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P. Schaff, History of ~ Christian Church, vole. i. iv., vi., vii., New York 1882 92, Vol. v., art 1, by D. $. $chajk, 1907
iP. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, 3 vole. New York, 1877 84
E. Schrader, Cuneiform Inecriytions and the Old Testament, 2 vole., London, 188b 88
Schrader, KAT . ~ E• Schrader, Die Kealinachriften and dace Alts Testament, 2 vole., Berlin, 1902 03
; E. Schrader, KeilinsckrijUiche BibGioh,
Schrader, KB. .. 8 vole., Berlin, 1889 1901
~E. $chflrer, Geachichte dace jiidiachen
S ll Y olkes im ZeitalterJeau Christi, 3 vole.,
Ghte Leipaie, 1898 1901; Eng. tranal., 5
vole„ New York, 1891
Script . Scr_iptoree, ters . .
$orivener, F. H. A. $criivwriener, Introduction !o Ness Tea
Introductian , . ~ lament Criticism, 4th ed., 1.ondou,1894
Sam . 3enkntid Sentences
$. J. . . . . . . . .Societaa leeu, Society of Jesus "
Theologiaehe 3tudien and Rritiken. Ham
SK . burg, 1828 sqq.
BMA : Sitzu~to der Mqnchensr Aka
demch, 1880 sqq.
Schaff Chris Church .......
Schrader, COT. .
Smith, KinehiP.. ~ W Early Smitabh, labia Kinshipondand Marriage in
Smith, OTJC. . . ~ W' R. Smith, The Old Testament in the
Jewish Church, London, 1892
Smith, Prophets W. R. Smith, Prophets of Israel . . to
the Eighth Centurp, London, 1895
Smith, Rel. of W. R. Smith, Religion of the Semites,
Sem . 1 London. 1894
$. P. C. Ii. . , . , , ( $°eiety for the Promotion of Christian
$. P. G. . . . . . , , , ~ Society for the Propagation of the Gospel
in Foreign Parts
sq., eqq and following
Strom . . . . . . . . . . ..Stromata, Miscellanies "
e.v aub voce, or sub verbo
Swete, Indroduc )H. B. Swats, Introduction to the Old Tea
tion .. . . . torment in Greek, London, 1900
Syr . $yriac
TB9. . . . .Trinitarian Bible Society
Thatcheaand oMcN,S~ O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal, A
Source Book for Mediaeval History.
Book New York, 1905
I Thesa . Firat Epistle to the Thessalonians
II These . 8econd Epistle to the Thessalonians
ThT . . . . . , , , , , Theolpgiddu Tijdachrift, Amsterdam and
Leyden, 1887 sqq.
Tillemont, M6 ~ L'. $• le Nain de Tillemont, Menwarea ecclearaatiquea dace six premiers m°q'~s"""" aikclea, 18 vole., Paris, 1693 1712
I Tim ......... First Epistle to Timothy
II Tim . . . . . . . ... . Second Epistle to Timothy
Theologiecher Jahreabericht, Leipaic, 1882
TJB ... ... . . .. . 1587. Freiburg, 1888. Brunswick, 1889
1897, Berlin, 1898 sqq.
TLB 77 °Z°gi°ch" Lirblatt, Bonn. 1888
TLZ l q Litteratu'Teitu'g• Leipeio,
Tob . . . . . . . . . . . Tobit
TQ .. . ~ Th°°logiacha Quarta7achrift, TBbingen,
TS. . . .. .. . . . „ , J. A. Robinson, Texts and Studies,
Cambridge, 1891 sq q~
TSBA . Transactions of the Societg of Biblical
Arrhceologlt London, 1872 eqq
TSK .. . . . . . . . ~ The°s Studien und Xratiken, Ham
burg, 1828 sqq.
(Texts and Unteraurhungen cur Geachichtt
TU . ........ . de'' altchnathchert Ls:kratur, ed. O. von
Gebhardt and A. Harnack, Leipsic,.
