MA1602 Applied Mathematics 3 1 0 100 sm1601




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Item No.VC.9.9

ANNA UNIVERSITY : : CHENNAI 600 025

CURRICULUM 2005 – FULL TIME MODE

(Applicable to Affiliated Colleges of Anna University)

M.E. SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING


Eligibility: B.E. / B. Tech (Civil Engineering)

SEMESTER – I

COURSE NO


COURSE TITLE

L

T

P

M
THEORY












MA1602


Applied Mathematics

3

1

0

100

SM1601


Theoretical Soil Mechanics

4

0

0

100

SM1602


Strength and Deformation Behaviour of Soils

3

0

0

100

SM1603


Soil Properties and Behaviour

3

0

0

100

E1


Elective-I

3

0

0

100

E2


Elective-II

3

0

0

100


LIST OF ELECTIVES

COURSE NO


CODE COURSE TITLE

L

T

P

M

SM1621

Dynamic of Soil and Foundations

3

0

0

100

SM1622

Earth Pressure and Earth Retaining Structures

3

0

0

100

SM1623

Earth and Rock fill Dams

3

0

0

100

SM1624

Environmental Geotechnology

3

0

0

100



MA1602 APPLIED MATHEMATICS 3 1 0 100





  1. TRANSFORM METHODS Laplace and inverse transforms – integral transforms – transform methods for boundary value problems – initial value problems – applications in one and two dimensions. 12



2. CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS Variations –one and multi-dimensional – Euler equation – functionals – differential and integral variations – Ritz and Kantarovich methods – weighted residuals – Discrete approximations – finite difference, finite element and boundary elements. 12


  1. PROBABILITY AND RANDOM THEORY Probability and random variables and functions – moments in one and two dimensions – first order and second order methods – correlation and regression Multi dimensions- applications. 12




  1. ESTIMATION THEORY Principles of least squares – multiple and partial correlations – parameter estimation – likelihood estimates – method of moments. 12



  1. SOFT COMPUTING METHODS

Deterministic and fuzzy variables- likelihood functions – fuzzy relations – neural nets – algorithms in neural nets – evolutionary approaches – genetic algorithms

12


TOTAL: 60


REFERENCES:

  1. Jain, R.K., Iyengar, SRK., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Narosa Publications, 2003.




  1. Andrews, L.C. and Srivamoggi, B.K., Integral Transform for Engineers, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2003




  1. A.S. Gupta – Calculus of Variations with Applications, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 1997




  1. J.N. Kapan & H.C. Sexana – Mathematical Statistics, S. Chand & Co., 2003

  2. R. Beale, C.T. Jacson, Neural Computing – An Introduction, Adam Hilger, 1990

  3. Melanie Mitchell, An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms, PHI, 1990
  4. Simon Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall / Pearson Education, 1999.



8. Valluru Rao, Hayagriva Rao, C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, MIS Press, 1994.




SM1601 THEORETICAL SOIL MECHANICS 4 0 0 100




OBJECTIVE



Students are expected to understand elastic and plastic behaviour of soil and solve problems related to settlement and stability of soils structures.

1. THEORY OF ELASTICITY


Introduction – Elasticity and stability problems, concept of stress and strain – plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric problems – equation of equilibrium and compatibility – stress functions. 10

2. STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS (ELASTIC SOLUTIONS)

Stresses in elastic half-space medium by external loads – fundamental solutions –Boussinesq, Flamant, Kelvin and Mindlin solution – Applications of fundamental solutions – Anisotropic and non-homogeneous linear continuum – Influence charts - elastic displacement. 15

3. LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS


Limit equilibrium analysis – perfectly plastic material – stress – strain relationship –stress and displacement field calculations – slip line solutions for undrained and drained loading. 12
4. LIMIT ANALYSIS

Limit analysis – principles of virtual work – theorems of plastic collapse – Mechanism for plane plastic collapse – Simple solutions for drained and undrained loading –stability of slopes, cuts and retaining structures. Centrifuge model – Principles and scale effects, practical considerations. 15

5. FLOW THROUGH POROUS MEDIA


Flow through porous media – Darcy’s law – General equation of flow – steady state condition – solution by flow net – fully saturated conditions. 8
Total 60



