Item No.VC.9.9 ANNA UNIVERSITY : : CHENNAI 600 025 CURRICULUM 2005 – FULL TIME MODE (Applicable to Affiliated Colleges of Anna University) M.E. SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Eligibility: B.E. / B. Tech (Civil Engineering) SEMESTER – I
COURSE NO  COURSE TITLE  L  T  P  M  THEORY 



 MA1602  Applied Mathematics  3  1  0  100  SM1601  Theoretical Soil Mechanics  4  0  0  100  SM1602  Strength and Deformation Behaviour of Soils  3  0  0  100  SM1603  Soil Properties and Behaviour  3  0  0  100  E1  ElectiveI  3  0  0  100  E2  ElectiveII  3  0  0  100 
LIST OF ELECTIVES
COURSE NO  CODE COURSE TITLE  L  T  P  M  SM1621  Dynamic of Soil and Foundations  3  0  0  100  SM1622  Earth Pressure and Earth Retaining Structures  3  0  0  100  SM1623  Earth and Rock fill Dams  3  0  0  100  SM1624  Environmental Geotechnology  3  0  0  100 
MA1602 APPLIED MATHEMATICS 3 1 0 100
TRANSFORM METHODS Laplace and inverse transforms – integral transforms – transform methods for boundary value problems – initial value problems – applications in one and two dimensions. 12
2. CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS Variations –one and multidimensional – Euler equation – functionals – differential and integral variations – Ritz and Kantarovich methods – weighted residuals – Discrete approximations – finite difference, finite element and boundary elements. 12
PROBABILITY AND RANDOM THEORY Probability and random variables and functions – moments in one and two dimensions – first order and second order methods – correlation and regression Multi dimensions applications. 12
ESTIMATION THEORY Principles of least squares – multiple and partial correlations – parameter estimation – likelihood estimates – method of moments. 12 SOFT COMPUTING METHODS Deterministic and fuzzy variables likelihood functions – fuzzy relations – neural nets – algorithms in neural nets – evolutionary approaches – genetic algorithms 12
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES: Jain, R.K., Iyengar, SRK., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Narosa Publications, 2003. Andrews, L.C. and Srivamoggi, B.K., Integral Transform for Engineers, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2003
A.S. Gupta – Calculus of Variations with Applications, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 1997
J.N. Kapan & H.C. Sexana – Mathematical Statistics, S. Chand & Co., 2003 R. Beale, C.T. Jacson, Neural Computing – An Introduction, Adam Hilger, 1990 Melanie Mitchell, An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms, PHI, 1990 Simon Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2^{nd} Edition, Prentice Hall / Pearson Education, 1999.
8. Valluru Rao, Hayagriva Rao, C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, MIS Press, 1994.
SM1601 THEORETICAL SOIL MECHANICS 4 0 0 100 OBJECTIVE
Students are expected to understand elastic and plastic behaviour of soil and solve problems related to settlement and stability of soils structures. 1. THEORY OF ELASTICITY Introduction – Elasticity and stability problems, concept of stress and strain – plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric problems – equation of equilibrium and compatibility – stress functions. 10 2. STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS (ELASTIC SOLUTIONS) Stresses in elastic halfspace medium by external loads – fundamental solutions –Boussinesq, Flamant, Kelvin and Mindlin solution – Applications of fundamental solutions – Anisotropic and nonhomogeneous linear continuum – Influence charts  elastic displacement. 15 3. LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS Limit equilibrium analysis – perfectly plastic material – stress – strain relationship –stress and displacement field calculations – slip line solutions for undrained and drained loading. 12 4. LIMIT ANALYSIS Limit analysis – principles of virtual work – theorems of plastic collapse – Mechanism for plane plastic collapse – Simple solutions for drained and undrained loading –stability of slopes, cuts and retaining structures. Centrifuge model – Principles and scale effects, practical considerations. 15 5. FLOW THROUGH POROUS MEDIA Flow through porous media – Darcy’s law – General equation of flow – steady state condition – solution by flow net – fully saturated conditions. 8 Total 60