( 1882 sqq.
TZT. . . . ~ Tabi°'ger Zeitaehrift /fir Theolopie, Tii
bingen 1838 40
Ugolin'i, Thesau ~ B. Ugolinus, Thesaurus anlaquitatum
rue aacrarum, 34 voleVieux Venice, 1744 89
V. T VetuaTeatamentum, Teetamant. 'Old
Wattenbach, W• Wattenbaeh, Deutachlanda Geaehichta
. _ , llen, 5th ed., 2 vole., Berlin, 1885; gue
ed., 1893 94
Wellhausen, ) J. Wellhausen, Rests arabiachen Heidett
Heidentum .... f lama Berlin, 1887
Wellhausen, J• R'ell6ueen, Prolegomena our Geachichte
Prolegomena... ~ I"r°els8th ed., Berlin, 1905, Eng.
tranal.; Edinburgh, 1885
Ztitaehrift iir Aasyriologie, LeipeiR.
ZA . . . . . . . . . . . .; 1886 88 lierlin 1889 sqq.
Zahn, Einlei ~ T. Zahn, hinleitung in dace New Teata
tunp . . . . . . 3d ed., Leipaic, 1907
( T. Za~nl~ Geaehichte dace neututamenb
lichen liariOnd 2 vole., Leipeie, 1888=92
ZATiV . ~Znft far die aitteatamenUiche Wia
aenachaft, Giessen. 1881 sqq.
ZDAL. . . . . . . . . ~ Zeitechritt ftir deutachea Alterthum and daub
scheLUemtw Berlin, 1878eqq
ZDMG ... . .. .. . ~ Zift rice deutachen morgenLSndischen
Geaellacha LeiPaie, 1847 sqq.
Zeitarhri/t far deutsche Phildopie, Halle.
Zeitachrift dace deuterhsn Paltktina Var
eina, Leipaic, 1878 eqq .
i Zeitachrift far die hiatoriache Theologie,
published successively at Leipai0.
Hamburg and Goths 1832 75
iZeitaehrift jw' Kircherpeechichfe, Goths,
i Zeitechrijt igr Xirchenrxht, Berlin, Ta
bingen Freiburg, 1881eq q.
Zeitachrift fvr katkoliaehs Thaologie, Inns
bruck, 1877 sqq.
i Zeitadvrift fAr kirchliche Wieaenechajt and
kirchliehea Le6en. Leipeie. 1880 89 .
Zeitaehrif! for Proteatantiamue and Kirche,
Erlangen, 1838 78
i Zeitachntt~r uiassruchaf
Jena, 18$8 80, Halle, 1881 87, Leipai0. 1868 eqq.
Zahn, Kanon .
ZDPV....... Zech.......... Zeph.......... ZHT.........
SYSTEM OF TRANSLITERATION
The following system of transliteration hoe been need for Hebrew:
~ _ ' or omitted at the 1= z p = .
beginning of a word. n=4 B=p
2=b d=1 D=phorp
'=g ~_>< P=V
t=ghorg ~=khork 1=r
~=a 5=1 m _'S
;~=h 1=n P1 =t
j=w p=s n=thort
The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, n, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Aug* and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Greek is written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being use&
KEY TO PRONUNCIATION
When the pronunciation is self evident the titles are not respelled; when by mere division and atxentuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, sad the anted
a as in sofa a VA m not in an in duration
N rr arm a tr rr nor e =k rt tr cat
a a sr at a if a fall s eh " rt Aurch
rt u fan fl if a X18 eW qu as in queen
e u sr phi Q a tr but dh (9h) a tt As
16 rr tr fate Q " tt burn f « tt'a1W
i a N tin yt a pi" 1 B (hard) rt tt •90
u rt machine au a is put g u tt look (h)
st re obey ei if n oil hw (u]<) a rt why
er a no IQ Is rr f1w, i u .r haw
3 >'n accented syllables only: in unaccented ey ILibles it sppcorimatee the eoumd of a in over. The letter n, with a dot
beneath i mdicstee the Bound of a r in iok. Nasal n (ae in ~oh words) a rendered n,
~ In ~ and F=V names a approximates the wand d u in dune:
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE
BASILICA: 1. Legal codes. Since the great
codification of the Roman law by Justinian, the
Corpus juria civilia, was written in Latin, it could
not meet the needs of the East, and required Greek
translations. To do away with the uncertainty
which had arisen from such versions, in $78 the
emperor Basil the Macedonian had a handbook
put together, covering forty titles, and put out a
revision in 885. A further revision and codifica
tion of the. older laws, edited once more under Leo
the Wine (888), bears the Greek name of to hasilika.
