Учебно-методическое пособие по формированию компетенции в грамматике (английский язык)




НазваниеУчебно-методическое пособие по формированию компетенции в грамматике (английский язык)
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Participle


Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, которая обладает признаками глагола, прилагательного и наречия. В современном английском языке имеются два причастия: причастие I (Participle I) и причастие II (Participle II).


Participle I (Simple, Perfect) образуются при помощи инфинитива без частицы “to” с прибавлением суффикса –ing.


Participle II образуются путем прибавления к основе глагола суффикса -ed (правильные глаголы, e.g. look+ed). Participle II неправильных глаголов является их третьей формой (см. таблицу неправильных глаголов, e.g. gone, spoken, taken, etc.). Participle II имеет только форму страдательного залога.


Формы Participle I, II.


Forms

Active

Passive

Participle I (Simple)

use + ing = using

Be + ing used = being used

Participle I (Perfect)

have + ing used = having used

have + ing been used = having been used

Participle II

-

used


Функции причастия I в предложении


Причастие I активного залога (Participle I, Simple, Active) может выполнять в предложении функции определения и обстоятельства.


1. В функции определения Participle I, Active может стоять перед определяемым словом (левое определение). Переводится на русский язык причастием настоящего времени с окончаниями –ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ или причастием прошедшего времени с окончанием –вший.

They looked at the flying plane – Они смотрели на летящий (летевший) самолет.

Если причастие I стоит после определяемого слова (правое определение), то на русский язык оно переводится причастным оборотом или определительным придаточным предложением.

A magnet attracts only objects containing ironМагнит притягивает только предметы, содержащие железо.


2.Причастие I страдательного залога (Participle I, Passive) на русский язык переводится причастием страдательного или действительного залога с суффиксами -мый, -щийся или определительным придаточным предложением.

The bridge being built across the river is very beautiful. – Мост, строящийся через реку (который строится через реку), очень красивый.


3. В функции определения причастие I (Participle I, Simple, Active or Passive) может стоять в начале предложения (иногда с союзами when, while) или в конце предложения.

Переводится:

- деепричастием с суффиксами а(сь), я(сь):

He spent the whole day preparing for his exams – Он провел весь день, готовясь к экзаменам.

- обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.

Being repaired recently the bridge was in good condition. – Будучи недавно отреставрированным, мост был в хорошем состоянии (Так как мост недавно отремонтировали, он был в хорошем состоянии)

- существительным с предлогом “при”

When translating a scientific article he met a lot of difficulties. – Переводя статью (при переводе, когда переводил статью) он встретился со многими трудностями


4. Participle I, Perfect, Active (having analysed) может переводиться на русский язык деепричастием совершенного вида, оканчивающимся на ––я или придаточным предложением.

Having analyzed the properties of the substance they made some new conclusions. – Проанализировав свойства вещества, они сделали новые выводы.

Participle I, Perfect, Passive (having been given) переводится, как правило, придаточным предложением.

Having been given all the instructions he began his work. – После того, как он получил все указания, он начал работать.


Функции причастия II в предложении


1. Если причастие II является левым определением, то на русский язык оно переводится причастием страдательного залога с суффиксами –ный, -тый, -мый.

The described method is widely used in industry. – Описанный метод широко используется в промышленности


2. Если причастие II является правым определением, то на русский язык оно переводится причастным оборотом или определительным придаточным предложением.

The equipment tested requires further improvement. – Испытываемое оборудование требует дальнейшего усовершенствования.

Если причастие II употребляется в функции обстоятельства, то оно может стоять в начале предложения (перед подлежащим) и в конце предложения. Перед Participle II могут употребляться союзы if (если), unless (если не), while (в то время как), when, as и др. и на русский язык причастие переводится:


- обстоятельственным придаточным предложением

If heated, molecules of the material move faster. – Если молекулы вещества нагреть, они движутся быстрее.


- существительным с предлогом “при”

When offered work abroad, Popov refused to leave his country. – Когда Попову предложили работу за границей, он отказался покинуть свою страну.