REFERENCES: Aysen, A., Soil Mechanics: Basic concepts and Engineering Applications, A.A.Balkema Publishers, 2002. Ulrich Smoltc, YK, Geotechnical Engineering Handbook (Vol.1), Ernot & Sohn, 2002. Aysen, A., Problem Solving in Soil Mechanics, A.A.Balkema Publishers, 2003. Davis, R.O., and Selvadurai, A.P.S., Elasticity and Geomechanics, Cambridge University Press, 1996. Taylor, R.N., Geotechnical Centrifuge Technology, Blackie Academic and Professional, 1995. WaiFah Chen, and Liu, X.L., Limit Analysis in Soil Mechanics, Elsevier Science Ltd., 1991. Muni Budhu, Soil Mechanics and Foundations, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Network, 2000. Alkinson, J.H., Foundations and Slopes, McGraw Hill, 1981. Harr, M.E., Foundations of Theoretical Soil Mechanics, McGraw Hill, 1966. Cedergren, H.R., Seepage, Drainage and Flownets, John Wiley, 1997. Winterkorn, H.F., and Fang, H.Y., Foundation Engineering Handbook, Galgotia, Booksource, 2000.
SM1602 STRENGTH AND DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF SOILS 3 0 0 100
OBJECTIVE The main objective of this course is to understand stressstrain characteristics of soils, the mechanism of failure, the factors that affects the shears strength and the various test procedures to determine the shear strength.
SHEAR STRENGTH OF COHESION LESS SOILS Shear strength of granular sols  Direct shear  Triaxial Testing Drained and untrained Stressstrain behaviour  Dilation, contraction and critical states  Liquefaction and cyclic mobility of saturated sands. Factors influencing stressstrain shear strength. 9 SHEAR STRENGTH OF COHESIVE SOILS Shear strength of clays  Stressstrain behaviour  Triaxial testing and stress path plotting  pore pressure parameter of Skempton and Henkel  Total stress and effective stress approach  shear strength of partially saturated clay in terms of stress state variables. Factors influencing stressstrain shear strength. 9 YIELD CRITERION Concepts of yield and failure in soils yield criteria of von Mises, Tresca and their extended form, their applicability to soils  Detailed discussion of Mohr.  Coulomb failure criterion. 9 STRESS  STRAIN LAWS FOR SOILS Stressstrain laws for soils  hyperbolic law  Linear viscoelastic and Elasto plastic laws  yield functions, hardening law, flow rules and plastic strain computation  Rheological models of Kelvin, Maxwell and Burger and Burger as applied to soils. 9 CRITICAL STATE SOIL MECHANICS Introduction to critical state soil mechanics  state boundary  surface Roscoe and Hvorslev's  A perspective only on mechanical behaviour of soils within the critical state framework. 9 Total 45 REFERENCES Hotlz, R.D. and Kovacs, W.D., Introduction Geotechnical Engineering, PrenticeHall, 1981 Braja, M, Das., Advanced soil mechanics, McGraw Hill, 1997. Lambe, T.W. and Whitman R.V. Soil Mechanics in S.I. Units John Wiley, 1979. Atkinson J.H. and Brandsby P.L. Introduction to critical state soil mechanics McGraw Hill, 1978. Wood, D.M., Soil behaviour and Critical State Soil Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1990. Bazant, Z.P., Mechanics of Geomaterials, Rocks, Concrete and Soil, John Willey and Sons, Chilchester, 1985. Graham Barnes, Soil Mechanics Principles and Practices, Macmillan Press Ltd., London, ISBN 033377776x  2002. Shear Strength of Liquefied Soils, Final Proceedings of the workshop, National Science Foundation, Urbane, Illinois, July 1998. Braja, M. Das, Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineering, Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning Academic Resource, Center, ISBNO534371140. Keedwell, M.J., Rheology and Soil Mechanics, Elsevier applied science Publishers Ltd., 1984. ISBN 0853342857 Malcolm D. Bolton, A guide to soil mechanics, Universities Press (India) Private Ltd., Hyderabad, India, 2003, ISBN 81 73712458.