It is in sixty books, based on Justinian's compila
tion from the older versions and commentaries,
with extracts from his later constitutions known
as the Novella, and from Basil's handbook men
tioned above. (E. FHIEI)HERti:)
2. Early form of Christian churches. See Aacaxxrcrua.>e, Ecc~lesTlcal..
Bxszsoaasrar: C. E. Zachsris, Historic juris (1rmva Romani daiineoMo. PP 35 aa. Heidelberg, 1839; Mortxeuil. Hisbiro du droit Bysanbin, part ii, pp. 1 B9Q.. Dart iii. PD. 230 mm., Pans. 1843 48; Srumtaaher, Oeachirhts. pp. 171, 257 258. 806, 607. 808, 610, 977.
BA6ILIDEB, bas i lai'dfz, AND THE BASILID
IAlIS: Basilidea, a famous Gnostic, was a pupil
of as alleged interpreter of St. Peter, Glsucisa by
name, and taught at Alexandria during the reign of
Hadrian (117 138). He may have been previously
a disciple of Menander at Antioch, together with
Saturnilna. The Acts Archelai state that for a time
he taught among the Persians. He composed
twenty four books on the Gospel, which, according
to Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, iv, 12), were
entitled " Exegetice." Fragments of xiii and xxiii,
preserved by Clement and in the Acta Archelai,
supplement the knowledge of Basilides furnished
by his opponents. Origen is certainly wrong in
ascribing to him a Gospel. The oldest
Basilidea. refutation of the teachings of Basilides, by Agrippa Castor (q.v.), is lost, and we are dependent upon the later accounts of Irenseus, Clement of Alexandria, and Hippolytus. The latter, in his Phidosophu»xena, gives a presentation entirely different from the other sources. It either rests on corrupt accounts, or, more probably, on those of a later, post Basilidian phase of the system. Hippolytus describes a monistic system, in which Hellenic, or rather Stoic, conceptions stand in the foreground, whereas the genuine. IL i
Basilides is an Oriental through and through, who stands in closer relationship to Zoroaster than to Aristotle.
The fundamental theme of the Basilidian speculation is the question concerning the origin of evil and how to overcome it. The answer. is given entirely in the forma of Oriental gnosis, evidently influenced by Paraeeiem. There are two principles, untreated and self existent, light and darkness, originally separated and without knowledge of tech other. At the head of the" kingdom of light
stands " the untreated, unnamable His System. God." From him divine life unfolds in successive steps. Seven such revelations form the first ogdoad, from which issued the rent of the spirit world, till three hundred and aixtyfive spirit realms had originated. These are comprised under the mystic name Abraeaa (q.v.), whose numerical value answers to the number of the heavens and days. Being seized with a longing for light, darkness now interferes. A etruggIp of the principles commences, in which originated our system of the world as copy of the last stage of the spirit world, having an archon and angel at its head. The earthly life is only a moment of the general purification process which now takes place to deliver the world of light from darkness. Hence everything which is bad and evil in this system of the world becomes intelligible when regarded in its proper relations. Gradually the rays of light find their way through the mineral kingdom, vegetable kingdom, and animal kingdom. Man has two souls in his breast, of which the rational soul trite to master the material or animal. For the consummation of the process an intervention from above is necessary, however. The Christian idea of the manifestation of God in Jesus Christ is the historical fact which Basilides subjects to his general thoughts. God's " mind " (Gk. noun) descended upon Jesus as dove at the Jordan, sad he proclaimed salvation to the Jews, the chosen people of the archon. The suffering of Jesus, Basilides admitted as a historical fact, but he did not. understand how to utilize it religiously. The Spirit of God is the redeemer, not the crucified one. Jesus suffered as man, whose light nature was also contaminated through the matter of evil. But the belief in the redemption which came from above lifts man beyond himself to a higher degree of exist
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
ante. How far the individual can attain it depends on the degree of pure entanglement in former degrees of the spirit world. In the perfected spirit world the place will be assigned to each which belongs to him according to the degree of his faith.