- “будучи” + краткая форма причастия

Occupied by his thoughts he didn’t hear my question. – Будучи погруженным в свои мысли, он не услышал мой вопрос.


Exercises

1. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на выделенные грамматические формы, и сравните свой перевод с предлагаемым вариантом перевода для самоконтроля.

  1. Having improved the quality of the sound our technicians have achieved a high degree of perfection in telecasting.

Улучшив качество звука, наши техники получили высокий уровень телевещания.

  1. When driving long distances through areas with limited cellular coverage, you aren’t able to keep in touch with your office using cellular phones.

Когда вы проезжаете большие расстояния по местности с ограниченным покрытием сети, вы не можете связаться с вашим офисом с помощью сотового телефона.

  1. The approach being based on the mathematical methods is concerned with structural considerations.

Подход, основанный на математических методах, касается вопросов структуры.

  1. Most sounds have a number of different frequency components, each component having its own decibel level.

Большинство звуков имеют набор различных частотных гармоник, причем каждая гармоника имеет свой собственный уровень.

  1. Combining many of the most important technological developments of the last decades, the computers embody the new technology of control in its highest form.

Компьютеры включают в себя новые технологии управления в их наивысшей форме, объединяя самые важные технологические разработки последних десятилетий.

  1. Using special TV sets placed on a plane board one is able to see through the surface of the Earth down to the deposits of coal, iron, gold and platinum.

Используя телевизионные приемники, расположенные на борту самолета, можно видеть сквозь поверхность Земли залежи угля, золота и платины.

  1. With the preliminary warning taken into account, we could proceed with our analysis.

После того как мы учли предварительные замечания, мы смогли продолжить наш анализ.

  1. A badly handled presentation can ruin weeks of careful preparation, turn off a previously keen customer or relegate forever a good idea.

Плохо организованная презентация может свести на нет тщательные недельные приготовления, отпугнуть уже заинтересовавшегося клиента или навсегда похоронить хорошую идею.

  1. Basing on synergetic statement of control problem new very effective methods of solution of extremely complex control tasks were developed.

Основываясь на положениях синергетики о проблемах контроля, были разработаны новые очень эффективные методы решения крайне сложных задач управления.

  1. Using either direct wiring or telephone lines, these networks could reach enormous proportions.

Эти сети могут достигать огромных размеров, либо при использовании прямого соединения, либо телефонных линий

  1. When compared with static RAMs, dynamic RAMs have a greater storage density, i.e. more bits may be stored per unit chip area.

По сравнению со статистической ОЗУ динамическая ОЗУ имеет больший объем, то есть на единицу площади чипа может храниться большее количество бит.

  1. Table 1 summarizes the physical characteristics of the materials employed.

В таблице 1 приведены физические характеристики использованных материалов.

  1. Having been packed and marked the goods were ready for shipment.

После того как товары упаковали и промаркировали, они были готовы к отправке.

  1. Advanced navigation equipment being developed by NASA gives pilots more information.

Передовое навигационное оборудование, разрабатываемое NASA, дает пилотам больше информации.

  1. Given the production possibilities, society must choose between necessities and luxuries, between public and private goods.

При наличии производственных возможностей общество должно выбирать между товарами первой необходимости и предметами роскоши, между товарами общественного и частного потребления .


2. Fill in the present participle.

1. an (interest) book

2. a (sleep) child

3. two (play) dogs

4. the (win) number

5. several (travel) bags

6. the (move) power

7. a (touch) moment

8. an (excite) film

9. a (work) man

10 (run) water


3. Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a present participle.

1. She was talking to her friend and forgot everything around her. Talking to her friend she forgot everything around her.

2. Since we watch the news every day we know what's going on in the world.3. They are vegetarians and don't eat meat.4. The dog wagged its tail and bit the postman.5. While she was tidying up her room she found some old photos.6. He was a good boy and helped his mother in the kitchen.7. As they didn't have enough money they spent their holidays at home last year.8. The man was sitting in the cafe. He was reading a paper9. Since I didn't feel well I didn't go to the cinema.10. She walked home and met an old friend.