REFERENCES:




  1. Aysen, A., Soil Mechanics: Basic concepts and Engineering Applications, A.A.Balkema Publishers, 2002.




  1. Ulrich Smoltc, YK, Geotechnical Engineering Handbook (Vol.1), Ernot & Sohn, 2002.




  1. Aysen, A., Problem Solving in Soil Mechanics, A.A.Balkema Publishers, 2003.

  2. Davis, R.O., and Selvadurai, A.P.S., Elasticity and Geomechanics, Cambridge University Press, 1996.




  1. Taylor, R.N., Geotechnical Centrifuge Technology, Blackie Academic and Professional, 1995.




  1. Wai-Fah Chen, and Liu, X.L., Limit Analysis in Soil Mechanics, Elsevier Science Ltd., 1991.




  1. Muni Budhu, Soil Mechanics and Foundations, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Network, 2000.




  1. Alkinson, J.H., Foundations and Slopes, McGraw Hill, 1981.




  1. Harr, M.E., Foundations of Theoretical Soil Mechanics, McGraw Hill, 1966.



  1. Cedergren, H.R., Seepage, Drainage and Flownets, John Wiley, 1997.




  1. Winterkorn, H.F., and Fang, H.Y., Foundation Engineering Handbook, Galgotia, Booksource, 2000.



SM1602 STRENGTH AND DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF SOILS 3 0 0 100




OBJECTIVE

The main objective of this course is to understand stress-strain characteristics of soils, the mechanism of failure, the factors that affects the shears strength and the various test procedures to determine the shear strength.



  1. SHEAR STRENGTH OF COHESION LESS SOILS

Shear strength of granular sols - Direct shear - Triaxial Testing- Drained and untrained Stress-strain behaviour - Dilation, contraction and critical states - Liquefaction and cyclic mobility of saturated sands. Factors influencing stress-strain shear strength. 9

  1. SHEAR STRENGTH OF COHESIVE SOILS

Shear strength of clays - Stress-strain behaviour - Triaxial testing and stress path plotting - pore pressure parameter of Skempton and Henkel - Total stress and effective stress approach - shear strength of partially saturated clay in terms of stress state variables. Factors influencing stress-strain shear strength. 9

  1. YIELD CRITERION

Concepts of yield and failure in soils- yield criteria of von Mises, Tresca and their extended form, their applicability to soils - Detailed discussion of Mohr. - Coulomb failure criterion. 9

  1. STRESS - STRAIN LAWS FOR SOILS

Stress-strain laws for soils - hyperbolic law - Linear visco-elastic and Elasto -plastic laws - yield functions, hardening law, flow rules and plastic strain computation - Rheological models of Kelvin, Maxwell and Burger and Burger as applied to soils. 9

  1. CRITICAL STATE SOIL MECHANICS

Introduction to critical state soil mechanics - state boundary - surface- Roscoe and Hvorslev's - A perspective only on mechanical behaviour of soils within the critical state framework. 9

Total 45

REFERENCES

  1. Hotlz, R.D. and Kovacs, W.D., Introduction Geotechnical Engineering, Prentice-Hall, 1981

  2. Braja, M, Das., Advanced soil mechanics, McGraw Hill, 1997.

  3. Lambe, T.W. and Whitman R.V. Soil Mechanics in S.I. Units John Wiley, 1979.

  4. Atkinson J.H. and Brandsby P.L. Introduction to critical state soil mechanics McGraw Hill, 1978.

  5. Wood, D.M., Soil behaviour and Critical State Soil Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1990.

  6. Bazant, Z.P., Mechanics of Geo-materials, Rocks, Concrete and Soil, John Willey and Sons, Chilchester, 1985.

  7. Graham Barnes, Soil Mechanics Principles and Practices, Macmillan Press Ltd., London, ISBN 0-333-77776x - 2002.

  8. Shear Strength of Liquefied Soils, Final Proceedings of the workshop, National Science Foundation, Urbane, Illinois, July 1998.

  9. Braja, M. Das, Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineering, Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning Academic Resource, Center, ISBN-O-534-37114-0.

