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BIBLIOGRAPHY: A biographical preface by Grace Webster is prefixed to the Practice of Piety, London, 1842; oonavlt also A. i; Wood, Athena! Oxonienaes, ed. P. Bliss, ii, 525 531, 4 vole., ib. 1813 20.
BAY PSALM BOOK: A metrical translation of the Psalms, published by Stephen Daye at Cambridge, Mass., in 1640 and the first book printed in America. The work of translation was begun in 1636, the principal collaborators being Thomas Welds, Richard Mather, and John Eliot, the missionary to the Indians. The rendering, as the translators themselves recognized in their quaint preface to the book, was a crude specimen of English, and carrying to the extreme their belief in the inspiration of the Bible, they tortured their version into what they conceived to be fidelity to the original. The meter, moreover, is irregular, and the rimes are frequently ludicrous. The general spirit and form of the translation may be represented by the following rendering of Ps. zviii, 6 9:
6. " I in my streighte, cal'd on the Lord, and to my God cry'd: be did hears from his temple my voyce, my crye, before him came, unto his ears.
7. " Then th' earth shocks, do quak't, do mofitaines recta mov'd, Ac were atird at his ire,
Vp from his nostrils went a amosk, and from his mouth devouring fire; By it the coalee inkindled were.
9. " Likewise the heavens he downs how'd, And he descended, do there was under his feet a gloomy cloud."
Of the first edition of the Bay Psalm Book only eleven copies are known to exist. In 1647 a second edition, better printed and with the spellitig and punctuation corrected, was published either by Stephen Daye or possibly by Matthew Daye or even in England, and this edition long remained in general use among the Puritans of New England. A reprint of the first edition (71 copies) was issued privately at Cambridge in 1862.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. F. Roden, The Cambridge Press, New York, 1908.
BDELLIUM, deli um (Hebr. bedhola7.d) : One
of the products of the land of Havilah, mentioned
with gold and the ahoharn. stone (E. V. " onyx ")
in Gen. ii, 11 12. In Num. xi, 7, manna is said
to have resembled it. It was, therefore, some
thing well known to the Hebrews, but the
exact meaning is uncertain. Some have thought
that it was a precious stone, perhaps the pearl;
others identify it with myrrh or with musk. The
most probable and generally accepted explanation
is that it was the gum of a tree, much prized in
antiquity and used in religious ceremonies. Pliny
(Hilt. net., xii, 35) describes it as transparent,
waxy, fragrant, oily to the touch, and bitter; the
tree was black, of the size of the olive; with leaves
like the ilex, and fruit like the wild fig; he desig
nates Bactria as its home, but statue that it grew
also in Arabia, India, Media, and Babylonia. It
probably belonged to the balsamodendra and was
allied to the myrrh. I. BENZtNVEn.
BEACH, HARLAN PAGE, Congregationalist; b. at South Orange, N. J., Apr. 4, 1854. He was
Sebb THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 18
educated at Yale College (B.A., 1878) and Andover Theological Seminary (1883). He was instructor in Phillips Andover Academy 1878 80, and was ordained in 1883. He was missionary in China. for seven years, and from 1892 to 1895 was instructor and later superintendent of the School for Christian Workers, Springfield, Mass. He was appointed educational secretary of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions in 1895, and held this position until 1906, when he was chosen professor of the theory and practise of missions in the Yale Divinity School. He has been a corporate member of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions since 1895 and of the cooperating committee of the same organization since 1906, as well as chairman of the exhibit committee and executive committee of the Ecumenical Conference in 1900, member of the Bureau of Missions Trustees since 1901, member of the executive committee of the Yale Foreign Missionary Society since 1903, member of the advisory board of Canton Christian College and trustee of the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy since 1905. In theology he is a moderate conservative. He has written The Cross in the Land of the Trident (New York, 1895); Knights of the Labarum (1896); New Testament Studies in Missions (1898); Dawn on the Hills of Tang : or, Missions in China (1898); Protestant Missions in South America (1900); Geography and Atlas of Protestant Miscuons (2 vole., 1901 03); Two Hundred Years of Christian Activity in Yale (New Haven, 1902); Princely Men of the Heavenly Kingdom (New York, 1903); and India and Christian Opportunity (1904).