4. Define the functions of Participle I in the following sentences and translate them:

1. The scientist working at this design is well known. 2. Carrying out the experiment he made use of some new instruments. 3. These new devices are replacing their older equivalents. 4. Speaking about the new method of work the engineer told us many interesting details. 5. Radio occupies one of the leading places among the greatest achieve­ments of modern engineering. 7. Being cooled water turns into ice. 8. The electric current passing through a wire will heat it. 9. Transistors contain no moving parts. 10. The scientist is carrying on an important research. 11. Developing the new method they achieved good results.


5. Choose the sentences with Participle I from the ones given below and translate them:

1. The falling water has kinetic energy. 2. While testing the motor we put down the results. 3. There is no simple explanation of the func­tioning of transistors. 4. Obtaining new data engineers can improve their knowledge. 5. Look at the reading of the device. 6. Robots are helping research scientists to answer many difficult questions. 7. By the beginn­ing of the 20th century man had learned something of the structure of the atom. 8. When applying these automatic devices we shall be able to control automatic lines. 9. The applying of lasers enables us to ampli­fy electromagnetic waves. 10. A person beginning some experiment should be very careful and attentive.


6. Fill in the Past Participle.

1. the (lose) son

2. an (interest) audience

3. a (break) leg

4. an (empty) bottle

5. a (close) door

6. a (decorate) room

7. two (pack) bags

8. the (write) letters

9. the (sell) car

10.the (buy) apples


7. Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a past participle.

1. I have a cat that is called Tari. ----I have a cat called Tari.2. The dinner was more expensive than they had expected.3. He was accused of murder and arrested.4. She was shocked by the bad news and burst into tears.5. The event is organized by our team and will surely be a great success.6. The film is based on real events and tells the story of a reporter.7. She was born in Hollywood and knows all the famous movie stars.8. The car was taken to the garage. It was repaired within an hour.9. She was admired by everyone and began to grow arrogant.10. He was dumped by his girlfriend and felt really lousy.


8. Translate the sentences:

1. Esperanto is a language introduced in 1887 by Dr L.L.Zamenhof after years of development.

2. Limited vocabulary systems, requiring no training, can recognize a small number of words.

3. Using COM, programs can easily be coded in multiple languages.

4. Given such a statement, we can attempt to construct transformation.

5. Having gained physical access to the application, the engineer can decompile it.

6. While working on this new method of detecting flying objects, scientists began studying an unusual and little-known class of solids called semiconductors.

7. Depending on the type of the process parameters it is necessary to use different estimation methods.

8. When selecting new technologies to solve their problems, people in industry are always conservative.

9. Analyzing this message you can find the error.

10. In this part you will learn how to get required information.

11. Linguistic rules describing the control system consists of two parts.

12. Conventional controllers are derived from control theory techniques based on mathematical models of the open-loop models.