  10. Keedwell, M.J., Rheology and Soil Mechanics, Elsevier applied science Publishers Ltd., 1984. ISBN 0-85334-285-7

  11. Malcolm D. Bolton, A guide to soil mechanics, Universities Press (India) Private Ltd., Hyderabad, India, 2003, ISBN 81 7371-245-8.



SM1603 SOIL PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOUR 3 0 0 100


OBJECTIVE


At the end of the course the student gains knowledge on the various factors governing the Engineering behaviour of soils and the suitability of soils for various Geotechnical Engineering applications.


1. SOIL DEPOSITS AND CLAY MINERALS:

Introduction – formation of soils – various soil deposits and their engineering suitability – Genesis of clay minerals – classification and identification – Anion and Cation exchange capacity of clays – specific surface area – bonding in clays. 8


2. PHYSICAL AND PHYSIO-CHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF SOILS:

Physical and physio – chemical behaviour of soils – diffused double layer theory – computation of double layer distance – effect of ion concentration, ionic valency, dielectric constant, temperature on double layer – stern layer – attractive and repulsive forces in clays – soil structure – soil water – mechanism of soil – water interactions. 10


3. SWELLING, SHRINKAGE AND PERMEABILITY BEHAVIOUR:

Swelling and shrinkage behaviour of soils – problems associated – factors influencing swell – shrink characteristics – swell pressure determination – osmotic swell pressure – soil fabric and measurement – sensitivity, thixotrophy – stress history – factors influencing permeability characteristics of soils – soil compaction – soil suctions – determination of suction potential. 10


4. COMPRESSIBILITY AND SHEAR STRENGTH BEHAVIOUR:

Compressibility and shear strength behaviour of soils and clays – mechanisms involved – influence of fabric, OCR, pore fluid, strain rate, drainage etc on the compressibility and shear strength – liquefaction potential – factors governing compressibility, shear strength and liquefaction potential of soils. 10


5. CONDUCTION PHENOMENA AND PREDICTION OF SOIL BEHAVIOUR:

Conduction in soils – coupled flows – electrical, chemical , hydraulic and thermal flows in soils – consolidation by electro osmosis – effect of flows in stable and properties of soils – prediction of engineering behaviour of soils – empirical correlations and their applicability. 7

Total 45


REFERENCES


  1. Mitchell, J.K., Fundamentals of Soil Behaviour, John Wiley, New York, 1993

  2. Yong, R.N. and Warkentin, B.P., Introduction to Soil Behaviour, Macmillan, Limited, London, 1979.




  1. Perloff, W.H. and Baron, W, Soil Mechanics, The Ronal Press Company, 1976.

  2. Van Olphen, H., Clay colloid Chemistry, John Wiley, 1996

  3. Grim, R.E., Applied Clay Mineralogy, McGraw Hill, New York, 1966.

  4. Lambe, T.W. and Whitman, R.V. Soil Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1979.




  1. Das, B.M., Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, PWS Publishing Company, Boston, 1998




  1. Coduto, D.P., Geotechnical Engineering – Principles and practices, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2002




  1. McCarthy D.F., Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations, Prentice-Hall, 2002.





SM1621 DYNAMICS OF SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 3 0 0 100

OBJECTIVE

To understand the basics of dynamics - dynamic behaviour of soils, effects of dynamics loads and the various design methods.

  1. THEORY OF VIBRATION

Introduction - Nature of dynamic loads - free vibrations of spring - mass systems - forced vibrations - viscous damping - principles of vibrations measuring equipments.

9

  1. DETERMINATION OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR

Dynamic stress - Deformation and strength of soils - Dynamics bearing capacity and earth pressure - Effect of transient and pulsating loads - Resonant column apparatus - Field-test-Typical values of soil constants. 6



  1. LIQUEFACTION

Liquefaction of soils - Factors influencing - Liquefaction potential - vibration table studies - Field tests - Analysis - from standard penetration data. 6



  1. DESIGN OF MACHINE FOUNDATION

Machine foundations - Design criteria - Degrees of freedom - Foundations for reciprocating machines - Block foundation, Elastic half space theory - Lumped parameter analog model - foundations for impact and miscellaneous machines - Frame foundations for high speed machinery - Dynamic soil structure interaction. 15

