Volcanology, environmental remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry

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Clive Oppenheimer BA PhD

Reader in Volcanology and Remote Sensing

Volcanology, environmental remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry.



* 1991-1993: NERC PDRA and visiting research fellow, Open University, and NASA JPL.

* 1993-1994: University of Cambridge; SERC/NERC Earth Observation Fellowship.

* 1994-1997: University Assistant Lecturer, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.

* 1997-2003:University Lecturer, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge

* 2003-present: University Reader, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge

* 2007-8: Leverhulme Trust Study Abroad Fellowship


* BA (Cantab)

* PhD (Open University)


Clive Oppenheimer's research has developed broadly around the elaboration and application of novel remote sensing techniques (ground-based, airborne and spaceborne) to volcanology. Several of these methodologies are now being used by volcano observatories for routine surveillance, contributing both to hazard assessment, and a deeper understanding of volcanic processes. His current work focuses on the application of spectroscopy to field measurements of the composition, flux and atmospheric chemistry of volcanic gases, in order to interpret magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and to understand the environmental and health impacts of volcanic pollution. Field sites include Mt. Erebus volcano in Antarctica. He is also involved in projects examining the human impacts of major historic and prehistoric eruptions, and some non-vocalnological applications of atmospheric spectroscopy including studies of reactive nitrogen oxide emissions from airports and biomass burning. Clive coordinates the Cambridge Volcanology Group.

1. Measurement and modelling of volcanic emissions

Volcanoes emit gases and particles both during and between eruptions. Surveillance of volatile composition and flux is essential for interpretation of volcanic activity, since the nature of degassing exerts a strong control on eruption style. It also supports assessment of the role of volcanic gases and aerosol in modifying atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and in affecting human health (see next). Clive has been at the forefront of research on the development and application of spectroscopic methods (ultraviolet and infrared) to measurements of the composition and flux of volcanic gases.

2. Atmospheric, environmental and human health impacts of volcanic emissions

The measurement techniques described above are being used to investigate the tropospheric chemistry of volcanic plumes, particularly in collaboration with David Pyle and Tamsin Mather. Recent observations have highlighted meteorological controls on aerosol size distributions, and kinetics of halogen and sulphur chemistry. This work is yielding significant advances in understanding the chemical processes peculiar to volcanic (compared with industrial) plumes. A longer-term goal is to develop integrated models capable of predicting the atmospheric, environmental and medical effects of eruptions. One current focus of research is on the impacts on the Antarctic troposphere arising from the sustained emissions from Mt. Erebus volcano. This work is being carried out in collaboration with Phil Kyle at New Mexico Tech.

3. Great eruptions

Studies of some of the largest historic and prehistoric volcanic eruptions are important because we have only seen modest-scale eruptions in the modern instrumental period. Extending the record back in time improves our understanding not only of the links between volcanism and climate but also helps in considering the risks of future large eruptions. Clive has recently been working with colleagues in India on the fallout from the Toba "super-eruption", and in Iceland on the 1783 Laki Craters eruption, which appears to have brought forward many deaths in England.

4. Volcanic slope failure and mass flows

Several of Clive's students work on aspects of volcanic mass flows, arguably the most hazardous volcanic phenomena. A particular interest is the rainfall-triggering of volcanic landslides. Another study underway is using sonar, radar and optical remote sensing data to characterise and interpret the growth and mass wasting of giant volcanic ridges in oceanic and continental rifts.

For further details, please see the Cambridge Volcanology Group website.


Books authored

* Francis, P., and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, Volcanoes, Oxford University Press, 521pp.

Books edited

* Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., and Barclay, J. (editors), 2003, Volcanic Degassing, Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 213, 420pp.

* Robock, A., and Oppenheimer, C. (editors), 2003, Volcanism and the Earth's atmosphere, American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, 139, 360pp.

Published course guides

* Oppenheimer, C. and Wooster, M.J., 2003, Remote sensing for natural hazards, University of London Press, 82pp.

Articles in international peer-reviewed journals and monographs


* Oppenheimer, C., and Kyle, P.R., in press, Probing the magma plumbing of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, by open-path FTIR spectroscopy of gas emissions, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research

* Sawyer, G.M, Carn, S.A., Tsanev, V.I., Oppenheimer, C., Burton, M., in press, Investigation into magma degassing at Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geosystems.

