Учебно-методическое пособие по формированию компетенции в грамматике (английский язык)




НазваниеУчебно-методическое пособие по формированию компетенции в грамматике (английский язык)
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Infinitive Constructions



1. Инфинитив как часть сложного дополнения (Complex Object)

Сложное дополнение – это сочетание имени существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже (me, him, her, it, us, you, them) с инфинитивом глагола, выступающее как единый член предложения.

Сказуемое в предложении со сложным дополнением может быть выражено следующими глаголами: to want, to know, to find, to think, to report, to state, to suppose, to expect, to consider, to see, to hear, to feel и т.д..

Сложное дополнение переводится на русский язык дополнительным придаточным предложением, вводимым союзами что, чтобы, как.

Everybody expected the engineer to be examining the work in the shop.

Все предполагали, что инженер проверяет работу в цехе.


Примечание:

1) После глаголов to watch, to see, to hear, to feel, а также после глаголов to make, to cause в значении заставить, вынудить инфинитив употребляется без частицы to:

I heard them speak about the replacement of some equipment in one of the shops.

Я слышал, что они говорили о замене оборудования в одном из цехов.


2) После глаголов to enable, to allow, to cause, to make, to permit можно переводить без придаточного предложения:

The voltage causes the milliammeter reading to increase.

Это напряжение вызывает увеличение показания миллиамперметра.


2. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот (сложное подлежащее – Complex Subject)

Предложение имеет следующую структуру:

Существительное (в общем падеже) местоимение (в именительном падеже)

Сказуемое

Инфинитив

The value

is said

to change

This experiment

is believed

to have been completed

то есть между существительным и инфинитивом стоит сказуемое предложения, выражающее мнение, суждение и предположение.

Мнение, суждение, предположение в таком предложении может быть выражено следующими глаголами:

1) в страдательном залоге: to say, to suppose, to expect, to assume, to report, to consider, to prove, to find, и т.д.

2) в действительном залоге: to seem, to appear, to turn out, а так же is likely, is unlikely, is sure, is certain.

Предложения такого типа переводятся сложноподчиненными предложениями. Перевод следует начинать со сказуемого и переводить неопределенно-личным предложением:

The maximum phase displacement is supposed to amount to 180 degrees.

Полагают, что максимальный сдвиг фазы составляет 180 градусов.

The worst fading of all seems to occur at sunrise and at sunset.

Оказывается (по-видимому), что самое сильное затухание сигналов происходит при восходе и закате солнца.


3. Оборот «for + существительное (местоимение) + инфинитив» (for-phrase)

Оборот выполняет функции различных членов предложения (в научной литературе чаще всего функции обстоятельства цели или следствия. При переводе предлог опускается, а весь оборот – инфинитив с существительным (местоимением) с for – переводится придаточным предложением соответственно выполняемой данным оборотом функции.


  1. Инфинитивный оборот стоит в начале предложения и отвечает на вопрос для чего? и выполняет функцию обстоятельства цели.

For the Democracy to flourish, the citizens should participate in the life of their society.

Для того, чтобы демократия процветала, граждане должны участвовать в жизни своего общества.




  1. Инфинитивный оборот стоит после глагола связки be.




The tendency was for the market to become developed.

Тенденция заключалась в том, что рынок начал развиваться.




  1. Инфинитивный оборот стоит после глагола be, имеющего модальное значение.

It is for her to decide what to begin with.

Это она должна решить, с чего начать.




  1. Инфинитивный оборот стоит в безличном предложении.

It is possible for the reaction to occur.

Возможно, что произойдет реакция. (Может произойти реакция)




  1. Инфинитивный оборот стоит после определяемого им существительного.

The only thing for him to do was to tell her the truth.

Единственное, что он мог сделать, это сказать ей правду.

Exercises


1. Transform the sentences:

  1. The wind blew his hat down the street. They watched the wind ...

  2. They left their wounded comrade behind. I did not expect them . . .

  3. He had lunch at home. Did you want him . .. ?

  4. Nobody should know that we had to do it all over again. We don't want anybody.

  5. She went there the following day. Did you make her .. . ?

  6. Shall they come here tonight ?Shall I have them .. .

  7. She must attend the lessons regularly. Get her ...

  8. You ought to learn Russian. I want you ...

  9. The house shook as the jet fighter broke through the sound barrier.I felt the house

  1. He oughtn't to turn to strangers for help. I don't want him ...

  2. Shall I believe that? She tried to make me . . .

  3. They oughtn't to know about the accident. We don't want them . . .

  4. Peter makes eyes at her and she does not like it. She can't bear him .. .

  5. They had to promise us that they would not tell anybody else. We made them. ..

  6. 1 don't like the idea of them turning up (= coming). I would prefer ...

