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*The point at issue was lay patronage. British law having
conferred upon landowners the tight to nominate to pas
torates in their possessions. A. H. N.
draw from the Establishment. No help came; and accordingly, on May 18, 1843, four hundred and seventy clergymen withdrew from the General Assembly, and constituted themselves into the Free Church of Scotland, electing Dr. Chalmera as their first moderator. He had foreseen the separation, and drawn up a scheme for the support of the outgoing ministers. But, after he had safely piloted the new church through the stormy waters, he gave himself up more exclusively to professional work, especially in connection with the New College, Edinburgh, of which he was principal, and to the composition of his Institutes of Theology. He died suddenly.
Dr. Chalmers is to day a molding influence. All the churches of Scotland unite to do him reverence. He was a greater worker than writer, and a greater man than either. It was surely enough honor for one life to inspire spiritual life throughout an entire land; and as the tireless and practical reformer, as the Christian philanthropist, and, above all, as the founder of the Free Church of Scotland, he will live.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The principal Life is by his son in law
W. Hanna, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Thomas
Chalmers, 4 vole., Edinburgh, 1849 52. Consult also:
A. J. B[ymington], Thomas Chalmers, the Man, his Times,
and his Work, Ardrossan, 1878; D. Fraser, Thomas Chal
mera, London, 1881; J. L. WiLteon, The Life o/ Thomas
Chalmers, Edinburgh, 1881; J. Dodds, Thomas Chalmers,
ib. 1892; W. G. Blaikie. Thomas Chalmers, ib. 1898 (in
Famous Scots Series); Mrs. Oliphant, Thomas Chalmers,
Preacher, Philosopher, and Statesman, London, 1898;
DNB, ix. 449 454.
CHAMBERLAIN, JACOB: Reformed (Dutch) missionary; b. at Sharon, Conn., Apr. 13, 1835; d. at Madanapalli, Madras, India, March 2, 1908. He was educated at Western Reserve College, O. (B.A., 1856), the Reformed Theological Seminary, New Brunswick; N. J., and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. In 1859 he went as a medical missionary to the Arcot Mission, Madras, and was stationed successively at Pahnaner, Madras (18601863), and at Madanapalli, Madras (1863 1901). From 1891 he was lector in Biblical languages and prophecy and acting principal of the Theological Seminary in the Arcot Mission, Palmaner. He was chairman of a committee for the translation of the Bible into Telugu, 1873 94; member of the Telugu Revision Committee of the Madras Tract Society in 1873 80, and in 1878 was elected vice president of the American Tract Society for India. In 1901 he was first moderator of the South India United Church Synod, and since engaged in literary work in Tamil and Telugu. He translated the liturgy of the Reformed Dutch Church into Telugu (Madras, 1873), and also prepared a Telugu version of the Hymns for Public and Social Worship (1884), as well as other devotional works in the same language. His English works include: The Bible Tested (New York, 1878); Native Churches and Foreign Missionary ,Societies (Madras, 1879); The Religions of the Orient (Clifton Springs, N. Y.,1896); In the Tiger Jungle (Chicago, 1896); The Cobra's Den, and Other Stories of Missionary Work Among the Telugua of India (1900); and The Kingdom inladia, with introductory biographical sketch by Henry N. Cobb (1908).
Chamberlain THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 800
CHAMBERLAIN, LEANDER TROWBRIDGE:
American Presbyterian; b. at West Brookfield, Mass., Sept. 26, 1837. He was graduated at Yale in 1863, and from 1863 to 1867 was attached to the Pacific Squadron of the United States Navy. During this period he made explorations in the Inca civilization of ancient Peru. He studied theology at Andover 18679, and was pastor of the New England Congregational Church, Chicago, 1869 76, of the Broadway Congregational Church, Norwich, Conn., 1876 83, and of the Classon Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, 1883 90. Since 1890 he has had no charge. He was the first United States representative secretary of the McCall Mission of France, a delegate to the Centennial of Sunday schools in London in 1880, and a delegate of the General Assembly of the United States to the Pan Presbyterian Council in the same city in 1888, a founder of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, a representative of the United States Evangelical Alliance to the General Conference of Evangelical Alliances in Florence, Italy, in 1891. He is also president of the Evangelical Alliance for the United States, of the Philafrican Liberator's League, and of the Thessalonica Agricultural and Industrial Institute, Macedonia; secretary and treasurer of the American and Foreign Christian Union; vice chairman of the national committee on arbitration between the United States and other countries; custodian and patron of the collection of gems in the National Museum, Washington; and curator of Eocene molluscs in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. In theology he is a Calvinistic Presbyterian. He has written: A Short History of the English Bible (Norwich, Conn., 1881); Citizen's Manual (New York, 1898); The State, Its Origin, Nature, and Functions (1898); The Colonial Policy of the United States (1899); Patriotism anal the Moral Law (1900); Evolutionary Philosophy (1901); Government not Founded in Force (1904); The Suffrage and Majority Rule (1904); and The True Doctrine of Prayer (1906).
CHAMBERS, TALBOT WILSON: Reformed (Dutch); b. at Carlisle, Pa., Feb. 25, 1819; d..
END OF VOL. U.
in New York Feb. 3, 1896. He was graduated at Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J., 1834. He studied at New Brunswick and Princeton Theological seminaries, became minister of the Second Reformed (Dutch) Church of Raritan, at Somerville, N. J., 1839, and one of the ministers of the Collegiate Reformed (Dutch) Church of New York in 1849 and continued there till his death. He was a leader in his denomination, was president of its General Synod in 1863, and for the eight years preceding his death was president of its Board of Foreign Missions; he was one of the organizers of the Presbyterian Alliance (q.v.) and chosen its president in 1892 and expected to preside over its sixth general council (1896). He was a member (from 1881) and president (from 1892) of the Executive Committee of the American Tract Society; chairman of the Committee on Versions of the American Bible Society; and member of the Old Testament company of the American Bible Revision Committee, being the only pastor in the Old Testament company. Besides many sermons, addresses, and miscellaneous articles, he published: The Noon Prayer Meeting, Fulton Street, New York (New York, 1858); Memoir of the Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen (1863); The Psalter : a Witness to the Divine Origin of the Bible, Vedder lectures at New Brunswick, 1876 (1876); and A Companion to the Revised Old Testament (1885). He was editor of The Presbyterian and Reformed Review and of the earlier Princeton Review; translated and edited Schmoller on the Book of Amos and prepared the Book of Zechariah for the Schaff Lange commentary (1874); edited the American edition of Meyer's commentary on I and II Corizilhians (1884), and the homilies of Chrysostom on the same books for The PostNicene Fathers, vol. xii. (1889); suggested and with the Rev. Frank Hugh Foster contributed to the Concise Dictionary of Religious Knowledge (1889), edited by the Rev. Samuel Macauley Jackson.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E B.,Coe, Commemorative Discourse, New York, 1898.
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