Among the Basilidians, Basilidea' son, Isidore, occupies a prominent place. Of his writings (" On the Excrescent Soul," " Exegetics," " Ethics ") some fragments are extant. The sect does not seem to have spread beyond Lower Egypt.
The Basi In opposition to the rigid ethics of lidittna. their master, the Basilidiana seem often to have advocated libertinism. According to Clement of Alexandria they celebrated the sixth or the tenth of January as the day of the 'baptism of Jesus. On the importance of this fact for the origin of the ecclesiastical festival of the Epiphany, cf. H. Uaener, Rcligionageschichtlithe Untersuchungen, i (Bonn, 1889).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The fragments of Basilidea ere collected in
J. E. Grabs, Spicikyium $S. Palram, ii, 35 43, Oxford,
1890; in A. 8tieren's edition of Irenerus, i, 901 903, 907
909, Leipeic, 1853; and in A. Hilgenfeld, Ketaerpaschichte
dw Urchriatentums, pp., 207 217, Leipeic, 1884. The
sources are Irenmua (Her., I, zxiv, 1; cf. ii, 18et passim),
Clement of Alexandria (Strom., ii, 8; iii, 1; iv, 12, 24, 28;
v, 1), Origen (Ham. i on Luke; oom. on Roinans, v), Eu
eebiua (Chron., an. 133; Hist. ecc1.. IV, vii, 7), the Acta
Arehelai (lv), Epiphanius (HaT., xxiii, 1; xaiv; aaxii, 3),
and Hippolytus (PAiloaophumena, vii, 2 1b). Consult A.
Neander, Oenetiechs EnMaieklunp der oornehmaten pnoeti
schen Systems, Berlin, 1818 (the moat exhaustive treat
ment); F. C. Baur, Die christliche (#noeie, Ttibingen, 1835;
J. L. Jacobi, Basilidia philoeophi prwetici aeatentias ex Hip
polyti Zibri, Berlin, 1852 (valuable); G. Uhlhorn. Doe
bariiidianseehe System, GtSttingen, 1855: H. L. Maneel,
Gnostic Heresies, London, 1875 (has able lecture on Bss
itidea); Hart, in DCB, i, 288 281 (very thorough);
A. Hilgenfeld, in ZWT, axi (1878), 228 250; idem, Die
Ketzergeachichte des UrchrietenCuma, pp. 207 218. Leipsic,
1884; G. Salmon, The Cross references in the PhilosoPhou
mesa, in Herniathena, xi (I885), 389 102; H. Stiihalin, Die
pnoatiachan QueZlen Hippolyta, in TU, vi, 3, Leipaic, 1890;
Schaff, Christian Church, ii, 488 472; Harnsek. Lit
teratur, i, 157 181; ii, 1, 289 297 KriSger, History, pp.
70 71; Moeller, Christian Church, i, 141 144; J. Kennedy, in
the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1902, pp. 377 415.
