at Antioch, together with

Saturnilna. The Acts Archelai state that for a time

he taught among the Persians. He composed

twenty four books on the Gospel, which, according

to Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, iv, 12), were

entitled " Exegetice." Fragments of xiii and xxiii,

preserved by Clement and in the Acta Archelai,

supplement the knowledge of Basilides furnished

by his opponents. Origen is certainly wrong in

ascribing to him a Gospel. The oldest

Basilidea. refutation of the teachings of Basili­des, by Agrippa Castor (q.v.), is lost, and we are dependent upon the later accounts of Irenseus, Clement of Alexandria, and Hippolytus. The latter, in his Phidosophu»xena, gives a presen­tation entirely different from the other sources. It either rests on corrupt accounts, or, more prob­ably, on those of a later, post Basilidian phase of the system. Hippolytus describes a monistic system, in which Hellenic, or rather Stoic, concep­tions stand in the foreground, whereas the genuine. IL i

Basilides is an Oriental through and through, who stands in closer relationship to Zoroaster than to Aristotle.

The fundamental theme of the Basilidian specu­lation is the question concerning the origin of evil and how to overcome it. The answer. is given entirely in the forma of Oriental gnosis, evidently influenced by Paraeeiem. There are two principles, untreated and self existent, light and darkness, originally separated and without knowledge of tech other. At the head of the" kingdom of light

stands " the untreated, unnamable His System. God." From him divine life unfolds in successive steps. Seven such reve­lations form the first ogdoad, from which issued the rent of the spirit world, till three hundred and aixty­five spirit realms had originated. These are com­prised under the mystic name Abraeaa (q.v.), whose numerical value answers to the number of the heavens and days. Being seized with a longing for light, darkness now interferes. A etruggIp of the principles commences, in which originated our system of the world as copy of the last stage of the spirit world, having an archon and angel at its head. The earthly life is only a moment of the general purification process which now takes place to deliver the world of light from darkness. Hence everything which is bad and evil in this system of the world becomes intelligible when regarded in its proper relations. Gradually the rays of light find their way through the mineral kingdom, vegetable kingdom, and animal kingdom. Man has two souls in his breast, of which the rational soul trite to master the material or animal. For the consummation of the process an intervention from above is necessary, however. The Christian idea of the manifestation of God in Jesus Christ is the historical fact which Basilides subjects to his general thoughts. God's " mind " (Gk. noun) descended upon Jesus as dove at the Jordan, sad he proclaimed salvation to the Jews, the chosen people of the archon. The suffering of Jesus, Basilides admitted as a historical fact, but he did not. under­stand how to utilize it religiously. The Spirit of God is the redeemer, not the crucified one. Jesus suffered as man, whose light nature was also con­taminated through the matter of evil. But the belief in the redemption which came from above lifts man beyond himself to a higher degree of exist 

Assuage Bathing


ante. How far the individual can attain it depends on the degree of pure entanglement in former degrees of the spirit world. In the per­fected spirit world the place will be assigned to each which belongs to him according to the degree of his faith.

Among the Basilidians, Basilidea' son, Isidore, occupies a prominent place. Of his writings (" On the Excrescent Soul," " Exegetics," " Ethics ") some fragments are extant. The sect does not seem to have spread beyond Lower Egypt.

The Basi  In opposition to the rigid ethics of lidittna. their master, the Basilidiana seem often to have advocated libertinism. According to Clement of Alexandria they cele­brated the sixth or the tenth of January as the day of the 'baptism of Jesus. On the importance of this fact for the origin of the ecclesiastical festival of the Epiphany, cf. H. Uaener, Rcligionageschicht­lithe Untersuchungen, i (Bonn, 1889).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The fragments of Basilidea ere collected in

J. E. Grabs, Spicikyium $S. Palram, ii, 35 43, Oxford,

1890; in A. 8tieren's edition of Irenerus, i, 901 903, 907­

909, Leipeic, 1853; and in A. Hilgenfeld, Ketaerpaschichte

dw Urchriatentums, pp., 207 217, Leipeic, 1884. The

sources are Irenmua (Her., I, zxiv, 1; cf. ii, 18et passim),

Clement of Alexandria (Strom., ii, 8; iii, 1; iv, 12, 24, 28;

v, 1), Origen (Ham. i on Luke; oom. on Roinans, v), Eu­

eebiua (Chron.,
an. 133; Hist. ecc1.. IV, vii, 7), the Acta

Arehelai (lv), Epiphanius (HaT., xxiii, 1; xaiv; aaxii, 3),

and Hippolytus (PAiloaophumena, vii, 2 1b). Consult A.

