Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов




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PREAMBLE


Address to Young Researchers


Dear friends,


Choosing a post-graduate course as the starting point of your career-making you will have to deal with a number of science-related activities.

First, you should socialize yourself as a post-graduate student and know everything about post-graduate education at BSU and other educational establishments.

Second, you should select a scientific adviser whose supervision and assistance may be crucial for conducting your research and successful preparation of the text of your future dissertation.

Third, a young researcher’s life can’t be imagined without specific professional contacts – conferences, research and study visits.

Fourth, you’ll be engaged in the extensive library work collecting materials for reports, articles, studying global scientific problems.

Finally, you will have to submit the text of youк research paper to the Academic Council.

These are the problem areas of the present textbook aimed at helping you to get acquainted with research activities, scientific terminology.


Success attend you!


The authors

SECTION I



PROBLEM AREA: UNIVERSITIES AND FURTHER EDUCATION


FOCUS VOCABULARY


graduate (from) – закончить высшее учебное заведение

graduation paper – дипломная работа

post-graduate (student) – аспирант

~ studies – учеба в аспирантуре

campusуниверситетский комплекс

certificateудостоверение, сертификат

councilсовет

academic ~ – ученый совет

courseкурс (теоретический)

compulsory ~ – обязательный курс

optional ~ – необязательный/факультативный курс

to take a post-graduate ~ in – поступить/учиться в аспирантуре

to design / to tailor ~ – разработать курс

in-service training ~ – курс повышения квалификации

curriculum – программа, учебный план

syllabus – программа (обучения)

departmentкафедра, отделение

head of (the) ~ – заведующий кафедрой, руководитель отделения

the ~ of English/the English ~ – кафедра английского языка

correspondence ~ – заочное отделение

full time ~ – дневное отделение

part time ~ – вечернее отделение

diploma – диплом

the ~ in higher education – диплом о высшем образовании

education – образование

higher ~ – высшее образование, высшая школа

further (post-diploma) ~ – последипломное образование

college – колледж

~ of higher education – колледж

~ of further education/further education college –

~ of technology/commerce/art – технологический, коммерческий, художественный колледж

technical ~ – техникум

school – школа, училище, курсы

language ~ – языковые курсы

ballet ~ – хореографическое училище

art ~ – художественное училище

vocational ~ – профессиональное техническое училище

medical ~ – медучилище

university – университет

pedagogical (teacher-training)~ – педагогический университет

polytechnical ~ – политехнический университет

technological ~ – технологический университет

medical ~ – медицинский университет

agricultural ~ – агротехнический университет

Oxford/Cambridge university

London university, but the University of London

facultyфакультет

~ of arts (arts faculty) – факультет гуманитарных наук (языки, история, философия и др.)

~ of social sciences – факультет общественных наук

~ of education – педагогический факультет

~ of science – факультет естественных наук (биология, химия, физика и др.)

~ of engineering – факультет технических (прикладных) наук

~ of medicine/law – факультет медицины/права

~ of economics/history – экономический, исторический факультет

philological faculty or faculty of arts / arts faculty – филологический факультет

field of study – область изучения

grantстипендия, материальная поддержка

to train – обучать

~ smb. for a job/profession – готовить кого-либо к профессии

laboratoryлаборатория, кабинет

biology/chemistry ~ – кабинет биологии/химии

staffштат

teaching/academic ~– профессорско-преподавательский состав

~ meeting – заседание кафедры

~ room – преподавательская

lecturerпреподаватель

university teacher/~ – преподаватель университета

senior ~ – старший преподаватель

principal ~ or reader – доцент

junior or assistant ~ – ассистент

tutor – куратор

in-service training of teachers – повышение квалификации преподавателей


The term “further education” is associated in many countries abroad with after-school education that is with college and university education. People who undertake “further education” beyond the age of 18 pay fees for their tuition as well as their living costs. In our country “further education” is associated with postgraduate studies, the level which assumes to a larger extend a lot of research work, acquiring knowledge of new methodologies and new trends. Thus in Section I we’ll start discussing the system of higher education the system of higher education in our country and abroad and in Section II proceed to academic degrees and postgraduate studies.


