Flowcharts provide a step by step schematic representation of an algorithm or process




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Lesson 3.1 Machine Control


Concepts

  1. Flowcharts provide a step by step schematic representation of an algorithm or process.

  2. Control systems are designed to provide consentient process control and reliability.

  3. Control system protocols are an established set of commands or functions typically created in a computer programming language.

  4. Closed loop systems use digital and analog sensor feedback to make operational and process decisions.

  5. Open loop system use programming constants such as time to make operational and process decisions.



Performance Objectives

It is expected that students will:

  • Create detailed flow charts utilizing a computer software application.

  • Create control system operating programs utilizing computer software.

  • Create system control programs that utilize flowchart logic.

  • Choose appropriate inputs and outputs devises based on the need of a technological system.

  • Differentiate between the characteristics of digital and analog devices.

  • Judge between open and closed loop systems in order to choose the most appropriate system for a given technological problem.

  • Design and create a control system based on given needs and constraints.


Essential Questions

  1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using programmable logic to control machines versus monitoring and adjusting processes manually?

  2. What are some everyday seemingly simple devices that contain microprocessors, and what function do the devices serve?

  3. What questions must designers ask when solving problems in order to decide between digital or analog systems and between open or closed loop systems?


Key Terms

Algorithm

A step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or accomplishing some end, especially by a computer.

Analog Signal

A signal having the characteristic of being continuous and changing smoothly over a given range, rather than switching suddenly between certain levels.

Analog to Digital

Conversion of an analog signal to a digital quantity such as binary.

Closed Loop System

A control system that considers the output of a system and makes adjustments based on that output.

Data

Information encoded in a digital form, which is usually stored in an assigned address of a data memory for later use by the processor.

Digital Signal

A system of discrete states: high or low, on or off, 1 or 0.

Digital to Analog

Conversion of a digital signal to its analog equivalent, such as a voltage.

Electromagnet

A conductor wrapped around an iron core. The two ends of the conductor are attached to a power source. When current passes through the conductor, the iron core becomes magnetized.

Feedback

The return to the input of a part of the output of a machine, system, or process (as for producing changes in an electronic circuit that improve performance or in an automatic control device that provide self-corrective action).

Flowchart

A diagram that shows step-by-step progression through a procedure or system especially using connecting lines and a set of conventional symbols.

Input

Information fed into a data processing system or computer.

Interface

The place at which independent and often unrelated systems meet and act on or communicate with each other.

Microprocessor

The central processing unit that is generally made from a single integrated circuit.

Normally Closed

The contact of a relay that is closed when the coil is de-energized.

Normally Open

The contact of a relay that is open when the coil is de-energized.

NTC Resistor

A negative temperature coefficient, also known as a thermistor, is a sensitive resistor whose primary function is to exhibit a change in electric resistance with a change in temperature.

Open Loop System

A control circuit in which the system output has no effect on the control.

Output

The information produced by a computer.

Photocell

A photo-sensitive resistor whose resistance decreases as the light striking the unit increases.

Polarity

The type of charge an atomic particle has.

Potentiometer

A switch that can provide variable motion control. It can vary the resistance within the switch, which affects both the current and voltage flowing out of the switch.

Programmable Logic Controller

A specialized heavy-duty computer system used for process control in factories, chemical plants, and warehouses. Closely associated with traditional relay logic. Also called a programmable controller (PC).

Reed Switch

An electromagnetically operated switching device.

Sensor

A device that responds to a physical stimulus (as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse (as for measurement or operating a control).

Subroutine

A subordinate routine; specifically, a sequence of computer instructions for performing a specified task that can be used repeatedly.

Switch

A device for making, breaking, or changing the connections in an electrical circuit.

Transistor

A solid-state switching device.



Instructional Resources

Presentations

Creating Flowcharts

RoboPro Introduction

Word Documents

Career Demand, Salary, and Education

Activity 3.1.1 Inputs and Outputs

Activity 3.1.2 Flowcharting

Activity 3.1.2a Flowcharting Guide

Activity 3.1.3 Basic Programming

Activity 3.1.4 Branch Functions

Activity 3.1.5 Variable Functions

Activity 3.1.6 Open and Closed Loop Systems

Project 3.1.7 Machine Control Design

Lesson 3.1 Key Terms Crossword

fischertechnik® Interface Setup


Reference Sources

Herman, S.L. (2004). Delmars standard textbook of electricity (3rd ed.). United States: Thompson Delmar Learning.

International Technology Education Association, (2000). Standards for technological literacy. Reston, VA: ITEA.

Litowitz, L.S., & Brown, R. A. (2007). Energy, power, and transportation technology. Tinley Park, IL: The Goodhheart-Wilcox Company, Inc.

Merriam-Webster. (2007). Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved December 15, 2007, from http://www.webster.com

Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx

National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) and International Reading Association (IRA) (1996). Standards for the English language arts. Newark, DE: IRA; Urbana, IL: NCTE.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

National Research Council (NRC). (1996). National science education standards. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.

Oxford English Dictionary. (2008). OED Online. Retrieved January 18, 2008, from http://www2.lib.purdue.edu:2427/entrance.dtl

Petruzella, F.D. (1998). Programmable logic controllers (2nd ed.). Blacklick, OH: Glencoe-McGraw Hill.

Relay and Switch Industry Association (RSIA). (1996). Engineersrelay handbook (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.

Tokheim, R.L. (1999). Digital electronics: Principles and applications. (5th ed.). Columbus, OH: Glencoe McGraw-Hill.

Webster, J.G. (1999). The measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.



Project Lead The Way, Inc.

Copyright 2010

POE – Unit 3 – Lesson 3.1 Machine Control – Page

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