Neander, Oenetiechs EnMaieklunp der oornehmaten pnoeti­

schen Systems, Berlin, 1818 (the moat exhaustive treat­

ment); F. C. Baur, Die christliche (#noeie, Ttibingen, 1835;

J. L. Jacobi, Basilidia philoeophi prwetici aeatentias ex Hip­

polyti Zibri, Berlin, 1852 (valuable); G. Uhlhorn. Doe

bariiidianseehe System, GtSttingen, 1855: H. L. Maneel,

Gnostic Heresies, London, 1875 (has able lecture on Bss­

itidea); Hart, in DCB, i, 288 281 (very thorough);

A. Hilgenfeld, in ZWT, axi (1878), 228 250; idem, Die

Ketzergeachichte des UrchrietenCuma, pp. 207 218. Leipsic,

1884; G. Salmon, The Cross references in the PhilosoPhou­

mesa, in Herniathena, xi (I885), 389 102; H. Stiihalin, Die

pnoatiachan QueZlen Hippolyta, in TU, vi, 3, Leipaic, 1890;

Schaff, Christian Church, ii, 488 472; Harnsek. Lit­

teratur, i, 157 181; ii, 1, 289 297 KriSger, History, pp.

70 71; Moeller, Christian Church, i, 141 144; J. Kennedy, in

the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1902, pp. 377 415.

BASRAGE, ba"nezh': The name of a family of Normandy which has produced several men prom­inent in the history of French Protestantism.

1. Benjamin Bssnage was for fifty one years pastor at Saints MEre ?;glue, near Carentan (27 m. s.e. of Cherbourg), where he was born in 1580 and died in 1852. During the religious ware he was repeatedly chosen by his coreligioniats, on account of the constancy of his character and his great learning, to represent them in political and ecclesiastical assemblies. He was president of the general synod at Alenqon in 1637 and as deputy at Charenton in 1644 he did much to defend the rights of the Protestants and to reconcile the theo­logians. In the year of his death he was ennobled by the government of Louis XIV. Of the many polemical tractatea which he wrote, the beat known is De l'dat viafble et invisible de l1glise et de la parfaits satisfaction de JEsus Christ, contra la fable du purgatoire
(La Rochelle, 1812).

2. Hen~i Basnage, younger son of Benjamin, was born at Saints MEre tgliee Oct. 16, 1815; d.

at Rouen Oct. 20, 1895. He was one of the most eloquent advocates in the parliament of Rouen and one of the moat famous jurists of his time. He defended the cause of the Reformed Church courageously, and his reputation was such that after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he was almost the only Protestant who could follow the profession of law in Rouen.

3. Samuel Basnage, son of Antoine, younger son of Benjamin, was born at Bayeux 1838; d. at Ziitphen 1721. He was first pastor at Vauxcellea, then at Bayeux till 1885. He went with his father to the Netherlands and became pastor there of the Walloon congregation at Zutphen. Of his theo­logical writings the moat important are: Morale tUologique et politique our lea vertus et lee vices des hommea (2 vole., Amsterdam, 1703); and Annales politico ecclesiastici
(3 vole., Rotterdam, 170G).

4. Jacques Basnage (de Besuval), son of Henri, was born at Rouen Aug. 8, 1653; d. at The Hague Dec. 22, 1723. He first studied the classical lan­guages at Saumur under Tanneguy, father of the famous Mme. Dacier; afterward theology at Geneva under Turretin and Tronchin, finally at Sedan under Jurieu. In 1678 he was chosen pastor at Rouen; after the suppression of the church at Rouen in 1685, Louis XIV granted him permission to retire to Holland. In 1691 he was made pastor of the Walloon congregation at Rotterdam, and in 1709 of the French congregation at The Hague. The prime minister Heinsius respected him highly and employed him in different diplomatic missions. The fame of his diplomatic ability reached the court at Versailles, and when, in 1718, the Abby Dubois was sent to The Hague by the Duke of Orleans, then regent, in behalf of the triple alliance, he was instructed to associate with Basnage. When an insurrection of the Camisarda in the CEvennes was feared, the regent applied to Basnage. He supported energetically the zealous Antoine Court, . then twenty years old, in restoring the Protestant Church in Southern France, but, partial to the principles of passive obedience, as preached by Calvin, he severely condemned the insurrection of the Camisarda and even blamed the first preachers in the Desert. About this time the States General of the Netherlands appointed him historiographer. His numerous works are partly dogmatic or polemic, partly historical. The former include especially his writings against ~ Bosauet: Examen des methodes propoae,es par Messieurs de L'assemblt:e du clergE de France, en 168, pour la rEunion des Protestants a l1glise romaine (Cologne, 1882); R~qoonse h M. l'&4que de Meaux sur la lettre pastorale (1686). His historical works are: Histoire de la religion des  0glises r9f ormEes (2 vole., Rotterdam, 1690; 1725); Xistoire de l'9glise depuia Jesus Christ jusqu'd present (1699); Histoires du Vieux et du Nouveau Testament, reproerttees par des figures grav6ea en taalle dotit:e par R. de Hooge (Amsterdam, 1704); Histoire des Juifa depths J&ua Christ jttaqu'h present (1708). G. BONET MAURY.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Aymon, Tom Us synods& nationaux des ' Wises rE(ormBea, The H ue, 1710; P. Bayle, Diction 