Belarus: Education in the 21st Century

Many countries consider education a major vehicle of social advancement. Training of highly qualified specialists, capable of solving the most complex problems of modern society is the main priority of higher education. The efforts of our scientists have always been focused on the fundamental problems of humanities, natural and social sciences. Knowledge, science and culture open the prospects into the future for every person.

At the end of the century the system of higher and further education in Belarus underwent a process of great reforms. They were initiated to provide closer links between education and technological needs of industry. New goals were set to link higher education more directly to the economy, improve the quality of scientific research, provide educational and research institutions with more modern technology and new laboratory facilities. The major significance of the reforms was to move toward the democratization of university administration and the “humanitarization” of the educational process in terms of students’ individual aptitudes and needs.

A distinguishing feature of our universities is that they are becoming internationally oriented. We have joined the European Cultural Convention which enables us to participate in all projects concerning higher and further education, academic mobility and recognition of qualification. The universities also expand their cooperation with such authoritative international organization as UNESCO and the Council of Europe.

The need to make education more democratic and universal arises from the fact that our country is integrating with the European community and other countries. In this respect educators have to think of how our universities educate their students about the rest of the world. The world in which most adult Belarusians grew to maturity no longer exists. The cold war is over. Issues such as environment, exchanges rate, and economic competition, public health, national security, poverty, population control, and human rights affect every country domestically as well as internationally. Under these circumstances attending to domestic needs requires understanding of national, cultural, and socio-economic boundaries.

The characteristic feature and the main trend in modern higher ad further education is not only to check students’ knowledge but develop their abilities and creative thinking. Today’s scientific and technological progress demands of the university graduates to be prepared to deepen their knowledge individually and adapt themselves quickly to the changes in the branches or science or industry they have chosen as their specialty or research. In addition to offering programs based on traditional academic disciplines, higher education must develop problem-focused programs of study that are more practical than theoretical and are oriented around problems in the real world.

Much has already been done and is being done to transform the national system of education. A wide range of non-state schools, colleges and institutes have been introduced. There have been certain curriculum changes starting from 1992. Some higher educational establishments began changing tuition in the above-mentioned direction.

Of course, university education in Belarus still faces a great variety of problems, connected with implementation of new disciplines, retraining of the faculty, reorienting university policies and programs towards new goals. But if we want to prosper in the new environment of the 21st century, our universities must truly orient themselves around new goals. None of these goals will be achieved quickly and easily but the benefits of putting them in place will far exceed the efforts required.



  1. What is the role of education in modern society? Has it changed a lot with a course of time?

  2. At the turn of the century higher and further education underwent great reforms. What are these reforms aimed at?

  3. What are the distinguishing features and the main trends in higher and further education?

  4. What does the need to make universities more democratic and internationally oriented arise from?

  5. Why is if necessary to develop creative thinking? What are the ways of achieving this goal?

  6. What difficulties do we face on the way of reforming our system of education?

  7. Do you agree that reforming our system of education we shouldn’t forget about our national interests and values in education? We must preserve all the achievements of the previous school not to destroy the whole system.



Scan the text and give additional information about the Belarusian State University not mentioned here.


Belarusian State University

The Belarusian State University is a center of education, culture and science, the major higher educational establishment in Belarus. It is quite young but at the game time the oldest University in our republic. It was founded in 1921, 1010 workers and peasants were admitted to its two faculties that year. The first President of the BSU was Professor V. I. Picheta.

The republic's first University rapidly grew and developed and in the pre-war period a number of independent higher schools for medicine, pedagogics, national economy appeared on its basis.

During the Great Patriotic War the University was razed to the ground by the nazi invaders. In the post-war years the University was quickly restored and in a short period of time it turned into one of the largest institutions of higher education of the country.