BEARD, CHARLES: English Unitarian; b. at
Higher Broughton, Manchester, July 27, 1827,
son of John Relly Beard, ales a well known Uni
tarian minister and educator (b. 1800; d. 1876);
d. at Liverpool Apr. 9,.1888. He studied at Man
chester New College 1843 48, was graduated B.A.
at London University 1847, and continued his
studies at Berlin 18489; became assistant min
ister at Hyde Chapel, Gee Crone, Cheshire, 1850,
minister 1854, minister at Renshaw Street Chapel,
Liverpool, 1867. From 1864.to 1879 he edited The
Theological Review. Besides sermons, addresses,
etc., he published Port Royal, a Contribution to
the History o f Religion and Literature in France
(2 vole., London, 18G1); The Reformation in its
Relation to Modern Thought (Iiibbert lectures for
1883); and Martin Luther and the Reformation in
Germany until the Close of the Diet of Worms
(ed. J. F. Smith, 1889).
BEARD, RICHARD: Cumberland Presbyterian; b. in Summer County, Tenn., Nov. 27, 1799; d, at Lebanon, Tenn., Nov. 6, 1880. He was licensed in 182(1; graduated at Cumberland College, Princeton, Ky., 1832, and was professor of Greek and Latin there 1832 38, and in Sharon College, Sharon, Mica., 1838 43; president of Cumberland College 1843 54; professor of systematic theology in Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenu., after 1854. He published the following books. Why am 1 a Cumberland Presbyterian? (Nashville, 1872); Lectures on The
ology (3 vole., 1873 75); Brief Biographical .Sketches of Some of the Early Ministers of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (1874).
BEARDSLEE, CLARK SMITH: Congregationalist; b. at Coventry, N. Y., Feb. 1, 1850. He was educated at Amherst College (B.A., 1878), Hartford Theological Seminary (1879), and the University of Berlin. He was instructor in Hebrew at Hartford Theological Seminary from 1$78 to 1881, and then held successive pastorates at Le Mars, Ia. (1882 85), Prescott, Ariz. (1885 86), and West Springfield, Mass. (1886 88). In 1888 he was appointed associate professor of systematic theology at Hartford Theological Seminary, and four years later was made professor of Biblical dogmatics and ethics, a position which he still holds. In theology he is a Biblical Evangelical. He is the author of Christ's Estimate of Himself (Hartford, 1899); Teacher Training with the Master Teacher (Philadelphia, 1903); and Jesus the King of Truth (Hartford, 1905).
BEATIFICATION: An intermediate stage in the process of canonization. It is in modern usage itself the result of a lengthy course of inquiry into the life of the person under consideration, and is solemnly declared in St. Peter's at Rome. By it the title of " Blessed " is attributed to the subject, and a limited and partial cultus of him permitted, as in a certain country or order. See CANONIZATION.
BEATIFIC VISION: The direct and unhindered vision of God, which is part of the reserved blessedness of the redeemed (I Cor. xiii, 12; I John iii, 2; Rev. axii, 3, 4 ). The conception of its nature moat necessarily be very vague, but belief in its existence is said to be founded upon Scripture and reason. The only question concerns its time. This has been much disputed. The Greek Church and many Protestants, especially Lutherans and Calvinists, put the vision after the judgment day (so Dr. Hodge, Systematic Theology, iii, 860). Aecording to the view prevalent among Roman Catholic theologians, the vision, though essentially complete before the resurrection, is not integrally so until the soul is reunited to the glorified body (consult H. Hurler, Theologise dogmaticcE compendium, vol. iii, De Deo consummatore, chap. v, 10th ed., Innsbruck, 1900).
BEATON, bf'tea (BETHUNE), be than' or be ttin', DAVID: Cardinal archbishop of St. Andrews; b. 1494; assassinated at St. Andrews May 29,1546. He was the third son of John Beacon of Auchmuty, Fifeahire; studied at the universities of 9t. Andrews and Glasgow, and at the age of fifteen went to Paris and studied law; became abbot of Arbroath in 1523; bishop of Mirepoia in Languedoc 1537; cardinal Dec., 1538. He was made lord privy seal in 1528; succeeded his uncle, James Beaton, as archbishop of St. Andrews in 1539; was consecrated archbishop of Glasgow at Rome in 1552; became chancellor and prothonotary apostolic and legate a latere in 1543. He served his country in many important diplomatic missions.
19 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Bears
In the bitter political contests of the time between
the French and English parties he aided with the
former, and fought with energy and courage for
the independence of Scotland against the plans of
Henry VIII. In the religious contests between
Romaniata and Reformers he took as decidedly the
part of the hierarchy and did not scruple to use
intrigue and force when argument and persuasion
failed. His memory has been darkened by his
severity against heretics and his immoral life.
The case of George Wishart (q.v.) is adduced as a
particularly flagrant piece of religious persecution;
but it moat be remembered that he lived in a rude
country in turbulent times, and the Reformers were
implicated in political intrigues and treasonable
plots. The execution of Wishart was the imme
diate cause of a conspiracy to put Becton out of
the way, and certain members of the Reform
party murdered him in his bedchamber.
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