  1. We had to wait for hours. She made ...

  2. He will never turn his back on (= refuse to recognize) an old friend. Have you ever known ...

  3. She beat her husband. Did you watch ...

  4. She had to repeat the message. He made ...

  5. They spent their money carelessly. I don't like ...


2. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive Constructions:

1. The professor made the students repeat the experiment. 2. We want them to receive this information as soon as possible. 3. We know the first atomic power station to have been built in the USSR. 4. The only thing for you to do is to use a microscope. 5. A material which allows electricity to flow through it is called a conductor. 6. We did not see them make this experiment. 7. For him to take this decision was not easy. 8. We think this work to be completed in a month. 9. Our profes­sor wants us to use these data. 10. It was easy for our mechanic to re­pair this device. 11. Electronics enabled scientists to take pictures of the moon. 12. For the decision to be correct all facts must be considered.


3.Change the following complex sentences according to the example. Translate them into Russian:

Example: Yablochkov was the first who realized the advantages of the alternat­ing current.

Yablochkov was the first to realize the advantages of the alternating current.

1. The Soviet Union was the first country that put into operation atomic power stations. 2. Franklin was the first who developed a new theory of electricity. 3. Lomonosov and Franklin were the first who made their experiments in the field of atmospheric electricity. 4. The engineer was the last who made the report at the conference. 5. The famous scientist was the first who proved this theory. 6. Newton was one of the first who studied light. 7. Lodygin was the first who invented the electric lamp. 8. These metals were the first that were used in industry. 9. This scientist was the first who developed the new process. 10. These devices were the first that were tested in our laboratory.


4. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. Electrons were shown to be particles of negative electricity. 2. When illuminated by a radar wave, Venus is found experimen­tally to be darker at the limbs than at its centre. 3. The vacuum is ordinarily defined as a state of absence: a vacuum is said to exist in a region of space if there is nothing in it. 4. Some of the ancients held that matter was composed of atoms. Still they can hardly be said to have formulated a true scientific theory.5. The solar wind has been found to consist of a completely ionized plasma—a gas composed of electrically charged fragments of atoms. 6. The atmosphere on Mars is thought to be substantially thicker than on the earth and thus capable of statically supporting larger surface blocks. 7. If a particle moves in a circle with a constant speed, it is said to be in uniform motion. 8. Natural uranium was stated to consist mainly of two isotopes. 9. Electronic computers are likely to have as profound effect as nuclear energy on the future of man. 10. The best current estimates suggest that the population of the Third World is likely to triple in the next century and thereafter remain stable. 11. The chief difficulty turned out to be the determination of the formulae of the compounds.12. A supernova, the catastrophic explosion of a massive star, is believed to occur in a galaxy twice a century. 13. The experiment turned out to be more difficult than could be expected. 14. All students are supposed to know Newton's laws of mechanics. 15. Automation is known by everyone to have reduced the demand for some types of labour. 16. The light from a star only recently discovered is known to be coming to us during many years. 17. A number of salts have been prepared in the laboratories which have not been found to occur naturally. 18. The surface of the earth is thought to be like the hard shell of a nut. 19. The sun is thought to be in the first stage of nuclear burning. 20. The atmosphere is thought to have developed as the result of chemical and photochemical processes.


5. Turn the following into the Passive as in the example:

1. People expect him to win.

He ... is expected to win. It is expected that he will win. .

2. Journalists have reported that the President is ill.

The President It

3. Everyone knows that the statement was untrue.

The statement It

4.Many people believe that the climate is changing.
The climate It

5. Everyone knows that he has been in prison.

He It

6. Many people say that the new prices are too high.

The new prices It

7. They claim that this diamond is the largest in the world.

This diamond It


6. Rephrase the following as in the example:

1. I must go to the gym to keep fit. – I want to go to the gym to keep fit.

2. He must eat less. - I want him…

3. They must tell her the truth. I want …

4. You must change your clothes. They're wet. – I want…

5. She must get up early. – I want…

6.1 must learn to type. – He wants…

7. She mustn't speak rudely. - I don’t want…

8. She must stay in bed for a week. The doctor wants …

9. They must leave early. - I want…

10. They must apologise. - I want…

.