Nowadays, the University has about 1^,000 students, 125 Departments more than 144 F teaching staff, including 211 full Professors, 935 Associate Professors and doctors.

At present there are … departments at the University: Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Chemistry, Geography, Biology, Philology, Journalism, History, Economy, Law, International Relations'which limn specialists in 17 professions and 50 specializations. It has day and correspondence departments where thousands of students study. They attend lectures and seminars. All the students study foreign languages. Students' practical work is given much attention to.

The Fundamental Library in the BSU is one of the biggest libraries it) Belarus. At present it possesses over 2 million volumes in Belarusian, Russian and other languages. It has 15 departments and 12 reading halls, a computer catalogue and central archives.

A lot of students carry out research work in various laboratories which are equipped with up-to-date devices.

Every year hundreds of young specialists begin working in different branches of national economy, science, education, in mass media, prosecutor's offices and courts.

In 1967 the Belarusian State University was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour for its contribution to the development of science and academic training.

The Belarusian State University is a major world University center, a member of the International Universities' Association. At present the BSU I has links with over 100 higher educational establishments and research centers of the world. The University participates in a number of international projects like TEMPUS, INTAS, COPERNICUS, etc. It organizes international conferences, seminars and exhibitions.


Here is some information about the University system in Great Britain. It is intended to increase your general knowledge on the problem discussed. Read the text and define the basic features of each university type.


Modern University System in Great Britain

There are 90 universities in Great Britain today, compared with 47 in 1990, and only 17 in 1945. They fall into five broad categories: the medieval English universities, the medieval Scottish ones, the nineteenth century “redbrick” ones, the previous polytechnics, and finally the twentieth-century “plate-glass” universities. They are all private institutions, receiving direct grants for central government

There are not very important legal distinctions between the various types of universities in the country. But it is possible to discern a few broad categories.


Oxbridge

This name denotes the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, both founded in the medieval period. They are federations of semi-independent colleges, each college having its own staff, known as “Fellows”. Most colleges have their own dining hall, library and chapel and contain enough accommodation for at least half of their students. The fellows teach the college students, either one-to-one or in a very small groups (known as “tutorials” in Oxford and “supervisions” in Cambridge). Oxbridge has the lowest student/staff ratio in Britain. Lectures and laboratory work are organized at university level. As well as the college libraries, there are the two university libraries, both of which are legally entitled to a free copy of every book published in Britain. Before 1970 all Oxbridge colleges were single-sex (mostly for men). Now, the majority admit both sexes.

The students of these universities make up one of the most elite elites in the world. Many great men such as Bacon, Milton, Cromwell, Newton, Byron, Darwin, Rutherford and many other scientists and writers were educated there as well as members of the Royal family. Nowadays their pre-eminence is diminishing, but not extinct.

These two ancient universities have, through the centuries, had a major role in English politics– Oxford more than Cambridge. Of the nine prime ministers since 1955 Mrs Thatcher was the seventh to have been to Oxford University. In 1988 her cabinet of twenty-one included seven who had been to Oxford, seven to Cambridge; two had been to old Scottish universities, one to London, none to any other university in England. The top civil servants have a similar background. This preponderance of Oxford and Cambridge graduates among the political elite (and among MPs in general) has declined, but it is still significant.

The Old Scottish University

Scotland is proud of its four ancient universities: Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and St Andrews, all founded in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The last of these resembles Oxbridge in many ways, while the other three are more like civic universities (see below) where most of the students live at home or find their own rooms in town. At all of them the pattern of study is closer to the continual tradition than to the English one – there is less specialization than at Oxbridge. Created with strong links with the ancient universities of continental Europe they followed their longer and broader course of studies. Even today Scottish universities provide four-year undergraduate courses, compared with usual three-year courses in England and Wales.