[

  1. VIBRATION ISOLATION

Vibration Isolation - Passive and active isolation - use of springs and damping materials construction aspects of machine foundations. 9

Total 45


REFERENCES

  1. Kameswara Rao, N.S.V., Dynamics soil tests and applications, Wheeler Publishing - New Delhi, 2000.

  2. Prakash, S and Puri, V.K., Foundations for machines, McGraw Hill, 1987.

  3. Moore, P.J., Analysis and Design of Foundations for Vibrations, Oxford and IBH, 1985.

  4. Vaidyanathan, C.V., and Srinivasalu, P., Handbook of Machine Foundations, McGraw Hill, 1995.

  5. Arya, S., O'Neil, S., Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines, Prentice Hall, 1981.

  6. Major, A., Vibration Analysis and Design of Foundations for Machines and Turbines, Vol. I, II and III Budapest, 1964.

  7. Barkon, D.D., Dynamics of Basis of Foundation, McGraw Hill, 1974.

  8. Swami Saran, Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundation, Galgotia publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 1999.

  9. Das B.M., Principles of Soils Dynamics, McGraw Hill, 1992.

  10. Krammer S.L., Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, prentice hall, international series, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pvt. Ltd., 2004.

  11. Kameswara Rao, "Vibration Analysis and Foundation Dynamics", wheeler Publishing, New Delhi, 1998.



SM1622 EARTH PRESSURE AND EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES 3 0 0 100




OBJECTIVE


At the end of this course, students are expected to analyse and design rigid, flexible and reinforced earth retained structures and deep cuts.

1. EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES



Introduction – State of stress in retained soil mass – Earth pressure theories – Classical and graphical techniques – Active and passive cases – Earth pressure due to external loads, empirical methods. Wall movement and complex geometry. 12

2. DRAINAGE AND STABILITY CONSIDERATIONS



Lateral pressure due to compaction, strain softening, wall flexibility, influence of drainage. Each pressure due to earthquake forces – Stability of retaining structure. 8

3. SHEET PILE WALLS



Retaining structure – Selection of soil parameters – Analysis and design of cantilever and anchored sheet pile walls. Deadman and continuous anchor. Diaphragm and bored pile walls – Design requirements. 8

4. SUPPORTED EXCAVATIONS



Lateral pressure on sheeting in braced excavation, stability against piping and bottom heaving. Earth pressure around tunnel lining, shaft and silos. 8

5. DESIGN OF REINFORCED EARTH RETAINING WALL


Reinforced earth retaining wall – principles, Concepts and mechanism of reinforced Earth – Design consideration of reinforced earth – Materials used in reinforced earth - Geotextile – Geogrids, Metal strips, facing elements. 9
Total 45



REFERENCES:


  1. Winterkorn, H.F. and Fang, H.Y., Foundation Engineering Handbook, Galgotia Book-source, 2000.




  1. Rowe, R.K., Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

  2. Militisky, J. and Woods, R., Earth and Earth retaining structures, Routledge, 1992.




  1. Koerner, R.M., Design with Geosynthetics (Third Edition), Prentice Hall, 1997.




  1. Day, R.W., Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering: Design and Construction, McGraw Hill, 1999.




  1. Das, B.M., Principles of Geotechnical Engineering (Fourth Edition). The PWS series in Civil Engineering, 1998




  1. Clayton, C.R.I., Militisky, J. and Woods, R.I., Earth pressure and Earth-Retaining structures (Second Edition), Survey University Press, 1993.




  1. Mandal, J.N., Reinforced Soil and Geotextiles, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.




  1. McCarthy, D.F., Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations: Basic Geotechnics (Sixth Edition), Prentice Hall, 2002.



SM1623 EARTH AND ROCKFILL DAMS 3 0 0 100




OBJECTIVE



Students are expected to learn reasons for failure and damages of embankments and slopes, various methods analysis of slopes and remedial techniques to protect the slopes.

