2001. Type of document: Draft rivo id number: 109 Aarts, P. G. Guidelines for Programmes Psychosocial and Mental Health Care Assistance in (Post) Disaster and Conflict Areas. Draft. 2001




Название2001. Type of document: Draft rivo id number: 109 Aarts, P. G. Guidelines for Programmes Psychosocial and Mental Health Care Assistance in (Post) Disaster and Conflict Areas. Draft. 2001
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14.2: 155-164.

Exposure to trauma may place an individual at risk developping PTSD. Symptoms include intruisive re-experiencing of trauma, avoidance and hyperarousal.

RIVO ID Number: 328


Aznarez, J. J. (1995). Los Ecos de la muerte. El Pais "Domingo": 2.

Type of document: artículo en español

RIVO ID Number: 1001


Bagilishya, D. (1999). “Mettre des mots sur sa douleur.”: 72-87.

RIVO ID Number: 827


Baker, L. (1995). Teaching ESL to Survivors of Torture: Responding to Special learning needs,. Community Support for Victims of Torture : A Manual,. Price K. Toronto, CCVT: 74-79.

RIVO ID Number: 67


Baker, R. (1992). “Psychosocial consequences for tortured refugees seeking asylum and refugee status in Europe.”: 83-106.

RIVO ID Number: 781


Barahona, A. and e. al., Eds. (1995). Torture and Second Language Acquisition. Toronto, Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture.

RIVO ID Number: 248


Barhoum, M. I. (1998). “Behaviour therapy using cultural norms.”: 113-117.

RIVO ID Number: 774


Baron, N. (1994). “Empowering war widows.”: 23-26.

RIVO ID Number: 677


Barudy, J. (1989). “L'utilisation de l'approche systemique lors de thérapie avec des familles de refugiés politiques.” Thérapie familiale 10.1: 15-31.

RIVO ID Number: 23


Barudy, J. (1989). A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile. Social Science and Medecine. Medical Psychosocial Centre for Political Refugees and Victims of Torture. Great Britain, Pergamon Press plc. 28: 715-727.

RIVO ID Number: 87


Barudy, J. (1989). “A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.”: 715-726.

RIVO ID Number: 718


Barudy, J. (1993). "Les perspectives de l'approche systemique et du travail en reseau dans un programme de prévention au sujet de la maltraitance d'enfants. The Politics of Pain Torturers and their Masters. R. D. e. A. P. S. Crelinsten. Netherlands, Center for the study of social conflict: 29.

RIVO ID Number: 38


Basoglu, M., Ed. (1992). Torture and its consequences. Current treatment approaches. London, Cambridge University Press.

RIVO ID Number: 840


Basoglu, M. (1993). “Prevention of torture and care of survivors. An integrated approach.” JAMA 270(5): 606-611.

RIVO ID Number: 33


Basoglu, M. and et al (1994). “Psychological effects of torture: a comparison of tortured with non tortures political activist in Turkey.” American Journal of Psychiatry(151): 76-81.

RIVO ID Number: 287


Basoglu, M. and et al (1994). “Psychological effects of torture: a comparison of tortured with non tortured political activist in Turkey.” Journal of American Psychiatric Association 151.1: 76-81.

The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of torture in a group of former political prisonners.

Method : The study was carried out in Istambul, Turkey, where 55 Turkish politial activists who had been tortured were compared with a closely matched group of 55 activists who had not been tortured. The Structured Clinical Interviewe for SDM-III-R, the Semistructured Interview for survivors of Torture, and other self-rated assessor-rated measures of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were used. The tortured and non-tortured activists were similar in age, sex, marital and socio-economic status, political ideology, political involvement, stressful life events other than torture and other features.

Results : The torture survivors reported an average of 291 exposures to a mean of 23 forms of torture. The mean length of their imprisonment was 47 months. The survivors of torture had significantly of PTSD and anxiety/depression than the nontortured comparison subjects, although their PTSD symptoms were only moderately severe and their general mood was normal. Despite the severity of their torture experiences, the survivors of torture had only a moderate level of psychopatology.

Conclusions: The results suggest that torture has long-term psychological effects independent of those related to uprooting, refugee status, and other traumatic life events in a politically repressive environment. Prior knowledge of and preparedness for torture, strong commitment to a cause, immunization against traumatic stress as a result of repeated exposure, and strog social supports appear to have protective value against PTSD in survivors of torture.

RIVO ID Number: 327


Basolgu, M. and T. Aker (1996). “Cognitive-behavioural treatment of torture survivors : a case study.”: 61-65.