BASRAGE, ba"nezh': The name of a family of Normandy which has produced several men prominent in the history of French Protestantism.
1. Benjamin Bssnage was for fifty one years pastor at Saints MEre ?;glue, near Carentan (27 m. s.e. of Cherbourg), where he was born in 1580 and died in 1852. During the religious ware he was repeatedly chosen by his coreligioniats, on account of the constancy of his character and his great learning, to represent them in political and ecclesiastical assemblies. He was president of the general synod at Alenqon in 1637 and as deputy at Charenton in 1644 he did much to defend the rights of the Protestants and to reconcile the theologians. In the year of his death he was ennobled by the government of Louis XIV. Of the many polemical tractatea which he wrote, the beat known is De l'dat viafble et invisible de l1glise et de la parfaits satisfaction de JEsus Christ, contra la fable du purgatoire (La Rochelle, 1812).
2. Hen~i Basnage, younger son of Benjamin, was born at Saints MEre tgliee Oct. 16, 1815; d.
at Rouen Oct. 20, 1895. He was one of the most eloquent advocates in the parliament of Rouen and one of the moat famous jurists of his time. He defended the cause of the Reformed Church courageously, and his reputation was such that after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he was almost the only Protestant who could follow the profession of law in Rouen.
3. Samuel Basnage, son of Antoine, younger son of Benjamin, was born at Bayeux 1838; d. at Ziitphen 1721. He was first pastor at Vauxcellea, then at Bayeux till 1885. He went with his father to the Netherlands and became pastor there of the Walloon congregation at Zutphen. Of his theological writings the moat important are: Morale tUologique et politique our lea vertus et lee vices des hommea (2 vole., Amsterdam, 1703); and Annales politico ecclesiastici (3 vole., Rotterdam, 170G).
4. Jacques Basnage (de Besuval), son of Henri, was born at Rouen Aug. 8, 1653; d. at The Hague Dec. 22, 1723. He first studied the classical languages at Saumur under Tanneguy, father of the famous Mme. Dacier; afterward theology at Geneva under Turretin and Tronchin, finally at Sedan under Jurieu. In 1678 he was chosen pastor at Rouen; after the suppression of the church at Rouen in 1685, Louis XIV granted him permission to retire to Holland. In 1691 he was made pastor of the Walloon congregation at Rotterdam, and in 1709 of the French congregation at The Hague. The prime minister Heinsius respected him highly and employed him in different diplomatic missions. The fame of his diplomatic ability reached the court at Versailles, and when, in 1718, the Abby Dubois was sent to The Hague by the Duke of Orleans, then regent, in behalf of the triple alliance, he was instructed to associate with Basnage. When an insurrection of the Camisarda in the CEvennes was feared, the regent applied to Basnage. He supported energetically the zealous Antoine Court, . then twenty years old, in restoring the Protestant Church in Southern France, but, partial to the principles of passive obedience, as preached by Calvin, he severely condemned the insurrection of the Camisarda and even blamed the first preachers in the Desert. About this time the States General of the Netherlands appointed him historiographer. His numerous works are partly dogmatic or polemic, partly historical. The former include especially his writings against ~ Bosauet: Examen des methodes propoae,es par Messieurs de L'assemblt:e du clergE de France, en 168, pour la rEunion des Protestants a l1glise romaine (Cologne, 1882); R~qoonse h M. l'&4que de Meaux sur la lettre pastorale (1686). His historical works are: Histoire de la religion des 0glises r9f ormEes (2 vole., Rotterdam, 1690; 1725); Xistoire de l'9glise depuia Jesus Christ jusqu'd present (1699); Histoires du Vieux et du Nouveau Testament, reproerttees par des figures grav6ea en taalle dotit:e par R. de Hooge (Amsterdam, 1704); Histoire des Juifa depths J&ua Christ jttaqu'h present (1708). G. BONET MAURY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Aymon, Tom Us synods& nationaux des ' Wises rE(ormBea, The H ue, 1710; P. Bayle, Diction
naire hisWrique et eritiqu ,materdam, 1740: D. Houard,
Dietionnaire de la coutu..e do Normandis, Rouen, 1780;
Lamory, >tloys do Basnape, in Bulletin d'hisfoirs du prow
tantieme franfaia, vol. x, p. 42; aiii, pp. 41 48; E. and )4. Hang, La France proteatante, 2d ed. by M. Bordier, 5 vols., Paris, 1877 88; F. Puaux, Les Prbcuraeura /ranfaia de la td6rance, ib. 1881; J. Bianquia. La R6eocation de l'bdit do Nantes, Rouen, 1885.