* Oppenheimer, C. and Pyle, D., in press, Volcanic hazards in the Mediterranean, in Woodward, J. (ed.), The physical geography of the Mediterranean Basin, Oxford University Press.

* Petraglia, M.P., Korisettar, R., Boivin, N., Clarkson, C., Ditchfield, P., Jones, S., Koshy, J., Lahr, M., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D., Roberts, R., Schwenninger, J.L., Arnold, L., and White, K., 2007, Middle paleolithic assemblages from the Indian subcontinent before and after the Toba super-eruption, Science, 317, 114-116.

* Toyos, G., Dorta, D.O., Oppenheimer, C., Pareschi, M.T., Sulpizio, R., and Zanchetta, G., 2007, GIS-assisted modelling for debris flow hazard assessment based on the events of May 1998 in the area of Sarno, Southern Italy: Part I. Maximum run-out, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32, 1491-1502.

* Permenter, J.L. and Oppenheimer, C., 2007, Volcanoes of the Tibesti massif (Chad, northern Africa), Bulletin of Volcanology, 69, 609-626.

* Oramas-Dorta, D., Toyos, G., Oppenheimer, C., Pareschi, M. T., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., 2007, Empirical hazard mapping of small debris flows in Sarno (Italy) using LAHARZ, Natural Hazards, 40, 381-396.


* Rose, W. I., Millard, G.A., Mather, T.A., Hunton, D.E., Anderson, B., Oppenheimer, C., Thornton, B.F., Gerlach, T.M., Viggiano, A.A., Kondo. Y., Miller, T.M., Ballenthin, J.O., 2006, Atmospheric chemistry of a 33–34 hour old volcanic cloud from Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights from direct sampling and the application of chemical box modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D20206, doi:10.1029/2005JD006872.

* Oppenheimer, C., Bani, P., Calkins, J., Burton, M.R. & Sawyer, G.M., 2006, Rapid FTIR sensing of volcanic gases released by strombolian explosions at Yasur volcano, Vanuatu, Applied Physics B, 85, 453–460.

* Mori, T., Kazahaya, K., Oppenheimer, C., McGonigle, A.J.S., Tsanev, V., Olmos, R., Ohwada, M., and Shuto, T., 2006, Sulfur dioxide fluxes from the volcanoes of Hokkaido, Japan, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158, 235-243.

* Sawyer, G.M. and Oppenheimer, C., 2006, Volcanic fluorine emissions: observations by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in Fluorine and the Environment: atmospheric chemistry, emissions, and lithosphere (ed: Tressaud, A.), Advances in Fluorine Science, 1, 165-185.

* Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Braban, C.F., Cox, R.A., Adams, J.W., Aiuppa, A., Bobrowski, N., Delmelle, P., Barclay, J., and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2006, BrO formation in volcanic plumes, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 2935-2941.

* Allen, A.G., Mather, T.A., McGonigle, A.J.S., Aiuppa, A., Delmelle, P., Davison, B., Bobrowski, N., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., and Inguaggiato, S., 2006, Sources, size distribution, and downwind grounding of aerosols from Mount Etna, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10302, doi:10.1029/2005JD006015.

* Elias, T., A. J. Sutton, C. Oppenheimer, K. A. Horton, H. Garbeil, V. Tsanev, A.J.S. McGonigle, and G. Williams-Jones, 2006, Intercomparison of COSPEC and two miniature ultraviolet spectrometer systems for SO2 measurements using scattered sunlight, Bulletin of Volcanology, 68, 313 - 322.

* Hansell, A.L., Horwell, C.J., and Oppenheimer, C., 2006, Health risks from volcanoes, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63,149-156; doi:10.1136/oem.2005.022459

* Mather, T.A., Pyle, D.M., Tsanev, V.I., McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C. and Allen, A.G., 2006, A reassessment of current volcanic emissions from the Central American arc with specific examples from Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 149, 297-311.


* Weidmann, D., Roller, C.B., Oppenheimer, C., Fried, A., and Tittel, F.K., 2005, Carbon isotopomers measurement using mid-IR tunable laser sources, Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 41, 293–302.