The Early Nineteenth-Century English Universities

Durham University was founded in 1832. Its collegiate living arrangements are similar to Oxbridge, but academic matters are organized at university level. The University of London started in 1836 with just two colleges. Many more have joined since, scattered widely around the city, so that each college (most are non-residential) is almost a separate university. The central organization is responsible for little more than exams and the awarding of degrees.

The Older Civic ('Redbrick') Universities

During the nineteenth century various institutes of higher education, usually with a technical bias, sprang up in the new industrial towns and cities such as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds. Their buildings were of local material, often brick, in contrast to the stone of older universities (hence the name 'redbrick'). They catered only for local people. At first, they prepared students for London University degrees, but later they were given the right to award their own degrees, and so became universities themselves. In the mid twentieth century they started to accept students from all over the country.


The Campus Universities

These are purpose-built institutions located in the countryside but close to towns. Examples are East Anglia, Lancaster, Sussex and Warwick. They have accommodation for most of their students on site and from their beginning, mostly in the early 1960s, attracted students from all over the country. (Many were known as centres of students protest in the late 1960 and early 1970s.) They tend to emphasise relatively 'new' academic disciplines such as social sciences and to make greater use than other universities of teaching in small groups, often known as 'seminars'.


The Newer Civic Universities

These were originally technical colleges set up by local authorities in the first sixty years of this century. Their upgrading to university status took place in two waves. The first wave occurred in the mid 1960s, when ten of them (e.g. Aston in Birmingham, Salford near Manchester and Strachclyde in Glasgow ) were promoted in this way. Then, in the early 1970s, another thirty became 'polytechnics', which meant that as well as

continuing with their formers courses, they were allowed to teach degree courses (the degrees being awarded by a national body). In the early 1990s most of these (and also some other colleges) became universities. Their most notable feature is flexibility with regard to studying arrangements, including 'sandwich' courses (i.e. studies interrupted by periods of time outside education). They are now all financed by central government.


The Open University

This is one development in education in which Britain can claim to have\ led the world. It was started in 1969. It allows people who do not have the opportunity to be ordinary 'students' to study for a degree. Its courses are taught through television, radio and specially written course-books. Its students work with tutors, to whom they send their written work and with whom they then discuss it, either at meetings or through correspondence. In the summer, they have to attend short residential courses of about a week. '


An international student shares his experience of studying in Britain. He finds the students life at the University quite relaxing and enjoyable but the requirements seem to be rather demanding. What do you think of it?


Studying at the University

Students from others countries that I met at university often took a long time to get used to the system. The university terms lasted only six months' and you were free to do what you liked in the vacations. Attendance al lectures was optional, and the only compulsory assignment was to write an essay once a week and present it to your tutor. The idea was that you were not supposed to be there to obtain an academic qualification, but to extend your knowledge of your subject in your own way. It was all there in the libraries and laboratories and lecture halls if you looked for it A poor American student who had attended all the tutor's lectures once reproduced them almost word for word in his essay, and the tutor said: “I know what I think. What do you think? The life of an undergraduate was relaxing and enjoyable, but you had to work things out for yourself.”


Note: In British universities, there is normally only one Professor for a given subject; other university teachers are called lectures. They are also tutors when they give individual students classes in small numbers.


a) Is this system similar to that of university in your country? If not what are the differences?

b) Why do you think people go to university? Do you think they go for the right reasons?

c) What did the American student's tutor expect him to do? How do you suppose this differed from system he was used to?


Maria Brown tells us about her educational background. Complete each sentence with one of the words or phrases from the box below. Speak on your own educational background. You may use Maria’s as a model.


apply

graduated

grant

higher degree

honours degree

job

option

PhD

place

primary school

scholarship

secondary school

stay on

study

subject

thesis




  1. I started at … in London when I was 5.

  2. At the age of 11, I went on to …, also in London.

  3. At 17, I … to university.

  4. I got a … at Manchester to … Engineering.

  5. In fact I was awarded a … .

  6. But at the end of the first year I changed to another …

  7. I … from University in 2003.

  8. I have a first class … in Economics.

  9. I decided to … at university.

  10. So I did a … in business administration at the University of California.

  11. During the course, I did an … on small business development.

  12. I found the topic so interesting that I applied for a … to do a doctorate on the same subject.

  13. Once I had got the money, I had to write a 50,000 word …

  14. So now I have a BA, an MBA and a …

  15. All I need now is a …


English speaking countries have much in common in their systems of education. But still there is a great difference due to their different cultural and historic backgrounds. Spot these differences after reading the text “Higher education in the USA”. How do you account for the diversity of the American system of education?