BASSERMANIP, HEINRICH GUSTAV: German Lutheran; b. at Frankfort on the Main July 12, 1849. He was educated at the universities of Jena, Zurich, and Heidelberg in 1868 73, but served in the campaign of 1870 71 in the First Baden Dragoons. He was assistant pastor at ArolBen, Waldeck, from 1873 to 1876, when he became privatdocent of New Testament exegesis at the University of Jena. In the same year he was appointed associate professor of practical theology at Heidelberg, and full professor and university preacher in 1880. He wrote: Dreisaig chriatliche Prediglen (Leipaic, 1875); De loco Mtetthcei v, 17 ,t'D (Jena, 1876); Handbuch der geisdichen Beredsamkeit (Stuttgart, 1885); Akodemische Predigten (1886); System der Liturgik (1888); Geschichte der bttdiachen Gotteadienstordnung (1891); Sine ire et studio (Tiibingen, 1894); Der badische Katechismus erkldrt (1896 97); Richard Rothe als praktiseher Theolog (1899); Zur Frage des Unionskatecltismua (1901); Ueber Reform des Abendmahls (1904); Wie studiert man evareyelisehe Theologief (Stuttgart, 1905); and Gott: Fiinf Predigtert (G&ttingen, 1905). From 1879 he edited the Zeitschrift fur praktische Theologie in collaboration with Rudolf Ehlers. Died in Samaden (70 m. B.B.e. of St. Gall), Switzerland, Aug. 30, 1909.
BASTHOLM, CHRISTIAN: Danish court preacher, and an influential representative of the prevalent rationalism of his time; b. at Copenhagen Nov. 2, 1740; d. there Jan. 25, 1819. He had a varied education, and was specially attracted to philosophy and natural science, but was persuaded by his father to embrace a clerical career without any real love for Christian doctrine or the Church. He was preacher to the German congregation at Smyrna from 1768 to 1771. His renown as a great orator won him in 1778 the position of court preacher, to which other court offices were Subsequently added. Full of the ideas of the " Enlightenment," he felt called upon to be a missionary in their cause to his countrymen, and published a number of works in popular religious philosophy and history which have long since fallen into oblivion. His greatest success was his text book of sacred oratory (1775), which so impressed Joseph II that he introduced it into all the higher educational institutions of the empire, though its recommendations seem laughable to day. He published a history of the Jews (1777 82 ), attempting to " rationalize " it after Michaelis, and a translation of the New Testament with notes (1780). A small treatise on improvements in the liturgy (1785) aroused a storm of controversy; his idea was to make the
service " interesting and diversified," after the
model of belle and concerto; to exclude from hymnody not only everything dogmatic but all that was not joyous; and to eliminate from the sacramental rites whatever wag contrary to sound reason. In the days of the French Revolution, he offered so many concessions to the antireligioue spirit that he made himself ridiculous even in the
eyes of freethinkers; and his book on " Wisdom
and Happiness" (1794) taught a Stoicism only
colored by Christianity. In 1795 he lost his library
by fire, and with the new century withdrew from
public life and authorship to live quietly with his
eon, a pastor at.Slagelse, absorbed in the study of
philosophy and science. (F. NIEIBEN.)
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