* Aiuppa, A., Inguaggiato, S., McGonigle, A.J.S., O'Dwyer, M., Oppenheimer, C., Padgett, M.J., Rouwet, D., and Valenza, M., 2005, H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the global volcanic sulfur budget, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, 1861-1871.

* McGonigle, A.J.S., Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P., and Oppenheimer, C., 2005, Plume velocity determination for volcanic SO2 flux measurements, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L11302, doi:10.1029/2005GL022470.

* McGonigle, A.J.S., Inguaggiato, S., Aiuppa, A., Hayes, A.R., and Oppenheimer, C., 2005, Accurate measurement of volcanic SO2 flux: Determination of plume transport speed and integrated SO2 concentration with a single device, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 6, Q02003, doi:10.1029/2004GC000845.

* Oppenheimer, C., Kyle, P.R., Tsanev, V.I., McGonigle, A.J.S., Mather, T.A., and Sweeney, D., 2005, Mt. Erebus, the largest point source of NO2 in Antarctica, Atmospheric Environment, 39, 6000-6006.

* Weidmann, D., Wysocki, G., Oppenheimer, C., and Tittel, F.K., 2005, Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurement of CO2 isotopes, Applied Physics B., 80, 255-260.

* Wiart, P. and Oppenheimer, C., 2005, Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: The Nabro Volcanic Range and Ma'alalta volcano, Bulletin of Volcanology, 67, 99-115.

* Witham, C.S. and Oppenheimer, C., 2005, Mortality in England during the 1783-4 Laki Craters eruption, Bulletin of Volcanology, 67, 15-26.

* Witham, C.S., Oppenheimer, C., and Horwell, C.J., 2005, Volcanic ash-leachates: a review and recommendations for sampling methods, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 141, 299-326.


* Hansell, A.L., and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, Health hazards from volcanic gases – a systematic literature review, Archives of Environmental Health, 59, 628-639.

* Mason, B.G., Pyle, D.M. and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth, Bulletin of Volcanology, 66, 735-748.

* Mather T.A., Tsanev, V.I., Pyle, D.M., McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C., Allen, A.G., 2004, Characterization and evolution of tropospheric plumes from Lascar and Villarrica volcanoes, Chile, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21303, doi:10.1029/2004JD004934.

* Mather, T.A., Oppenheimer, C., Allen, A.G. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2004, Aerosol chemistry of emissions from three contrasting volcanoes in Italy, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 5637-5649.

* Mather, T.A., Allen, A.G., Pyle, D.M., Davison, B.M., Oppenheimer, C. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2004, Nitric acid from volcanoes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 218, 17-30.

* McGonigle, A.J.S., Delmelle, P., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Delfosse, T., Horton, H. and Williams-Jones, G., 2004, SO2 depletion in tropospheric volcanic plumes, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L13201, doi:10.1029/2004GL019990.

* McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Saunders, S., Mulina, K., Tohui, S., Bosco, J., Nahou, J., Kuduon, J. and Taranu, F., 2004, sulphur dioxide fluxes from Papua New Guinea's volcanoes, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L08606, doi:10.1029/2004GL019568.

* McGonigle, A.J.S., Thomson, C.L., Tsanev, V.I. and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, A simple technique for measuring power station SO2 and NO2 emissions, Atmospheric Environment, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.048.

* Oppenheimer, C. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2004, Exploiting ground-based optical sensing technologies for volcanic gas surveillance, Annals of Geophysics, 47(4), 1455-1470.

* Oppenheimer, C., Tsanev, V.I., Allen, A.G., McGonigle, A.J.S., Cardoso, A.A., Wiatr, A., Paterlini, W. and de Mello Dias, C., 2004, NO2 emissions from agricultural burning in São Paulo, Brazil, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 4557-4561.

* Oppenheimer, C., McGonigle, A.J.S., Allard, P., Wooster, M.J. and Tsanev, V.I., 2004, Sulfur, heat and magma budget of Erta 'Ale lava lake, Ethiopia, Geology, 32, 509-512.


* Burton, M., Allard, P., Murè, F. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, FTIR remote sensing of fractional magma degassing at Mt. Etna, Sicily, in Volcanic degassing, Geological Society Special Publications, 213, 281-293.

