Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов




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SECTION V



SCIENTIFIC SUPERVISION


FOCUS VOCABULARY


supervision – руководство

scientific ~научное руководство

dual ~двойное руководство

supervisorруководитель

scientific ~/adviser – научный руководитель

appropriate ~соответствующий руководитель

production of a thesisнаписание диссертации

experienced (in) – имеющий опыт (в)

work closelyработать в тесном сотрудничестве

guideнаправлять

offer advice and guidanceдать совет и направление

formulate ones research proposalформулировать направление исследования

to define a programme of research/studyопределить программу (область) исследования

research interestsнаучно-исследовательские интересы

throughout the period of study – во время всей учебы

to complete one’s research – завершить исследование

responsibilityответственность

retain the prime ~ – нести основную ответственность

to share ~ – разделить ответственность

completion of ones studiesзавершение исследования

expert in the chosen area of researchспециалист в избранной области исследования

to design work on the thesisспланировать работу по диссертации

general research lifeнаучно-исследовательская деятельность вообще

to be involved in research seminars, colloquiaпринимать участие в научно-исследовательских семинарах, коллоквиумах

to gain success – добиться успеха

academic staffпреподавательский состав

expertiseспециальные знания

to present ones thesis for examinationпредставить диссертацию на обсуждение

to be acquainted withзнать, быть знакомым с

procedures and regulationsпроцедура и правила (защиты диссертации)

a stimulating research environmentблагоприятные условия для исследования

to provide training in researchобеспечить обучение в области научных исследований

to monitor progressследить за прогрессом

to provide feedbackобеспечить обратную связь

to remain aware of the student's situation and needs – быть в курсе проблем аспиранта

approachподход

innovative ~ – новаторский подход

holistic ~ целостный подход


Any research conducted by a postgraduate student is supervised by a competent researcher with an advanced academic degree.

Dean of Guildford University speaks about supervision at his University. Compare it with what you have at BSU.


When you are offered a place on any of our research degrees, we carefully match you with an appropriate supervisor who will be experienced in the field of your research interests. Your supervisor(s) will help you in formulating your research proposal and give you assistance towards successful and timely completion of your studies. Many Schools will offer dual supervision or a supervisory panel. In addition, students working in most of the Schools in the Sciences and Life Sciences will be part of a research group. We believe that this provides the opportunity for you to gain access to wider expertise and support.

Your Supervisor is usually the most important academic person-resource in your postgraduate program. He is appointed from the School's academic staff. He is also your first point of contact for a range of questions, including professional development and administrative procedures.

The main activity is, of course, independent study and the production of a thesis based on it. As a research student, you will work closely with a supervisor who will guide and advise you throughout your period of study. The supervisor will also guide you in writing your thesis, but you retain the prime responsibility for your own work. Our University has approved policies on supervisory practice which set out how the responsibilities are shared between student and supervisor. In addition to your own independent study, you will take part in the general research life of your department, and may be involved in research seminars, colloquia and other activities with your colleagues and with academic staff. At the end of your period of study, you will present your thesis for examination and be given an oral examination on it.

We regard the support of the supervisor as crucial in assisting you to complete your programme of study successfully and within the permitted length of time. However, it is also important to remember that, whatever the discipline, a research degree is an opportunity to carry out an independent and original piece of work. Supervisors can offer advice and guidance, but they will not tell you exactly what to read or how to design and carry out work on your thesis.

Your supervisor should be acquainted with procedures and regulations of writing and defending your thesis. It is expected that supervisor and student meet at regular intervals so that the supervisor may advise and inform the development of the research project. He establishes a stimulating research environment, gives advice on the choice of project and planning, ensures that appropriate facilities are available, provides training in research, consults the postgraduate, continuously monitors progress and provides structured feedback. Usually a supervisor remains aware of the student's situation and needs.

Below you will find different opinios of postgraduate students on supervision. Is scientific supervisor a boss, or a colleague, or a friend? What is your idea of an ideal supervisor? What do you prefer: to have a supervisor who is the name in his field, has plenty of ideas, which he is eager to share with you, or a supervisor who knows not much about your subject, but let you make the research independently?


A. I found that my supervisor's advice on reading particularly related to geographical theory and methodologies was extremely good. While researching he gave me plenty of encouragement which really boosted my confidence. Once I started to write I found that he read what I gave him fairly promptly and his comments were very pertinent, enabling me to work through my ideas more logically. He has always made time in a busy schedule to discuss any problems. More than this, he went out of his way to be helpful when I was unwell. I have greatly appreciated the time and effort he has put into helping me and also for his encouragement and support throughout the four years I have been in the School. Although I could have felt somewhat isolated because my topic has few connections with other postgraduate research being undertaken, this has been minimised by the good working relationship which has been established with my supervisor.

(final year PhD student)


B. My experience has been that this School is a good place to do research on economic geography, because of the high level of staff expertise and their reputation and influence, which extend far beyond the U.K. Both of my supervisors have been helpful, available to answer questions, and interested in my work. I have found a joint supervision arrangement to be especially beneficial to my work, given its holistic and innovative approach, and in my opinion the School’s openness to joint supervision is a real strength.

(PhD third year student)


Discuss with your groupmates the issue of a good supervisor. You may use the expressions below.


Appropriate supervisor, experienced in the field of your research interests, to guide and advise you throughout your period of study, the responsibilities are shared between student and supervisor, crucial support of the supervisor, to design and carry out work on your thesis, procedures and regulations of writing and defending your thesis, to establishes a stimulating research environment, to provide training in research, to continuously monitor progress, to provide structured feedback, to remain aware of the student's situation and needs, to give plenty of encouragement, to boost one’s confidence, pertinent comments, to appreciate the time and effort, encouragement and support, high level of staff expertise, reputation and influence, to be especially beneficial, holistic and innovative approach.