naire hisWrique et eritiqu ,materdam, 1740: D. Houard,

Dietionnaire de la coutu..e do Normandis, Rouen, 1780;

Lamory, >tloys do Basnape, in Bulletin d'hisfoirs du prow


9ssnage Bathing

tantieme franfaia, vol. x, p. 42; aiii, pp. 41 48; E. and )4. Hang, La France proteatante,
2d ed. by M. Bordier, 5 vols., Paris, 1877 88; F. Puaux, Les Prbcuraeura /ranfaia de la td6rance, ib. 1881; J. Bianquia. La R6eocation de l'bdit do Nantes, Rouen, 1885.

BASSERMANIP, HEINRICH GUSTAV: German Lutheran; b. at Frankfort on the Main July 12, 1849. He was educated at the universities of Jena, Zurich, and Heidelberg in 1868 73, but served in the campaign of 1870 71 in the First Baden Dra­goons. He was assistant pastor at ArolBen, Wal­deck, from 1873 to 1876, when he became privat­docent of New Testament exegesis at the University of Jena. In the same year he was appointed asso­ciate professor of practical theology at Heidelberg, and full professor and university preacher in 1880. He wrote: Dreisaig chriatliche Prediglen (Leipaic, 1875); De loco Mtetthcei v, 17 ,t'D (Jena, 1876); Handbuch der geisdichen Beredsamkeit (Stuttgart, 1885); Akodemische Predigten (1886); System der Liturgik (1888); Geschichte der bttdiachen Gottea­dienstordnung (1891); Sine ire et studio (Tiibingen, 1894); Der badische Katechismus erkldrt (1896 97); Richard Rothe als praktiseher Theolog (1899); Zur Frage des Unionskatecltismua (1901); Ueber Reform des Abendmahls (1904); Wie studiert man evareye­lisehe Theologief (Stuttgart, 1905); and Gott: Fiinf Predigtert (G&ttingen, 1905). From 1879 he edited the Zeitschrift fur praktische Theologie in collabora­tion with Rudolf Ehlers. Died in Samaden (70 m. B.B.e. of St. Gall), Switzerland, Aug. 30, 1909.

BASTHOLM, CHRISTIAN: Danish court preach­er, and an influential representative of the prev­alent rationalism of his time; b. at Copenhagen Nov. 2, 1740; d. there Jan. 25, 1819. He had a varied education, and was specially attracted to philosophy and natural science, but was persuaded by his father to embrace a clerical career without any real love for Christian doctrine or the Church. He was preacher to the German congregation at Smyrna from 1768 to 1771. His renown as a great orator won him in 1778 the position of court preacher, to which other court offices were Subse­quently added. Full of the ideas of the " Enlight­enment," he felt called upon to be a missionary in their cause to his countrymen, and published a number of works in popular religious philosophy and history which have long since fallen into obliv­ion. His greatest success was his text book of sacred oratory (1775), which so impressed Joseph II that he introduced it into all the higher educational institutions of the empire, though its recommenda­tions seem laughable to day. He published a history of the Jews (1777 82 ), attempting to " rationalize " it after Michaelis, and a translation of the New Testament with notes (1780). A small treatise on improvements in the liturgy (1785) aroused a storm of controversy; his idea was to make the

service " interesting and diversified," after the

model of belle and concerto; to exclude from hymnody not only everything dogmatic but all that was not joyous; and to eliminate from the sacramental rites whatever wag contrary to sound reason. In the days of the French Revolution, he offered so many concessions to the antireligioue spirit that he made himself ridiculous even in the

eyes of freethinkers; and his book on " Wisdom

and Happiness" (1794) taught a Stoicism only

colored by Christianity. In 1795 he lost his library

by fire, and with the new century withdrew from

public life and authorship to live quietly with his

eon, a pastor at.Slagelse, absorbed in the study of

philosophy and science. (F. NIEIBEN.)

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