* Duffell, H.J., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D., Galle, B., McGonigle, A.J.S. and Burton, M.R., 2003, Geochemical precursors to a minor explosive eruption at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126, 327-339.

* Edmonds, M., Herd, R.A., Galle, B. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Automated, high time-resolution measurements of SO2 flux at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, Bulletin of Volcanology, 65, 578-586.

* Edmonds, M., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M. and Herd, R., 2003, Rainwater and ash leachate analysis as a proxy for plume chemistry at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, in Volcanic degassing, Geological Society Special Publications, 213, 203-218.

* Edmonds, M., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., Herd, R.A. and Thompson, G., 2003, SO2 emissions from Soufrière Hills Volcano and their relationship to conduit permeability, hydrothermal interaction and degassing regime, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 124, 23-43.

* Galle, B., Oppenheimer, C., Geyer, A., McGonigle, A., Edmonds, M. and Horrocks, L.A., 2003, A miniaturised ultraviolet spectrometer for remote sensing of SO2 fluxes: a new tool for volcano surveillance, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 119, 241-254.

* Horrocks, L., Oppenheimer, C., Burton, M. and Duffell, H., 2003, Compositional variation in tropospheric volcanic gas plumes: evidence from ground-based remote sensing, in Volcanic degassing, Geological Society Special Publications, 213, 349-369.

* Kerle, N., Froger, J-L., Oppenheimer, C. and van Wyk de Vries, B., 2003, Remote sensing of the 1998 mudflow at Casita volcano, Nicaragua, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24¸ 4791-4816.

* Kerle, N., van Wyk de Vries, B. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, New insight into the factors leading to the 1998 flank collapse and lahar disaster at Casita volcano, Nicaragua. Bulletin of Volcanology, 65, 331-345.

* Mather, T., Pyle, D.M. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Tropospheric volcanic aerosol, in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere (Robock, A. and Oppenheimer, C., eds), American Geophysical Union Monograph 139, 189-212.

* Mather, T.A., Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M. and McGonigle, A.J.S., 2003, Size-resolved particle compositions of the tropospheric plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 46(3), 207-237.

* McGonigle, A.J.S. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Optical sensing of volcanic gas and aerosol emissions, in Volcanic degassing, Geological Society Special Publications, 213, 149-168.

* McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C., Hayes, A.R., Galle, B., Edmonds, M., Caltabiano, Salerno, G., Burton, M., and Mather, T.A., 2003, Sulphur dioxide fluxes from Mount Etna, Vulcano, and Stromboli measured with an automated scanning ultraviolet spectrometer, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108( B9), 2455, doi:10.1029/2002JB002261.

* O'Dwyer, M., Padgett, M.J., McGonigle, A.J.S., Oppenheimer, C. and Inguaggiato, S., 2003, Real-time measurement of volcanic H2S and SO2 concentrations by UV spectroscopy, Geophsyical Research Letters, 30(12), 1652, doi 10.1029/2003GL017246.

* Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Volcanic degassing, in: The Crust (ed. R.L. Rudnick) Vol. 3, Treatise on Geochemistry (eds. H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian), Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, 123-166.

* Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815, Progress in Physical Geography, 27, 230-259.

* Oppenheimer, C., 2003, Ice core and palaeoclimatic evidence for the great volcanic eruption of 1257, International Journal of Climatology, 23, 417-426.

* Toyos, G., Oppenheimer, C., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., and Zuccaro, G., 2003, Modelling building vulnerability to debris flows in the Sarno area, Southern Italy, in: Rickenmann and Chen (eds) Debris-flow hazards mitigation: mechanics, prediction, and assessment, Millpress, Rotterdam, 1209-1220.


* Allen, A.G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P.J., Horrocks, L., Galle, B., McGonigle, A.J.S., and Duffell, H.J., 2002, Primary sulphate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, D.O.I. 10.1029/2002JD002120, 4 December 2002.

* McGonigle A.J.S., Oppenheimer C., Galle B., Mather T. and Pyle D., 2002, Walking traverse and scanning DOAS measurements of volcanic gas emission rates, Geophysical Research Letters, DOI 10.1029/2002GL015827, 26 October 2002.

* Oppenheimer, C., and Yirgu, G., 2002, Thermal imaging of an active lava lake: Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23, 4777-4782.