RIVO ID Number: 691


Bass, C. (1996). “Mind over matter: is your patient really sick?”: 37-45.

RIVO ID Number: 619


Bauer, J. (1996). Only Silence Will Protect You: Women, Freedom of Expression and the Language of Human Rights., Centre for Human Right and Democratic Development. 2001.

Type of document: web page

RIVO ID Number: 419


Beattie, S. (1995). Lifeline : The education of Young Survivors of War and Violent Opression,. Community Support for Victims of Torture : A Manual,. Price K. Toronto, CCVT,: 99-105.

RIVO ID Number: 70


Bech, P. (1993). “Measuring of clinical anxiety by rating scales: a review.” Torture Supplementum no.1: 13-18.

RIVO ID Number: 400


Becker, D. (2001). “Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation.”: 1-21.

The article first discusses existing trauma theories. It is them argued that trauma concepts need to be continually reinvented, always relating them specifically to the political and cultural context in which traumatization occurs. It is against organized violence that this explored. With reference to the intrapsychic dynamics of trauma, it is argued that fragmentation is a central characteristic and can only be overcome within a close relationship that recognizes and accepts the destruction that has occurred and helps construct a space in which symbolozation can take place. These dynamics are not only relevant within a therapeutic context but also have wider-reaching consequences. It is thus argued that trauma work should be part of an integrated working approach in crisis regions that combines psychology, education and economics. Finally, the basic needs and difficulties of the people working with trauma are considered.

RIVO ID Number: 1016


Behnia, B. (1995). “An exploratory study of the needs of survivors of torture in Ottawa-Carleton.”: 69.

RIVO ID Number: 695


Beiser, M. Une fois la porte ouverte: la situation des nouveaux arrivants, Université de la Colombie-Britannique.

Type of document:

RIVO ID Number: 243


Beiser, M. (1988). “The Mental Health of Immigrants and Refugees in Canada.” Santé, culture, health V(2): 197-213.

RIVO ID Number: 42


Beiser, M. (1988). “Influences of Time, Ethnicity and Attachment on depression in Southeast Asian Refugees.” Am J. Psychiatry 145.1: 46-51.

RIVO ID Number: 246


Beiser, M. and et al (1989). Catastrophic stress and factors affecting its consequences among southeast Asian refugees. Soc.Sci.Med. 28.3: 183-195.

Type of document:

Effects on mental health of the stress of being interned in a refugee camp were assessed in a community survey of 1348 Southeast Asians. The impact on depressive mood proved significant but short-lived. Social support derived from the ethniccommunity and from an intact marriage moderated the risk of developing depressive symptoms, apparently by enhancing a sense of identity and belongingness. A psychological coping mechanism avoidance of the past-buffered the impact of camp stress on depressive symptoms. While refugees brought into the country under private sponsorship were expected to have a mental health advantage compared to those admitted under government sponsorship, this hypothesis was not confirmed. Private soponsorship, carried out by individuals or groups whose religion differed from the refugees they were supporting, acted as a source of stress.

RIVO ID Number: 251


Beiser, M., F. Hou, et al. (1998). Growing up Canadian - A study of New Immigrant Children. Ottawa, Ontario, Développement des ressources humaines Canada.

RIVO ID Number: 865


Beiser, M., M. Wood, et al. Puis... La porte s'est ouverte. .,Problèmes de santé mentale des immigrants et des réfugiés. Ottawa.

RIVO ID Number: 360


Beiser, M., M. Wood, et al. (1988). Puis...La porte s'est ouverte. Problèmes de santé mentale des immigrants et des réfugiés. Attitude de la societé canadienne. Ottawa.

RIVO ID Number: 355


Benett, R. (2004). Large Group Destruction; A Group Analyst at Ground Zero. Living with Terror, Work with Trauma. D. Knafo. Lanham, Jason Aronson: 10.

Crisis groups following the September 11 attack on New York City were an opportunity to learn about how people managed their personal crises. The curative factors following the massive trauma to the World Trade Center (WTC) are complex: the products of whole constellations of factors in the ways and circumstances in which there was proximity to the Diagnostic emphasis on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) obscured individual and group dynamic complexity. The contributing elements may be in a variety of realms: genetic, development, psychological, perceptual, sociocultural, and structural. In general, group theory was ignored in discussion if the aftermath of this event. I have chosen to focus on large group theory because it is viewed as complementary to psychoanalytic 'loosening of anxiety' usualty bound in social contracts and other group structures.

RIVO ID Number: 937


Benner, P., E. Roskies, et al. Stress and coping under extreme conditions. The Victim: 219-258.