SM1603 SOIL PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOUR 3 0 0 100
OBJECTIVE
At the end of the course the student gains knowledge on the various factors governing the Engineering behaviour of soils and the suitability of soils for various Geotechnical Engineering applications.
1. SOIL DEPOSITS AND CLAY MINERALS: Introduction – formation of soils – various soil deposits and their engineering suitability – Genesis of clay minerals – classification and identification – Anion and Cation exchange capacity of clays – specific surface area – bonding in clays. 8
2. PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF SOILS: Physical and physio – chemical behaviour of soils – diffused double layer theory – computation of double layer distance – effect of ion concentration, ionic valency, dielectric constant, temperature on double layer – stern layer – attractive and repulsive forces in clays – soil structure – soil water – mechanism of soil – water interactions. 10
3. SWELLING, SHRINKAGE AND PERMEABILITY BEHAVIOUR: Swelling and shrinkage behaviour of soils – problems associated – factors influencing swell – shrink characteristics – swell pressure determination – osmotic swell pressure – soil fabric and measurement – sensitivity, thixotrophy – stress history – factors influencing permeability characteristics of soils – soil compaction – soil suctions – determination of suction potential. 10
4. COMPRESSIBILITY AND SHEAR STRENGTH BEHAVIOUR: Compressibility and shear strength behaviour of soils and clays – mechanisms involved – influence of fabric, OCR, pore fluid, strain rate, drainage etc on the compressibility and shear strength – liquefaction potential – factors governing compressibility, shear strength and liquefaction potential of soils. 10
5. CONDUCTION PHENOMENA AND PREDICTION OF SOIL BEHAVIOUR: Conduction in soils – coupled flows – electrical, chemical , hydraulic and thermal flows in soils – consolidation by electro osmosis – effect of flows in stable and properties of soils – prediction of engineering behaviour of soils – empirical correlations and their applicability. 7 Total 45
REFERENCES
Mitchell, J.K., Fundamentals of Soil Behaviour, John Wiley, New York, 1993 Yong, R.N. and Warkentin, B.P., Introduction to Soil Behaviour, Macmillan, Limited, London, 1979. Perloff, W.H. and Baron, W, Soil Mechanics, The Ronal Press Company, 1976. Van Olphen, H., Clay colloid Chemistry, John Wiley, 1996 Grim, R.E., Applied Clay Mineralogy, McGraw Hill, New York, 1966. Lambe, T.W. and Whitman, R.V. Soil Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1979. Das, B.M., Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, PWS Publishing Company, Boston, 1998 Coduto, D.P., Geotechnical Engineering – Principles and practices, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2002 McCarthy D.F., Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations, PrenticeHall, 2002.