* Porter, J.N., Horton, K., Mouginis-Mark, P., Lienert, B., Lau, E., Sutton, A.J., Elias, T., and Oppenheimer, C., 2002, Sun photometer and lidar measurements of the plume from the Hawaii Kilauea volcano Pu'u 'O'o vent: estimates of aerosol flux rates and SO2 lifetime, Geophysical Research Letters, DOI 10.1029/2002GL014744, 23 August 2002.

* Oppenheimer, C., 2002, Limited global change due to largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba ≈74 kyr BP?, Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 1593-1609.

* Kerle, N. and Oppenheimer, C. 2002, Satellite remote sensing as a tool in lahar disaster management, Disasters, 26, 140-160.

* Richter, D., Erdelyi, M., Curl, R.F., Tittel, F.K., Oppenheimer, C., Duffell, H.J., and Burton, M., 2002, Field measurement of volcanic gases using tunable diode laser based mid-infrared and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 37, 171-186.

* Oppenheimer, C., Burton, M.R., Durieux, J., and Pyle, D.M., 2002, Open-path Fourier transform spectroscopy of gas emissions from a carbonatite volcano: Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 37, 203-214.

* Oppenheimer, C., Edmonds, M., Francis, P., and Burton, M.R., 2002, Variation in HCl/SO2 gas ratios observed by Fourier transform spectroscopy at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, in Druitt, T.H., and Kokelaar, P. (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society, London, Memoir, 21, 621-639.

* Edmonds, M., Pyle, D., and Oppenheimer, C., 2002, HCl emissions at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies, during the second phase of dome-building: November 1999 to October 2000, Bulletin of Volcanology, 64, 21-30.


* Horrocks, L.A., Oppenheimer, C., Burton, M.R., Duffell, H.R., Davies, N.M., Martin, N.A., and Bell, W., 2001, Open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of SO2: an empirical error budget analysis, with implications for volcano monitoring, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 106, 27647-27659.

* Duffell, H., Oppenheimer, C., and Burton, M.R., 2001, Volcanic gas emission rates measured by solar occultation spectroscopy, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 3131-3134.

* Watson, I.M., and Oppenheimer, C., 2001, Particle-size distributions of ash-rich volcanic plumes determined by sun photometry, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 3561-3572..

* Edmonds, M., Pyle, D., and Oppenheimer, C., 2001, A model for degassing at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies, based on geochemical data, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 186, 159-173.

* Burton, M.R., Oppenheimer, C., Horrocks, L.A., Francis, P.W., 2001, Diurnal changes in volcanic plume chemistry observed by lunar and solar occultation spectroscopy, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 843-846.


* Burton, M.R., Oppenheimer, C., Horrocks, L.A., and Francis, P.W., 2000, Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, Geology, 28, 915-918.

* Amelung, F., Oppenheimer, C., Segall, P., and Zebker, H., 2000, Ground deformation near Gada 'Ale volcano, Afar, observed by radar interferometry, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 3093-3096.

* Wood, R., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Spur and groove morphology from a Late Devonian reef, Sedimentary Geology, 133, 185-193.

* Francis, P., Horrocks, L., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Monitoring gases from andesite volcanoes, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 358, 1567-1584.

* Watson, I.M., Oppenheimer, C., Voight, B, Francis, P.W., Clarke, A., Stix, J., Miller, A., Pyle, D.M., Burton, M.R., Young, S.R., Norton, G., Loughlin, S., Darroux, B., and MVO Staff, 2000, The relationship between degassing and deformation at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 98, 117-126.

* Watson, I.M., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Particle size distributions of Mt. Etna's aerosol plume constrained by sun-photometry, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 105, 9823-9830.

* Carn, S.A., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Remote monitoring of Indonesian volcanoes using satellite data from the Internet, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 873-910.

* Wiart, P.A.M., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Largest known historic eruption in Africa: Dubbi volcano, Eritrea, 1861, Geology, 28, 291-294.

* Wiart P.A.M., Oppenheimer C, and Francis, P., 2000, Eruptive history of Dubbi volcano, northeast Afar (Eritrea), revealed by optical and SAR image interpretation, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 911-936.