Ce chapitre examine les pensées, réactions et émotions des personnes vivant sous des conditions extrêmes. Les auteurs s'attachent à distinguer les différentes sources de stress (internes, externes) de même que la façon dont chaque individu forge sa propre perception, interprétation et réaction face au stress (point de vue transactionnel

RIVO ID Number: 155


Benoist, J. (1989). “Médecine traditionnelle et médicine moderne en République Populaire du Bénin.” Ecol.Hum VII.1: 84-89.

RIVO ID Number: 514


Benyakar, M. (2004). Five Wars, Five Traumas: Experience and Insight from Clinical Work in Israel's Trenches. D. Knafo. Lanham, Josaon Aronson. 1: 10.

This chapter presents a nosological and clinical approach to understanding and coping with trauma and stress. Experiences from the mental health interventions during Israel's five wars be discussed. Clinical and theoretical implications are presented.

RIVO ID Number: 922


Benyakar, M. and D. Knafo (2004). Disruption: Individual and collective threats. D. Knafo. Lanham. 1: 7.

We enter a new century already marked by the devastating effects of terrorist violence. For mental health professionals, this state of affairs, of necessity, widens the scope of their focus and skills. The anxiety, helplessness, and sense of meaninglessness that patients increasingly complain about are found to derive not merely from their psychic reality but, more and more, from the dererioration and collapse of their external environments, environnments on which they can no longer rely for security and support. In this chapter, we present a new diagnostic entily that we call the syndrome of anxiety by diruption (AbD) to address the clinical picture of growing numbers of patients and nonpatients who struggle with life under the threat of environnmental violence in the form of terrorism and social or economic devastation. We describe the clinical manifestations, treatment implicaions, and imminent significance of these condiions.

RIVO ID Number: 917


Berdichevsky, P. (1995). The continuing ordeal : Long term needs of survivors of torture,. Community Support for Victims of Torture : A Manual. K. Price. Toronto, CCVT: 23-28.

RIVO ID Number: 59


Berger, R. (2004). Early Interventions with Victims of Terrorism. D. Knafo. Lanham, Jason Aronson: 20.

The chapter summarizes the major dilemmas in the field of early interventions with survivors of terrorism, including the complexity ot heir immediate reactions and tje phenomenological nature ot he terror threat. I further delineate the various stages survivors undergo in coping with the aftermath of terror attacks and the concurrent psychological tasks facing professionals. Then, I outline the principes of the initial clinical evalutation utilized with survivors of terrorism. Finally, but perhaps most importantly, I describe my approach to prevent adverse posttraumatic reactions: the Traumatic Memory Reconstruction (TMR)model, TMR's nationale, principles, and individual and group application are presented and illustrated with case material.

RIVO ID Number: 923


Bergmann, M. S. (2004). Reflections on September 11. Living with terror, Working with Trauma. J. Aronson. Lanham, Danielle Knafo: 7.

The tagedy of September 11 has imposed on the psychoanalytic community two broad tasks: first to examine our heritage and see if our special experience can contribute positively to the general problems our country is struggling with; and second, to examine the effects this tragedy has had on our work. This chapter views the clash of Islamic and Western cultures through the lens of psychoanalytic though and discusses the ability of psychoanalisis to deal with cultural and social change. It explores the ways in which the attacks on the World Trade Center changed the balance between agression and libido both on a personnal and a public level, nationalty and internationalty. Finally, it discusses he relationship between public catastrophe and personal trauma in an effort to determine how we can best help our patients cope with the new feat and uncertainly introduced into the American environment by the terror attacks.

RIVO ID Number: 930


Bergmann, M. V. (2004). Terrorism on U.S. Soil: Remembering Past Trauma and Retraumatization. Living with Terror, Work ewith Trauma. D. Knafo. Lanham, Jason Aronson: 6.

Before the events of September 11, traumatic reliving in the transference would have been linked to a patien's own traumatic events from the past only. In many it reawakened traumata that emerged from repression and therefore led to an experience of retraumatization. In some, traumata from the past could now be recalled and experienced with strong affect for the first time and could thus be analyzed.

RIVO ID Number: 932


Berhard, J. and M. Freire (1994). “Les enfants réfugiés d'origine latine : familles victimes de la guerre et de la persécution dans le système d'ÉPE.” Interaction: 25-28.

RIVO ID Number: 598


Berman, H. (1999). “Health in the aftermath of violence: a critical narrative study of children of war and children of battered women.” Canadian Journal of Nursing Researc
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