SM1621 DYNAMICS OF SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 3 0 0 100 OBJECTIVE To understand the basics of dynamics  dynamic behaviour of soils, effects of dynamics loads and the various design methods. THEORY OF VIBRATION Introduction  Nature of dynamic loads  free vibrations of spring  mass systems  forced vibrations  viscous damping  principles of vibrations measuring equipments. 9 DETERMINATION OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR Dynamic stress  Deformation and strength of soils  Dynamics bearing capacity and earth pressure  Effect of transient and pulsating loads  Resonant column apparatus  FieldtestTypical values of soil constants. 6
LIQUEFACTION Liquefaction of soils  Factors influencing  Liquefaction potential  vibration table studies  Field tests  Analysis  from standard penetration data. 6
DESIGN OF MACHINE FOUNDATION Machine foundations  Design criteria  Degrees of freedom  Foundations for reciprocating machines  Block foundation, Elastic half space theory  Lumped parameter analog model  foundations for impact and miscellaneous machines  Frame foundations for high speed machinery  Dynamic soil structure interaction. 15 [ VIBRATION ISOLATION Vibration Isolation  Passive and active isolation  use of springs and damping materials construction aspects of machine foundations. 9 Total 45
REFERENCES Kameswara Rao, N.S.V., Dynamics soil tests and applications, Wheeler Publishing  New Delhi, 2000. Prakash, S and Puri, V.K., Foundations for machines, McGraw Hill, 1987. Moore, P.J., Analysis and Design of Foundations for Vibrations, Oxford and IBH, 1985. Vaidyanathan, C.V., and Srinivasalu, P., Handbook of Machine Foundations, McGraw Hill, 1995. Arya, S., O'Neil, S., Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines, Prentice Hall, 1981. Major, A., Vibration Analysis and Design of Foundations for Machines and Turbines, Vol. I, II and III Budapest, 1964. Barkon, D.D., Dynamics of Basis of Foundation, McGraw Hill, 1974. Swami Saran, Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundation, Galgotia publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 1999. Das B.M., Principles of Soils Dynamics, McGraw Hill, 1992. Krammer S.L., Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, prentice hall, international series, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pvt. Ltd., 2004. Kameswara Rao, "Vibration Analysis and Foundation Dynamics", wheeler Publishing, New Delhi, 1998.
SM1622 EARTH PRESSURE AND EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES 3 0 0 100 OBJECTIVE At the end of this course, students are expected to analyse and design rigid, flexible and reinforced earth retained structures and deep cuts. 1. EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES
Introduction – State of stress in retained soil mass – Earth pressure theories – Classical and graphical techniques – Active and passive cases – Earth pressure due to external loads, empirical methods. Wall movement and complex geometry. 12
2. DRAINAGE AND STABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
Lateral pressure due to compaction, strain softening, wall flexibility, influence of drainage. Each pressure due to earthquake forces – Stability of retaining structure. 8
3. SHEET PILE WALLS
Retaining structure – Selection of soil parameters – Analysis and design of cantilever and anchored sheet pile walls. Deadman and continuous anchor. Diaphragm and bored pile walls – Design requirements. 8 4. SUPPORTED EXCAVATIONS
Lateral pressure on sheeting in braced excavation, stability against piping and bottom heaving. Earth pressure around tunnel lining, shaft and silos. 8 5. DESIGN OF REINFORCED EARTH RETAINING WALL Reinforced earth retaining wall – principles, Concepts and mechanism of reinforced Earth – Design consideration of reinforced earth – Materials used in reinforced earth  Geotextile – Geogrids, Metal strips, facing elements. 9 Total 45
REFERENCES:
Winterkorn, H.F. and Fang, H.Y., Foundation Engineering Handbook, Galgotia Booksource, 2000. Rowe, R.K., Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Militisky, J. and Woods, R., Earth and Earth retaining structures, Routledge, 1992. Koerner, R.M., Design with Geosynthetics (Third Edition), Prentice Hall, 1997. Day, R.W., Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering: Design and Construction, McGraw Hill, 1999. Das, B.M., Principles of Geotechnical Engineering (Fourth Edition). The PWS series in Civil Engineering, 1998 Clayton, C.R.I., Militisky, J. and Woods, R.I., Earth pressure and EarthRetaining structures (Second Edition), Survey University Press, 1993. Mandal, J.N., Reinforced Soil and Geotextiles, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. McCarthy, D.F., Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations: Basic Geotechnics (Sixth Edition), Prentice Hall, 2002. SM1623 EARTH AND ROCKFILL DAMS 3 0 0 100 OBJECTIVE