* Flynn, L.P., Harris, A.J.L., Rothery, D.A., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, High-spatial resolution remote sensing of active volcanic features using Landsat and hyperspectral data, in Remote Sensing of Active Volcanism, (eds. Mouginis-Mark, P.J., Crisp, J.A., and Fink, J.H.), American Geophysical Union Monograph, 116, 161-177.


* Harris, AJL, Flynn LP, Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C & Sherman SB, 1999, Mass flux measurements at active lava lakes: implications for magma recycling, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 104, 7117-7136.

* Horrocks, L., Burton, M., Francis, P., and Oppenheimer, C., 1999, Stable gas plume composition measured by OP-FTIR spectroscopy at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, 1998-1999, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3497-3500.

* Lagmay, M.A., Pyle, D.M., Dade, B., and Oppenheimer, C., 1999, The control of crater morphology on flow path direction of Soufriere-type pyroclastic flows, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 104, 7169-7181.

* Delmelle, P, Baxter, P., Beaulieu, A., Burton, M., Francis, P., Garcia-Alvarez, J., Horrocks, H., Navarro, M., Oppenheimer, C., Rothery, D., Rymer, H., St. Amand, K., Stix, J., Strauch, W., and Williams-Jones, G., 1999, Origin, effects of Masaya volcano's continued unrest probed in Nicaragua, EOS Transactions of American Geophysical Union, 80(48), 575, 579, 581 .


* Francis P, Burton M, and Oppenheimer C, 1998, Remote measurements of volcanic gas compositions by solar FTIR spectroscopy, Nature 396, 567-570.

* Oppenheimer C, 1998, Satellite observations of lava lake activity at Nyiragongo volcano, ex-Zaire, during the Rwandan refugee crisis, Disasters, 22, 268-281.

* Oppenheimer C., 1998, Volcanological applications of meteorological satellites, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2829-2864.

* Oppenheimer C, Francis P, Burton M, Maciejewski A, Boardman L, 1998, Remote measurement of volcanic gases by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Applied Physics B, 67, 505-515.

* Oppenheimer C, Francis P and Watson IM, 1998, Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (AVNIR) observations of Mount Etna's aerosol plume, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2823-2828.

* Oppenheimer C, and Francis P, 1998, Implications of longeval lava lakes for geomorphological and plutonic processes at Erta 'Ale volcano, north Afar, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 80, 101-111.

* Oppenheimer C, Francis P and Stix J, 1998, Depletion rates of SO2 in tropospheric volcanic plumes, Geophsyical Research Letters, 25, 2671-2674.

* Oppenheimer C, Francis P, and Maciejewski A, 1998, Volcanic gas measurements by helicopter-borne fourier transform spectroscopy, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 373-379.

* Oppenheimer C, 1998, Satellite observation of active carbonatite volcanism at Ol Doinyo Lengai, Tanzania, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 55-64.

* Oppenheimer C, Francis P, and Maciejewski A, 1998, Spectroscopic observation of HCl degassing from Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, Geophysical Research Letters 25, 3689-3692.

* Young S, Francis PW, Barclay J, Casadevall TJ, Gardner CA, Darroux B, Davies MA, Delmelle P, Norton GE, Maciejewski AJH, Oppenheimer C, Stix J, Watson IM, 1998, Monitoring SO2 emission at the Soufriere Hills volcano: implications for changes in eruptive conditions, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 3681-3684.


* Oppenheimer C, 1997, Remote sensing of the colour and temperature of volcanic lakes, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 18, 5-37.

* Oppenheimer C, 1997, Ramifications of the skin effect for crater lake heat budget analysis, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 75, 159-165.

* Oppenheimer C, and Francis P, 1997, Remote sensing of heat, lava and fumarole emissions from Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 18, 1661-1692.


* Francis P, Chaffin C, Maciejewski A, Oppenheimer C, 1996, Remote determination of SiF4 in volcanic plumes: a new tool for volcano monitoring, Geophysical Research Letters 23, 249-252.

* Oppenheimer C., 1996, Crater lake heat losses estimated by remote sensing, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 1793-1796.

* Oppenheimer C, 1996, On the role of hydrothermal systems in the transfer of volcanic sulfur to the atmosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 2057-2060.

* Francis P, Maciejewski A, Oppenheimer C, Chaffin C, 1996, New methods make volcanology research less hazardous, EOS, Transactions of the American Geophsyical Union, 77(41), 393-.