Write an essay on:

  • your ideas of a good supervisor

  • your experience working with the supervisor


Usually your supervisor is a famous scholar and an expert in some field, he may have discovered an interesting phenomena or law. Try to find out about his scientific interests, his dissertation, and research. This will help you establish better working environment. You may use biographies of Nobel Prize winner Joseph E. Stiglitz, Professor Eglit, and Kermit L. Hall, the President of the University of Albany as models for describing expertise, research and academic career of your supervisor.


Profile: Joseph E. Stiglitz

Joseph E. Stiglitz was born in Gary, Indiana in 1943. A graduate of Amherst College, he received his PHD from MIT in 1967, became a full professor at Yale in 1970, and in 1979 was awarded the John Bates Clark Award, given biennially by the American Economic Association to the economist under 40 who has made the most significant contribution to the field. He has taught at Princeton, Stanford, MIT and was the Drummond Professor and a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. He is now University Professor at Columbia University in New York. In 2001, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics.

He was a member of the Council of Economic Advisers from 1993-95, during the Clinton administration, and served as CEA chairman from 1995-97. He then became Chief Economist and Senior Vice-President of the World Bank from 1997-2000.

Stiglitz helped create a new branch of economics, "The Economics of Information," exploring the consequences of information asymmetries and pioneering such pivotal concepts as adverse selection and moral hazard, which have now become standard tools not only of theorists, but of policy analysts. He has made major contributions to macroeconomics and monetary theory, to trade theory and public and corporate finance, to the theories of industrial organization and rural organization, and to the theories of welfare economics and of income and wealth distribution. In the 1980s, he helped revive interest in the economics of R&D.

His work has helped explain the circumstances in which markets do not work well, and how selective government intervention can improve their performance.

Recognized around the world as a leading economic educator, he has written textbooks that have been translated into more than a dozen languages. He founded one of the leading economics journals, The Journal of Economic Perspectives. He has recently come out with a new book, The Roaring Nineties (W.W. Norton). His book Globalization and Its Discontents (W.W. Norton June 2001) has been translated into 28 languages and is an international bestseller.


Profile: Howard C. Eglit, Professor of Law

Professor Eglit’s scholarly interests are in the areas of law and aging. He works in the fields of employment discrimination, constitutional law, and remedies. He has authored and co-authored numerous journal articles and several books, including a three-volume treatise entitled Age Discrimination (Florida University Press 2004).

Professor Eglit holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Michigan and a law degree from the University of Chicago. Prior to joining the Chicago-Kent faculty, Professor Eglit served in several capacities, including counsel to the United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee and legal director of the Illinois Division of the American Civil Liberties Union.

He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in Constitutional law to students from foreign legal backgrounds. Professor Eglit was a visiting professor at the University of Chicago Law School in 2003 and at the Free University of Amsterdam in 1998. He has received fellowships from the Olin Foundation (for work on treaties and constitutional law) and the Rockefeller Foundation (for a book on the effects of globalization on American constitutional law).

Professor Eglit has served on numerous boards, including the Illinois chapter, National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys, and the Illinois Division, American Civil Liberties Union. He also served as vice-president of Terra Nova Films and chaired the Highland Park Historic Preservation Commission. He is a member of the advisory committee for the Buehler Center on Aging, McGaw Medical Center, Northwestern University. He served as general Counsel of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, where he advised on constitutional issues and judicial nominations.


Translate the abstract about a scientific supervisor summarizing your topical vocabulary.


Научный руководитель. Кто он?

Для того, чтобы не растеряться в огромном количестве информации, у каждого аспиранта есть научный руководитель – опытный педагог и ученый, который может помочь определиться с темой, выбрать методики исследования, дать советы по организации эксперимента, а возможно, порекомендовать некоторую необходимую литературу. Однако научный руководитель лишь направляет аспиранта, помогает ему сориентироваться, но не делает работу за него.

Итак, научный руководитель – это тот, кто должен осуществлять руководство научной деятельностью аспиранта, с высоты своего опыта помогать ему двигаться к намеченной цели. Обычно, им становится доктор наук (причем тех же наук, ученую степень на соискание которых сбирается получить аспирант). Но в исключительных случаях (которых немало), им может быть и кандидат наук.

Научных руководителя может быть и два, особенно если диссертация защищается по двум специальностям, как сейчас модно. Помимо научного руководителя, у аспиранта может быть и научный консультант.

Научные руководители утверждаются Ученым Советом ВУЗа в самом начале обучения в аспирантуре вместе с темой диссертации.

Существуют два типа научных руководителей.

Первый тип наиболее удобен для аспиранта – такой научный руководитель во всем помогает своему подопечному: проверяет данные его эксперимента, помогает их интерпретировать, находит для него возможности публиковаться, правит статьи, советует, как сформулировать цель, задачи, гипотезу исследования и т.д. Аспиранту, имеющему такого научного руководителя, живется легче, но при этом от него требуется и меньше творчества. В результате такой аспирант может так и не приобрести навыков самостоятельных занятий научной работой.

Второй тип научных руководителей можно назвать ленивыми - они не удосуживаются даже почитать материалы диссертации, отделываются от своего ученика общими советами. Аспирантам с таким научным руководителем очень трудно, особенно на начальном этапе обучения, но в дальнейшем, если такому аспиранту все же удастся написать и защитить диссертацию, он будет являть собой тип сформированного научного работника.

Лучше, конечно, если Ваш научный руководитель представляет собой нечто среднее между двумя крайними типами, описанными выше.

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