13. Given this system equivalent circuit, the voltages can be computer using circuit analysis.

14. The approach being based on the mathematical methods is concerned with structural considerations.

15. Given such a statement, we can attempt to construct a transformation.


9. Choose the correct form of the participles used as adjectives in the following sentences.

  1. The (breaking/broken) dishes lay on the floor.

  2. The (trembling/trembled) children were given a blanket for warmth.

  3. Compassionate friends tried to console the (crying/cried) victims of the accident.

  4. The (interesting/interested) tennis match caused a great deal of excitement.

  5. When James noticed the (burning/burnt) building, he notified the fire department immediately.

  6. The (exciting/excited) passengers jumped into the lifeboats when notified that the ship was sinking.

  7. The (smiling/smiled) Mona Lisa is on display in the Louvre in Paris.

  8. The wind made such (frightening/frightened) noises that the children ran to their parents' room.

  9. The (frightening/frightened) hostages only wanted to be left alone.

  1. We saw the (advancing/advanced) army from across town.

  2. Mrs. Harris's (approving/approved) smile let us know that our speeches were well done.

  3. Our representative presented the (approving /approved) plan to the public.

  4. The (blowing/blown) wind of the hurricane damaged the waterfront property.

  5. We were going to see the movie at the Center Theater, but our friends told us it was a (boring/bored) movie.

  6. Mary's (cleaning/cleaned) service comes every Wednesday.

  7. The (cleaning/cleaned) shoes were placed in the sun to dry.

  8. We found it difficult to get through the (closing/closed) door without a key.

  9. As we entered the (crowding/crowded) room, I noticed my cousins.

  10. Dr. Jameson told my brother to elevate his (aching/ached) foot.

  11. The police towed away the (parking/parked) cars because they were blocking the entrance


10. Open the brackets:

  1. Proposition 215 is a two-year-old law (intend) ___ to allow seriously ill people in California to use marijuana as medicine.

  2. Such ill people carry a doctor's note (verify) ___ that they suffer from chronic pain or serious disease.

  3. Steve McWilliams is a person who uses marijuana daily to deal with constant pain (result) ___ from several car accidents.

  4. Another person who was (delight) ___ when proposition 215 passed was Evan Keliher of San Diego.

  5. Keliher said it was (relieve) ___ to use marijuana legally after thirty years of being a "closet marijuana smoker”.

  6. Keliher, who is a former Marine and (retire) ___ school teacher, was diagnosed with glaucoma in the 1960s.

7. He began to smoke pot in 1967 after hearing that it helped relieve intra-ocular pressure (cause) ___ by glaucoma.

8. He had been using eye drops, but his eye sight was steadily (weaken) ___ .

9. Doctors (treat) ___ him at that time predicted that he would be blind by now..

10. Though he can no longer see in his left eye, his eyesight in his right eye is (amaze) ___ .

11. He is so (satisfy) ___ with the results from marijuana that he wrote a book called, "Grandpa's Marijuana Handbook”.

12. Keliher wants to teach older people who are sick and (suffer) ___ how to use marijuana.

13. Still, there are many problems (face) ___ law enforcement officers in California.

14. Marijuana (grow) ___ for medicinal purposes is legal, but how much is necessary?


11. Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a perfect participle.

1. We switched off the lights before we went to bed. --- Having switched off the lights we went to bed.

2. The boy asked his mother's permission and then went out to play.------the boy went out to play.

3. As he had drunk too much, he didn't drive home himself.-----he didn't drive home himself.

4. We have written two tests today, so we are very exhausted.-----we are very exhausted.

5. She filled the washing machine and switched it on.-----she switched it on.

6. She had been to the disco the night before and overslept in the morning.----she overslept in the morning.

7. We had worked in the garden all day and were sunburned in the evening.----we were sunburned in the evening.

8. She had not slept for two days and therefore wasn't able to concentrate.----she wasn't able to concentrate.

9. Since I had not seen him for ages, I didn't recognize him.----I didn't recognize him.

10.I had not ridden a horse for a long time and found it very difficult to keep in the saddle.----I found it very difficult to keep in the saddle


12. Fill in the Perfect Participle. Decide whether to use active or passive voice.

1. (stop) the car, the police officer wanted to see the documents.

2. (write) the test, we felt relieved.

3. (work) all day, we were quite exhausted in the evening.

4. (send) to counter 24, I had to return to counter 3.

5. (confess) , he was accused of even more criminal offences.

6. (arrive) at the station, we called a taxi.

7. (type) by the secretary, the letter was signed by the boss.

8. (interrupt) several times, he was rather annoyed.

9. (live) in Oxford for two years, she spoke English like a native speaker.

10. (rescue) , the injured man was taken to hospital


13. Define the functions of Participles in the following sentences and translate them into Russian.

1. Radio occupies one of the leading places among the greatest achievements of modern engineering. 2. Speaking about the new methods of work the engineer told us many interesting details. 3. Having performed the flight around the Moon Zond VI automatic station returned to Earth. 4. Being heated a magnet loses some or all of its magnetism. 5. Having been carefully tested the device was put into operation. 6. A neutron is a particle having the same mass as a proton, but carrying no electrical charge. 7. Hydrogen is the lightest substance known. 8. If heated molecules of the material move faster. 9. Probably, the first metals used by man were gold, silver and copper, these metals being found in nature in the native or metallic state. 10. Oxygen combining with another substance, an oxide is formed.