* Francis P, Maciejewski A, Oppenheimer C, Chaffin C, Caltabiano T, 1995, SO2:HCl ratios in the plumes from Mt. Etna and Vulcano determined by Fourier transform spectroscopy, Geophysical Research Letters 22, 1717-1720.

* Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C, Bonneville A, 1995, Infrared thermal monitoring, in Monitoring active volcanoes (ed. B McGuire, CRJ Kilburn & J Murray), UCL Press, 184-216.


* Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C, 1994, Monitoring Mount Erebus by satellite remote sensing, in Volcanological Studies of Mount Erebus, Antarctica (ed. PR Kyle, Antarctic Research Series 66, 51-56.


* Francis PW, Oppenheimer C, Stevenson D, 1993, Endogenous growth of persitently active volcanoes, Nature 366, 554-557.

* Oppenheimer C, 1993, Infrared surveillance of crater lakes using satellite data, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 55, 117-128.

* Oppenheimer C, 1993, Thermal distributions of hot volcanic surfaces constrained using three infrared bands of remote sensing data, Geophysical Research Letters 20, 431-434.

* Oppenheimer C, Francis PW, Rothery DA, Carlton RW, Glaze LS, 1993, Infrared image analysis of volcanic thermal features: Láscar volcano, Chile, 1984-1992, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 98, 4269-4286.

* Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, Francis PW, 1993,. Thermal distributions at fumarole fields: implications for infrared remote sensing of active volcanoes, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 55, 97-115.

* Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, Pieri DC, Abrams M, Carrere V, 1993, Analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer data of volcanic hot spots, International J. Remote Sensing 14, 2919-2934.

* Rothery DA, Borgia A, Carlton RW, Oppenheimer C, 1993, The 1992 Etna lava flow imaged by Landsat TM, Internalional Journal of Remote Sensing 13, 2759-2763.


* Francis P, Oppenheimer C, 1992, Applications of satellite remote sensing techniques to volcanology, in Understanding the terrestrial environment - the role of observation from space, ed. P. Mather, Taylor and Francis, 37-52.

* Oppenheimer C, 1992, Sulphur eruptions at Volcán Poás, Costa Rica, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 49, 1-21.


* Oppenheimer C, 1991, Lava flow cooling estimated from Landsat Thematic Mapper infrared data: The Lonquimay eruption (Chile, 1989), Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 96, 21865-21878.

* Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, 1991, Infrared monitoring of volcanoes by satellite, Journal of the Geological Society of London 148, 563-569.


* Oppenheimer C, Stevenson D, 1989, Liquid sulphur lakes at Poás volcano, Nature 342: 790-793.

* Smith EGC, Oppenheimer C, 1989, The Edgecumbe earthquake sequence: 1987 February 21 to March 18, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 32: 31-42.

Minor refereed papers & correspondence

* Hansell A, Oppenheimer C., 2002, Review of health hazards from volcanic gases, Epidemiology, 13, 609.

* Watson, I.M., Oppenheimer, C., 1999, Remote sensing of the optical properties of tropospheric volcanic aerosol plumes. Journal of Aerosol Science 30(1), S561-S562.

* Oppenheimer C, 1997, Operational volcano monitoring by satellite, Stop Disasters, 32(2), 25-26.

* Oppenheimer C, 1991, Detecting and monitoring volcanic ash plumes. In EUMETSAT Directory of Meteorological Satellite Applications: section 9.4.

* Francis PW, Glaze LS, Pieri D, Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, 1990, Eruption terms, Nature, 346, 519.

* Rothery D, Oppenheimer C, 1990, Combining Landsat TM infrared data with an air photograph of an eruption of Volcán Arenal (6 February 1986). Boletin del Observatorio Vulcanologico del Arenal, 3(6), 4-8.