7. Open the brackets:

  1. The river was reported (to overflow) the banks and (to advance) towards the suburbs of the city.

  2. The girl pretended (to read) a book and not (to notice) me.

  3. You seem (to look) for trouble.

  4. It seems (to rain) ever since we came here.

  5. It is so thoughtful of you (to book) the tickets well in advance.

  6. The committee is said (to revise) the programme and (to work out) a plan of its realization.

  7. The man seemed (to study) me and I felt uneasy in his presence.

  8. He is supposed (to work) at the translation of the book for two years.

  9. The only sound (to hear) was the ticking of the grandfather's clock downstairs.

  10. The book was believed (to lose) until the librarian happened (to find) it during the inventory. It turned out (to misplace).

  11. The strength of the mental proved (to overstimate) by the designer. The engineer claimed (to warn) against its use for the purpose all along as he had always sure it was likely (to deform) under great load.

  12. We seem (to fly) over the sea for quite a time and there is yet no land (to see).

  13. We don't seem (to acquaint), at least I can't remember ever (to meet) him.

  14. The third key remained (to test).


8. Use the required form of the infinitive in the function of objective predicative in the following sentences and translate them:

  1. He had persuaded me ... with him to Vienna for a few days. (to go)

  2. If he finds it necessary, the district attorney may require an inquest ...(to hold)

  1. We did not suspect him ... to the place before. (to be)

  2. Do you expect me ... it? (to explain)

  3. I took this ... true. (to be)

  4. He ordered a bottle of beer and some cheese ... up to his room. (to send)

  5. There was a lot of noise all around now, and among it you could hear a plane... unusually low.(to fly)

  6. I heard Arthur.. .a slight noise which may have been a sigh or a chuckle. (to make)

  7. 'Why do you always have him ... around?' 'He likes it'. (to hang)

  8. I don't like girls .... It takes away the fragrance of youth. (to smoke)

  1. After supper Willy switched on the wireless and John left him ... round the drawing-room to the sound of Mozart's piano concerto in С minor. (to dance)

  2. We left him ... the afternoon with his family. (to spend)

  3. I can't imagine you ... anything but what you are. (to be)

  4. I saw Mother ... at me. (to look)

  5. I saw Mother ... at me and ... away. (to look, to turn)

  6. Adeline found her husband ... in the middle of the room waiting for her. (to stand)

  7. He found you ... pretty liberal about your children. (to be)

  8. Now I was over-confident. I expected things ... my way. (to go)

  9. He guessed her age ... about eighteen. (to be)

  10. I caught her ... at me. (to look)

  11. James proved himself ... a man of his word. (to be)

  12. We left the others ... outside the house. (to chat)

  13. I left him ... with the issue by himself. (to deal)

  14. He explained his behaviour as ... to make up their quarrel. (to try)

  15. If you go on talking like this you'll have me ... . (to cry)

  16. I found myself... almost entirely on the grapes which the cook found it hard to spoil. (to live)

  17. They always treated her as ... superior in every way. (to be)

  18. 'I've got a pupil ... at ten o'clock'. 'Can't you put him off?' (to come)

  19. They watched me ... away, wiping my nose on my arm. (to walk)

  20. He was content just to watch her ... . (to think)

  21. I watched him ... down the path toward the other men. (to hurry)

  22. I watched him ... the hall. (to leave)

  23. It was the only word I heard him ... that day. (to say)

  24. He knew that for the moment they must not hear him ... in the night, (to sob)

  25. Who was the man I saw you ... with yesterday? (to chat)

  26. The whole village turned out to see them ... . (to leave)

  27. I saw him ... up, ... to another man and ... out. (to get, to whisper, to

stroll)


9. Underline the construction the 'Objective with the Infinitive' in the following sentences with a straight line and verbs after which this construction is used with a wavy line:

  1. We saw them jump from parachutes.

  2. I expect you to join our excursion.

  3. 1 heard the door of the entrance hall open and close softly.

  4. They all gathered on the hill to watch the sun rise.

  5. The people in the North do not see the sun come out for months.

  6. He made the tractor work at full speed.

  7. She felt her hands tremble.

  8. We wished him to succeed.

  9. We had not expected her to reply, but she did.

  1. We knew him to be a clever man.

  2. The traveller entered the inn and ordered supper to be prepared.

  3. He felt his heart beat with joy.

  4. I am waiting for them to go before I speak of the matter.

  5. We saw him cross the street looking to the left and to the right.

  6. I felt the wind blow through a chink in the wall.

  7. We stood on deck and watched the sun go down.

  8. Passing the house I heard him play the piano.

  9. 1 don't like you to repeat that nonsense.