1. DESIGN CONSIDERATION



Design consideration, Factors influencing design, Types of earth and rockfill dams, Design details, Provisions to control pore pressure. 9

2. FAILURE AND DAMAGES


Failure and damages, Nature and importance of failures in embankment and foundation piping, Differential settlement, Foundation slides, Earthquake damage creep and anisotropic effects, Reservoir wave action, Dispersive piping. 9


3. SEEPAGE ANALYSIS


Seepage analysis, Flownets, Stability conditions during construction, Full reservoir and drawdown. 5

4. STABILITY OF SLOPES


Introduction, Stability of infinite and finite slopes, Limit Equilibrium method, Wedge analysis, Method of Slices, Bishop’s method, Janbu’s method etc. Special aspects of slope analysis, stability charts. 10

5. SPECIAL DESIGN PROBLEM



Special design problems, Slope protection, Filter design, Foundation treatment, Earth dams on pervious soil foundation, Treatment of rock foundation, Construction Techniques, Quality control and performance measurement, Applications of Geosynthetics in earth and rockfill dams. 12

Total 45




REFERENCES


  1. Rowe, R.K., Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, Kulwer Academic Publishers, 2001.




  1. Anderson, M.G., and Richards, K.S., Slope Stability, John Wiley, 1987.




  1. Sherard, J.L., Woodward, R.J., Gizienski, R.J. and Clevenger, W.A., Earth and Earth rock dam, John Wiley, 1963.




  1. Chowdhury, D.F., Slope analysis, Prentice Hall, 1988.




  1. McCarthy, R.N., Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations: Basic Geotechnics Sixth Edition), Prentice Hall, 2002.




  1. Bramhead, E.N., The Stability of Slopes, Blacky Academic and Professionals Publica tions, Glassow 1986.




  1. Chandhar, R.J., Engineering Developments and Applications, Thomas Terlod, 1991.




SM1624 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOTECHNOLOGY 3 0 0 100

OBJECTIVE


The student acquires the knowledge on the Geotechnical engineering problems associated with soil contamination, safe disposal of waste and remediate the contaminated soils by different techniques thereby protecting environment.


1. SOIL – POLLUTANT INTERACTION:

Introduction to Geo environmental engineering – environmental cycle – sources, production and classification of waste – causes of soil pollution – factors governing soil-pollutant interaction – failures of foundations due to pollutants – case studies. 8

2. SITE SELECTION AND SAFE DISPOSAL OF WASTE:

Safe disposal of waste – site selection for land fills – characterization of land fill sites – waste characterization – stability of land fills – current practice of waste disposal – passive containment system – application of geo synthetics in solid waste management – rigid or flexible liners 10


3. TRANSPORT OF CONTAMINANTS:

Contaminant transport in sub surfaceadvectiondiffusiondispersiongoverning equationscontaminant transformationsorptionbiodegradationion exchangeprecipitationhydrological consideration in land fill designground water pollutionbearing capacity of compacted fillsfoundation for waste fill groundpollution of aquifers by mixing of liquid wasteprotecting aquifers. 8


4. WASTE STABILIZATION AND DISPOSAL:

Hazardous waste control and storage systemstabilization/ solidification of wastesmicro and macro encapsulationabsorption, adsorption, precipitation- detoxificationmechanism of stabilizationorganic and inorganic stabilizationutilization of solid waste for soil improvement. 10

5. REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS:

Rational approach to evaluate and remediate contaminated sitesmonitored natural attenuationexsitu and insitu remediationsolidification, bioremediation, incineration, soil washing, electro kinetics, soil heating, verification, bio ventingGround water remediationpump and treat, air sparging, reactive well. 9

Total 45

REFERENCES :

  1. Wentz, C.A., Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw Hill, Singapore, 1989.

  2. Daniel, B.E., Geotechnical Practice for waste disposal, Chapman and Hall, London, 1993.

  3. Proceedings of the International symposium of Environmental Geotechnology (Vol.I and II), Environmental Publishing Company, 1986 and 1989.

  4. Ott, W.R., Environmental Indices, Theory and Practice, Ann. Arbor, 1978.

  5. Fried, J.J., Ground Water Pollution, Elsevier, 1975.

  6. ASTM Special Technical Publication 874, Hydraulic Barrier in Soil and Rock, 1985.

  7. Westlake, K., (1995), Landfill Waste pollution and Control, Albion Publishing Ltd., England, 1995.

  8. Lagrega, M.d., Buckingham, P.L., and Evans, J.C., Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw Hill, Inc. Singapore, 1994.







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