Методические указания: профессиональный английский язык для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета специальность 060800: Экономика и управление




НазваниеМетодические указания: профессиональный английский язык для студентов 5 и 6 курсов заочного факультета специальность 060800: Экономика и управление
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ЧАСТЬ 3 РАЗГОВОРНЫЕ ТЕМЫ

- fields and broader categories within economics.

The core concepts of economics are value, supply, demand, price, scarcity,

marginalism.


3.1 ECONOMICS

1. Translate the following expressions into Russian:

Goods, services, to produce, limited, quantity, resources, labor, land, scarce, raw materials, de-sires, to satisfy, production, distribution, consumption, microeconomics, macroeconomics, positive economics, normative economics, economic, choice, decisions, to invest, to manufacture, to hire, to charge, to spend, to raise, tax, to borrow, value, supply, demand, price, scarcity, marginalism.

2. Read the text and translate paragraph 2,3.

1. Every society must solve three basic problems every day:

What goods and services should be produced and in what amounts? How should those goods and services be produced? • For whom should the goods and services be produced? What, how, and for whom to produce are universal problems. Human wants are practically unlimited, but all societies have only limited quantities of resources that can be used to produce goods or services. (Productive resources include labor, land, buildings, machinery, and raw materials.) If resources were not scarce, we could all have everything we ever wanted: continuous vacations, fine paintings, fast sports cars, elegant fur coats, or whatever else our dreams are made of.

2. The central economic problem is the conflict between people's essentially
unlimited de-sires for goods and services and the limited resources that can be
used to satisfy those desires.

^ Economics is the study of how societies with limited, scarce resources decide what gets produced, how, and for whom.

3. Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution,
and consumption of goods and services. The term economics is dated from the
publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776. Smith referred to the
subject as 'political economy', but that term was replaced by 'economics' after
1870.

Areas of economics may be divided or classified in various ways, including:

  • microeconomics and macroeconomics

  • positive economics ("what is") and normative economics ("what ought to be")



Q1 Q2 Quantity

The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability and demand. The graph depicts a right-shift in demand from D, to D2 along with the consequent increase in price and quantity required to reach a new equilibrium point on the supply curve (S),

3. Answer the questions:

  1. What are three basic problems of the society?

  2. Why are they universal?

  3. What would happen if resources were not scarce?

  4. What is the central economic problem?

  5. What is economics?

  6. When is the term economics dated?

  7. How did Smith refer to the subject?

  8. What are the areas of economics?

  9. What are the core concepts of economics?

4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an annotation.


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The great nineteenth-century English economist Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) described economics as "the study of mankind in the ordinary business of life." This description reflects the fact that economic choices are so common that often we do not notice that we are making them virtually every minute. You decide how best to use your scarce time. Economic choices are decisions about how to use scarce resources to satisfy people's wants and desires. For instance, you choose between work, play, and sleep. If you choose to work, you still have to decide whether to go to class, read a textbook, or do a problem. If you choose to go shopping, you may have to decide between an expensive pair of shoes on the one hand and an inexpensive pair but a larger bank account on the other.

Businesses and governments also make economic choices every day. A farmer must decide when and what to plant and how much to invest in new machinery. General Motors must decide which cars to manufacture, how many of each to produce, whether to invest in robots or hire more workers, whether to produce here or abroad, and how much to charge for the cars. The government must choose how much to spend on education, defense, research, and many other programs; how much to raise in taxes of various kinds; and how much to borrow. These choices all arise because resources are scarce.

3.2 MACROECONOMICS

1. Translate the following expressions into Russian:

Development, evaluation, economic policy, business strategy, national income, unemployment, inflation, investment, international trade, fluctuations, determinants, economic growth, forecasts, long-run, causes, consequences, aggregate, trends, short-run, adjustments, policy, fiscal policy, monetary policy, to succeed in, emblematic.

2. Read the text and translate paragraph 1,3.

  1. Macroeconomics is a major branch of economics that deals with the performance, structure, and behavior of the economy as a whole. Macroeconomists study and seek to understand the determinants of aggregate trends in the economy with particular focus on national income, unemployment, inflation, investment, and international trade.

  2. While macroeconomics is a broad field of study, there are two areas of research that are emblematic of the discipline: the attempt to understand the causes and consequences of short-run fluctuations in national income (the business cycle), and the attempt to understand the determinants of long-run economic growth

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(increases in national income). Macroeconomic models and their forecasts are used by governments and large corporations to assist in the development and evaluation of economic policy and business strategy.