  10. I hate people to speak so cynically.

  11. Leave me to manage the matter for you.

  12. We expect everybody to be ready by seven.

  13. Don t think him to be a coward.

  14. They showed themselves even more narrow-minded than we had expected them to be.

  15. I don't trust myself to skate on this uneven ice.

  16. 'We want our children to grow up into active, energetic and enterprising men and women, not afraid to face difficulties,' said the director of the children's home.


10. Change the structure of the following sentences so as to use the infinitive as subject or without the anticipatory it.

  1. The question is not so easy to answer.

  2. There was no necessity to re-do it.

  3. The thought of it cheered him up.

  4. I was amazed to see it.

  5. He felt ashamed when he read the letter.

  6. Worrying and fussing was useless.

  7. All they wanted was to make themselves understood.

  8. He wanted to see the play staged as soon as possible.

  9. My companion was discreet enough not to mention it.

  1. I must ask you a few questions on the matter. It is my duty.

  2. You say he kept his opinion to himself. Is it usual of him?

  3. How greatly disappointed we were when we found that it was only a joke.

  4. The sight of them made us laugh.

  5. The sculpture was completely ruined. The restoration was impossible.

  6. The car's engine is out of order. The repair will take not less than two days.


11. Point out the Objective-with- the- Infinitive and the Subjective with the Infinitive Constructions. Translate into Russian.

  1. Never once had she been seen to cry.

  2. It was the first time he had ever seen her weep.

  3. He didn't mean this to be a long meeting.

  4. There was a rumour that at least they were likely to be married.

  5. Without remonstrance she suffered me to have my own way.

  6. Irving proved to be a long, sallow-faced butler chap, solemn as an undertaker.

  7. Mr. Worthing is sure to be back soon.

  8. I came to get someone to tell me the truth.

  9. I'll have Bertha bring you breakfast.

  1. Unfortunately, at this moment he chances to catch sight of Judith's face.

  2. I have never known Hector Rose behave like this.

  3. His 'office' turned out to be in one of the back streets close by Olympia.

  4. Conrad pulled out a chair and made her sit down.

  5. He looked at his watch, rang the bell and ordered the vehicle to be brought round immediately.

  6. Paul felt his heart lift as at a great victory.

  7. . people took an oath, a pledge, when they were married and that was supposed to hold them together.

  8. At thirteen he began to read books that were said to be evil.

  9. She watched him go up the street and enter a door.

  10. He appeared to be an ideal home man.

  11. Young men of this class never do anything for themselves that they can get other people to do for them.

  12. He said he wouldn't suffer a wood to be uttered to him in his disparagement.

  13. She doesn't seem to want to do anything I suggest.

  14. Cecily and Gwendolen are perfectly certain to be extremely great friends.

  15. He heard the town clock strike twelve.

  16. Nearly a year ago, I chanced to tell him our legend of the nun.

  17. Harriet, pale and trembling . suffered her to go on uninterrupted.

  18. 'You will not allow this base newspaper slander to shorten your stay here, Mr. Winkle?' said Mrs. Pott, smiling through the trace of her tears.

  19. He turned out to have no feeling whatsoever for his nephew.

  20. I don't like him to be so long alone.

  21. From the extreme freshness and purity of her complexion I estimated age to be sixteen or less perhaps.

  22. This appeared to amuse the policemen.

  23. I can't bear one to be very near me but you.

  24. At any moment he was expecting Erik to pull a gun and rob him.

  25. He decided to write her .and ask for an explanation, as well as have her meet him.

  26. You can easily get in through a window if the door happens to be locked.

  27. You are sure to be there tomorrow night, aren't you, Professor Engelfield?.

  28. He was said to be one of the most promising of nuclear physicists.


12. Use The Complex Subject instead of the subordinate clause and complex objects:

  1. It is reported that the football match will take place on May 15th.

  2. It was believed that the expedition had returned to its winter camp.

  3. It is understood that the commission will soon come to a decision.

  4. It was expected that the conference would take place in May.

  5. It was known that he was in the habit of sleeping the whole winter with the window open.

  6. People saw him enter the house early in the morning.

  7. They often heard the girl sing that tune.

  8. The doctor ordered him to give up smoking.

  9. We expected the children to return by seven o'clock.


13. Underline all the complexes with the infinitives and state their functions.

  1. He was anxious for everyone to be merry and bright.

  2. Drawing the curtains aside, the saw the first grey streaks of morning. The flowers were just appearing in the young green, short and blue; next week or the week after there would be a carpet for the children to lie upon.

  3. He was undisturbed by Shelton's scrutiny, watching the rind coil down below the apple, until in a springing spiral it fell on the path and collapsed like a toy snake.