Higher Education in the USA

For a very long time America has led the world in higher education, quantitatively at least. In 1825 England still had only two universities, Oxford and Cambridge. The United States already had over fifty colleges for a smaller population. By now, in addition to hundreds of junior colleges (with two-year courses), teachers’ colleges and special schools, there are over 2,000 universities, colleges or other institutions with four year courses leading to bachelors’ degrees, though only some of these postgraduates work as well, for masters’ degrees and doctorates.

Out of more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for “higher education”. Nearly half of all people aged nineteen are in full-time education, but only half of these successfully complete full four year courses for bachelors’ degrees. Some attend junior colleges with two-year courses (from which they may transfer); most start full four-year degree courses. Most students receive federal loans to cover part of their studies; much smaller numbers receive federal grants, or scholarships or bursaries from other sources. Virtually all pay part of their costs themselves, from family contributions or from part-time work or both.

Most college students are in “public” institutions, a minority in “private” ones. Every state has its own full university system, and in a big state there are many separate state campuses, general and special, at different levels. In terms of research output. and of Nobel prizes won by academic staff, the most prestigious is the University of California at Berkeley (across the bay from San Francisco). It, and the University’s campus at Los Angeles, are two major institutions in the California state system, but there are many dozens of other campuses in that system.

Some of the best-known private universities are the oldest ones in the Northeast, known informally as the Ivy League. These include Harvard, Yale and Princeton. The research carried on at Harvard and at its newer neighbor in Cambridge, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has contributed to the prosperity of the Boston area, though other private and public universities nearby also have some share in this development.

In general the system of higher education in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institutions: (1) the university which may contain (a) several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor’s (four-year) degree and (b) one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor’s degree to obtain a master’s or doctoral degree; (2) the four-year undergraduate institution – the colleges – most of each are non part of a university; (3) the technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six month to four years in duration and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling through business accounting to computer programming; (4) and the two-year, or community college, from which students may enter many professions or may transfer to four-year colleges or universities.

Any of these institutions, in any category, might be either public or private, depending on the sours of its funding.

The sheer diversity of American higher education, so baffling to foreigners, baffles many Americans as well. There were, at last official count, 3,075 accredited colleges and universities in the United States. Many of them have their own separate lobbies in Washington: the community colleges, the land-grant schools and other state universities, the former teacher’s colleges and regional state universities, the predominantly black schools, the private colleges. Not to mention women’s schools and Catholic schools affiliated with dozens of other religious denominations…


Harvard University is the pride of the country. Like Oxford and Cambridge it is known all over the world. Are there any similarities in the academic courses these universities offer?


Harvard University

Harvard University, which celebrated its 350th anniversary in 1986, is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Founded 16 years after the arrival of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, the University has grown from nine students with a single master to an enrollment of more limit 18,000 degree candidates. An additional 13,000 students are enrolled in one or more courses in the Harvard Extension School. Over 14,000 people work at Harvard, including more than 2,000 faculties. There are also 7,000 faculty appointments in affiliated teaching hospitals.

Seven presidents of the United States - John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Theodore and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Rutherford B. Hayes, John Fitzgerald Kennedy and George W. Bush - were graduates of Harvard. Its faculty have produced nearly 40 Nobel laureates.

During its early years, the College offered a classic academic course based on the English university model but consistent with the prevailing Puritan philosophy of the first colonists.


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