* Watson, I.M., Oppenheimer, C., 1998, Retrieving aerosol parameters from Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (AVNIR) multi-spectral images of Mt. Etna's aerosol plume. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Data and its Application to Global Environment, 55-56

* Oppenheimer C, Pieri D, Carrere V, Abrams M, Rothery D, Francis P., 1992, Volcanic thermal features observed by AVIRIS. Procs 4th Annual AVIRIS Workshop, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, June 1-2, 1992, JPL 92-14, Vol 1, 41-43

* Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C., 1991 Monitoring volcanoes using short wavelength infrared images. Proc 5th Int Coll Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Courchevel, France, 14-18 January 1991, ESA SP-319, 513-516

* Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, 1990, Infrared remote sensing of active lava flows: an example from the Lonquimay eruption (Chile) 1989. Procs 16th Conf Remote Sensing Soc, Ed. Coulson MG, University College Swansea, 19-21 September 1990: 102-111

* Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C., 1990 The potential of imaging spectrometry for measuring surface temperatures and energy budgets of volcanoes. Proc Remote Sensing Soc Workshop, Applications and Developments in Imaging Spectrometry, London, 20 November 1990: pp 70-74

* Oppenheimer C., 1989, AVHRR volcano hotspot monitoring. Procs 4th AVHRR Data Users' Meeting, Rothenburg, FRG, 3-5 September 1989: 335-338

* Oppenheimer C, Rothery DA, 1989, Infrared remote sensing of hot volcanoes assessed by field observations. Technical contents 15th Conf Remote Sensing Soc, Eds. Barrett EC and Brown KA, Bristol September 13-15, 1989: 317-322

* Rothery DA, Oppenheimer C., 1989, Sensor requirements for remote sensing of hot volcanoes. Technical contents 15th Conf Remote Sensing Soc, Eds Barrett EC and Brown KA, Bristol September 13-15, 1989: 359-364

Public outreach & education

* Tittel, F.K., Weidmann, D., Oppenheimer, C., and Gianfrani, L., 2006, Laser absorption spectroscopy for volcano monitoring, Optics and Photonics News, May issue, 24-31.

* Sparks, S., Self, S., Grattan, J., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D., and Rymer, H., 2005, Super-eruptions: global effects and future threats. Report of a Geological Society of London Working Group, Geological Society of London, 25pp.

* Oppenheimer, C., 2003, article-length entries for 'volcano', 'lava landforms' and 'caldera', IAG Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, Routledge.

* Oppenheimer, C., 2001, Understanding an angry Earth, Times Higher Education Supplement (5 January 2001).

* Oppenheimer, C., 2001, Rumble from the roll of dice, Times Higher Education Supplement (8 June 2001).

* Oppenheimer, C., 1996, Volcanism, Geography, 81, 65-81.

* Oppenheimer, C., 1993, I spy with my infrared eye, New Scientist, 5 June 1993, 26-31.

* Oppenheimer, C., 1993, Mines in the sky, Geology Today, 9(2), 66-68.

* Oppenheimer, C., 1991, People and volcanoes: Taal Island, Philippines. Geology Today 7(1), 19-23.

* Oppenheimer, C., 1990, Monitoring hot spots from space. Geographical Magazine, March, 32-34.

* Oppenheimer, C., 1990, Sulphurous discoveries. Geographical Magazine, May, 44-46.

* Oppenheimer, C., 1990, Secrets of Io revealed. Daily Telegraph 41990 (June 25, 1990), 13.

* Oppenheimer, C. and Stevenson, D., 1990, Des lacs de soufre sur terre. La Recherche 224, 1088-1090.

TV and radio

* Regular contributor to TV and radio news stories and documentaries on volcanoes and eruptions.

* Featured in Werner Herzog's 2007 film 'Encounters at the End of the World'.

* Field consultant for BBC's "Earth – the Biography" during filming at Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia in 2006

* Featured in 2001 National Geographic TV production "Lava lake" at Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia

* Featured in TV science documentary on Mt. Etna in 2001 ("Under the Volcano" National Geographic TV).

* Featured in TV science documentary on Oldoiyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania in 1999 (part of "Volcanoes" series, Discovery Channel)


* Geographical Tripos (Undergraduate level) including final year paper in volcanology

* MPhil in GIS and Remote Sensing

External activities

* Leader, IAVCEI Commission on Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere (2004-)

* "Expert member" of International Volcanic Health Hazard Network

* Member of advisory committee of Cambridge Interdisciplinary Centre for Risk in the Built Environment.

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Volcanology, environmental remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry iconDevelopment of Malaria Early Warning System (mews) using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems. Isse's Summer Colloquia on Climate and Health, in

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