Students are expected to learn reasons for failure and damages of embankments and slopes, various methods analysis of slopes and remedial techniques to protect the slopes. 1. DESIGN CONSIDERATION
Design consideration, Factors influencing design, Types of earth and rockfill dams, Design details, Provisions to control pore pressure. 9
2. FAILURE AND DAMAGES Failure and damages, Nature and importance of failures in embankment and foundation piping, Differential settlement, Foundation slides, Earthquake damage creep and anisotropic effects, Reservoir wave action, Dispersive piping. 9
3. SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
Seepage analysis, Flownets, Stability conditions during construction, Full reservoir and drawdown. 5 4. STABILITY OF SLOPES Introduction, Stability of infinite and finite slopes, Limit Equilibrium method, Wedge analysis, Method of Slices, Bishop’s method, Janbu’s method etc. Special aspects of slope analysis, stability charts. 10 5. SPECIAL DESIGN PROBLEM
Special design problems, Slope protection, Filter design, Foundation treatment, Earth dams on pervious soil foundation, Treatment of rock foundation, Construction Techniques, Quality control and performance measurement, Applications of Geosynthetics in earth and rockfill dams. 12 Total 45
REFERENCES
Rowe, R.K., Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, Kulwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
Anderson, M.G., and Richards, K.S., Slope Stability, John Wiley, 1987. Sherard, J.L., Woodward, R.J., Gizienski, R.J. and Clevenger, W.A., Earth and Earth rock dam, John Wiley, 1963. Chowdhury, D.F., Slope analysis, Prentice Hall, 1988. McCarthy, R.N., Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations: Basic Geotechnics Sixth Edition), Prentice Hall, 2002. Bramhead, E.N., The Stability of Slopes, Blacky Academic and Professionals Publica tions, Glassow 1986. Chandhar, R.J., Engineering Developments and Applications, Thomas Terlod, 1991.
SM1624 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOTECHNOLOGY 3 0 0 100
OBJECTIVE The student acquires the knowledge on the Geotechnical engineering problems associated with soil contamination, safe disposal of waste and remediate the contaminated soils by different techniques thereby protecting environment.
1. SOIL – POLLUTANT INTERACTION: Introduction to Geo environmental engineering – environmental cycle – sources, production and classification of waste – causes of soil pollution – factors governing soilpollutant interaction – failures of foundations due to pollutants – case studies. 8 2. SITE SELECTION AND SAFE DISPOSAL OF WASTE: Safe disposal of waste – site selection for land fills – characterization of land fill sites – waste characterization – stability of land fills – current practice of waste disposal – passive containment system – application of geo synthetics in solid waste management – rigid or flexible liners 10
3. TRANSPORT OF CONTAMINANTS: Contaminant transport in sub surface – advection – diffusion – dispersion – governing equations – contaminant transformation – sorption – biodegradation – ion exchange – precipitation – hydrological consideration in land fill design – ground water pollution – bearing capacity of compacted fills – foundation for waste fill ground – pollution of aquifers by mixing of liquid waste – protecting aquifers. 8
4. WASTE STABILIZATION AND DISPOSAL: Hazardous waste control and storage system – stabilization/ solidification of wastes – micro and macro encapsulation – absorption, adsorption, precipitation detoxification – mechanism of stabilization – organic and inorganic stabilization – utilization of solid waste for soil improvement. 10 5. REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS: Rational approach to evaluate and remediate contaminated sites – monitored natural attenuation – exsitu and insitu remediation – solidification, bio – remediation, incineration, soil washing, electro kinetics, soil heating, verification, bio venting – Ground water remediation – pump and treat, air sparging, reactive well. 9 Total 45 REFERENCES : Wentz, C.A., Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw Hill, Singapore, 1989. Daniel, B.E., Geotechnical Practice for waste disposal, Chapman and Hall, London, 1993. Proceedings of the International symposium of Environmental Geotechnology (Vol.I and II), Environmental Publishing Company, 1986 and 1989. Ott, W.R., Environmental Indices, Theory and Practice, Ann. Arbor, 1978. Fried, J.J., Ground Water Pollution, Elsevier, 1975. ASTM Special Technical Publication 874, Hydraulic Barrier in Soil and Rock, 1985. Westlake, K., (1995), Landfill Waste pollution and Control, Albion Publishing Ltd., England, 1995. Lagrega, M.d., Buckingham, P.L., and Evans, J.C., Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw Hill, Inc. Singapore, 1994.