  4. The door creaked. He saw Irene come in, pick up the telegram and read it.

  5. He is known to take very sudden decisions.

  6. I expected her to behave very differently.

  7. He is supposed to be at work.

  8. I haven't got her permission for you to go.

  9. He was understood to be hard at work.

  1. She made Shelton pull into the reeds, and plucked two rounded lilies sailing like ships, against slowly-moving water.

  2. The boom of an aeroplane passing under the gold-tinted clouds caused him to lift his eyes.

  3. Perhaps we had better go in, I don't want you to catch a cold.

  4. At once they found something for her to do.

  5. At the stop she found another girl waiting for the bus to stop.

  6. I understood him to say that his friend was up the river somewhere.

  7. They lowered the rope ladder from the deck for him to climb.

  8. This translation is too difficult for a beginner to do it without errors.


14. State the function of the for-to-Infinitive Construction. Translate into Russian.

  1. There was no home for him to go to.

  2. He waited for me to sit down.

  3. It seemed almost a shame for anyone to be as pretty as she was tonight.

  4. And it is not for you to make terms. It is for you to accept them.

  5. There's nothing for us to do but amuse ourselves.


15. State the function of the for - to - Infinitive Construction in these sentences. Then translate them into your native language.

  1. He waited for Holly to say something.

  2. Their house is always ready for anyone to come into.

  3. It was really warm for May, and still light enough for him to see his sheep in the meadow.

  4. And it is not for you to make terms. It is for you to accept them.

  5. There was no home for him to go to.

  6. Greasbourough street, where Johnny spent the first eight years of his life, was a nice place for a boy to live.

  7. Mr. Downing waited for Helen to sit down.

  8. There's nothing for us to do but amuse ourselves.

  9. He cordially extended one forefinger for Brian to shake.

  1. My dear, this isn't the time for us to quarrel.

  2. Ken opened the door of his room for Veronica to go out.

  3. But the pain in James's head asserted itself too cruelly for him to think of anything else for the moment.

  4. It's impossible for me to write about that time in detail - I can't bear to.

  5. There were plenty of papers for him to read, but he left them alone.


16. Underline the construction the 'Objective with the Infinitive' in the following sentences with a straight line and verbs after which this construction is used with a wavy line:

  1. We saw them jump from parachutes.

  2. I expect you to join our excursion.

  3. 1 heard the door of the entrance hall open and close softly.

  4. They all gathered on the hill to watch the sun rise.

  5. The people in the North do not see the sun come out for months.

  6. He made the tractor work at full speed.

  7. She felt her hands tremble.

  8. We wished him to succeed.

  9. We had not expected her to reply, but she did.

  10. We knew him to be a clever man.

  11. The traveller entered the inn and ordered supper to be prepared.

  12. He felt his heart beat with joy.

  13. I am waiting for them to go before I speak of the matter.

  14. We saw him cross the street looking to the left and to the right.

  15. I felt the wind blow through a chink in the wall.

  16. We stood on deck and watched the sun go down.

  17. Passing the house I heard him play the piano.

  18. 1 don't like you to repeat that nonsense.

  19. I hate people to speak so cynically.

  20. Leave me to manage the matter for you.

  21. We expect everybody to be ready by seven.

  22. Don t think him to be a coward.

  23. They showed themselves even more narrow-minded than we had expected them to be.

  24. I don't trust myself to skate on this uneven ice.

Chapter 6
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15

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Английский язык для аспирантов [Текст] : учеб метод пособие / сост. Н. А. Ашихманова, В. А. Брылева; ВолГУ, Каф англ филологии. –...
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Английский язык для аспирантов [Текст] : учеб метод пособие / сост. Н. А. Ашихманова, В. А. Брылева; ВолГУ, Каф англ филологии. –...
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Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для развития компетенции студентов в области международных организаций, развития навыков...
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Целью пособия является формирование грамматических навыков, необходимых для чтения и понимания текстов на английском языке средней...
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Английский язык. Учебно-методическое пособие. Задания для выполнения контрольных работ. В. А. Шляхова. М.: Миир, с. 40, 2007
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Учебно-методическое пособие «Деловой английский язык» разработано для студентов высших учебных заведений, в которых основными профилирующими...
Учебно-методическое пособие по формированию компетенции в грамматике (английский язык) iconМетодические рекомендации английский язык контрольные задания для студентов 1 курса специальностей пгс, сдм, эун, тв, ад, эуп факультета дистанционного обучения Воронеж 2009 Введение Учебно-методическое пособие «Английский язык.
«Проектирование зданий», «Экспертиза и управление недвижимостью», «Подъемно-транспортные, строительные, дорожные машины и оборудование»,...
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