14. Chose the sentences with Particles I, II from the ones given below.

1. The falling water has kinetic energy. 2 While testing the motor he put down the results.3. Look at the readings of the device. 4. Robots are helping scientists to answer many difficult questions. 5. By the beginning of the 20th century man had learned something about the structure of the atom. 6. A person beginning some experiment should be very careful and attentive. 7. If frozen, water becomes ice.

We call the element discovered by Pierre and Marri Curri radium.8. The importance of the scientific researches and discoveries is growing with every year. 9. Radio occupies one of the leading places among the greatest achievements of modern engineering.


15. Translate the following sentences:

1. Having improved this device they could use it for many purposes. 2. When making the experiment he made notes. 3. The vibrations of a voice speaking into the microphone of a telephone cause vibrations in an electric current. 4. This varying current is carried along a wire to a receiver. 5. Electronics in our country has developed into hundreds of research institutes and laboratories employing tens of thousands of people. 6. Having been discovered many years ago this metal found a wide application in industry only last year. 7. While being checked the motor showed good performance. 8. Rostov region today is building high-capacity atomic power sta­tions. 9. The man introducing this famous scientist is the dean of our faculty. 10. Cybernetics is gaining a growing importance.


16. Change the complex sentences given below according to the examples and translate them into Russian:

Example A: While she was preparing for her physics exam she looked through all the notes of the lectures.

While preparing for her physics exam she looked through all the notes of the lectures.

1. When he was translating the article he used a dictionary. 2. While the student was working at the problem he made many experiments. 3. When the scientist was carrying out research in the field of nuclear physics he came to Dubna to work there. 4. When the worker was applying the new method of work he got better results. 5. While he was experimenting with this substance he was very careful. 6. When the en­gineer was improving the design he made many calculations. 7. While the man was describing this phenomenon he illustrated it with numerous examples. 8. When these scientists were working in our laboratory they obtained good results.


Example B: The scientists who are carrying out research into nuclear physics deal with most difficult problems.

The scientists carrying out research into nuclear physics deal with most difficult problems.

1. The scientist who is working at the method is well known. 2. The students who are listening to the taped lesson study at the evening fa­culty. 3. These postgraduate students who are watching the experiment work in our laboratory. 4. The worker who is repairing the machine is very skilled. 5. The engineer who is carrying out these investigations is a well-known inventor. 6. The students who are doing the laboratory work are from various faculties. 7. The workers who are building this house will soon finish their work.


17. Translate the sentences from Russian into English paying special attention to Participle I and Participle II.

1. Открыв дверь, я увидел друга. 2. Студент, отвечающий (который отвечает) этот урок, из нашей группы. 3. Перевод, который делается студентами, очень трудный. 4. Она смотрела на играющих детей во дворе. 5. Будучи хорошим специалистом, он писал превосходные статьи. 6.Работая в читальном зале, она закончила свою статью. 7. Когда Попову предложили работу за границей, он отказался покинуть свою страну. 8. После того, как он окончил академию, его отправили за границу. 9. Проводя эксперимент, мы наблюдали новое явление. 10. Атомы, объединенные (которые объединены) в группы, называются молекулами.


18. Fill in the correct participle.

Paul: You must be very 1) excited (excite). Paris is a 2) (fascinate) city. There are so many 3) (interest) things to do. You won't be 4)... (bore).

Jane: Well, I'm a bit 5) ...(worry) because I can't speak French very well.

Paul: You should buy a phrase book and then you won't be 6) (embarrass) if someone speaks to you. They won't be 7) (annoy) if you make a mistake, and most people will be 8) (please) if you ask for something in French.

Jane: I'm sure they'll find my accent very 9) (amuse).

Paul: Don't be silly. I'm sure you'll have a very 10) (stimulate) holiday.


Chapter 7
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Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для развития компетенции студентов в области международных организаций, развития навыков...
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