3. To avoid major economic shocks, such as great depression, governments make adjustments through policy changes. They hope that these changes will succeed in stabilizing the economy. Governments believe that the success of these adjustments is necessary to maintain stability and continue growth. This economic management is achieved through two types of strategies: Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy.

3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is macroeconomics?

  2. What does macroeconomics study?

  3. What are the areas of research?

  4. Why are macroeconomic models and their forecasts used by govern­ments and large corporations?

  5. What do governments do to avoid economic shocks?

  6. How is economic management achieved?

4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an annotation.

The traditional distinction is between two different approaches to economics: Keynesian economics, focusing on demand; and supply-side (or neo-classical) economics, focusing on supply. Neither view is typically endorsed to the complete exclusion of the other, but most schools do tend clearly to emphasize one or the other as a theoretical foundation.

Keynesian economics focuses on aggregate demand to explain levels of unemployment and the business cycle. That is, business cycle fluctuations should be reduced through fiscal policy (the government spends more or less depending on the situation) and monetary policy. Early Keynesian macroeconomics was "activist," calling for regular use of policy to stabilize the capitalist economy, while some Keynesians called for the use of incomes policies.

Supply-side economics delineates quite clearly the roles of monetary policy and fiscal policy. The focus for monetary policy should be purely on the price of money as determined by the supply of money and the demand for money. It advocates a monetary policy that directly targets the value of money and does not target interest rates at all. Typically the value of money is measured by reference to gold or some other reference. The focus of fiscal policy is to raise revenue for worthy government investments with a clear recognition of the impact that taxation

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has on domestic trade. It places heavy emphasis on Say's law, which states that recessions do not occur because of failure in demand or lack of money.

3.3 MICROECONOMICS

1. Translate the following expressions into Russian:

Elasticity, game theory, uncertainty, competition, market, failure, allocation, individuals, households, to make decisions, to determine, to establish, efficient, condition, alternative use, to fail, relative price, goal, to buy, to sell, behavior, to affect, commodity, industrial organization, labor market, expenditure, workforce.

2. Read the text and translate paragraph 1,3.

  1. Microeconomics is a branch of economics. Microeconomics studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources, typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold.

  2. Microeconomics examines how these decisions and behaviors affect the supply and demand for goods and services, which determines prices. It also studies how prices determine the supply and demand of goods and services. Microeconomic analysis offers a detailed treatment of individual decisions about particular commodities.

  3. One of the goals of microeconomics is to analyze market mechanisms. Market mechanisms establish relative prices amongst goods, services and allocation of limited resources amongst many alternative uses. Microeconomics analyzes market failure, where markets fail to produce efficient results. It also describes the theoretical conditions needed for perfect competition. Significant fields of study in microeconomics include markets under asymmetric information, choice under uncertainty and economic applications of game theory. Also considered is the elasticity of products within the market system.

3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is microeconomics?

  2. What does microeconomics study?

  3. What does microeconomics examine?

  4. What does microeconomic analysis offer?

  5. What is one of the goals of microeconomics?

  6. What do market mechanisms do?

  7. What do significant fields of study in microeconomics include?

4. Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) make up an annotation.

Applied microeconomics includes a range of specialized areas of study, many of which draw on methods from other fields. Industrial organization and regulation examines topics such as the entry and exit of firms, innovation, role of trademarks. Law and economics applies microeconomic principles to the selection and enforcement of competing legal regimes and their relative efficiencies. Labor economics examines wages, employment, and labor market dynamics. Public finance examines the design of government tax and expenditure policies and economic effects of these policies (e.g., social insurance programs). Political economy examines the role of political institutions in determining policy outcomes. Urban economics, which examines the challenges faced by cities, such as are sprawl, air and water pollution, traffic congestion, and poverty, draws on the fields of urban geography and sociology. The field of financial economics examines topics such as the structure of optimal portfolios, the rate of return to capital, econometric analysis of security returns, and corporate financial behavior. The field of economic history examines the evolution of the economy and economic institutions, using methods and techniques from the fields of economics, history, geography, sociology, psychology, and political science.


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ЧАСТЬ 4 КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №6

ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию инфинитива в предложении:

подлежащего; ' дополнения;

определения;

обстоятельства. Образец.I am going to start now in order not to miss the beginning. - Я собираюсь отправиться сейчас, чтобы не пропустить начало. not to miss the beginning - обстоятельство цели

  1. It is easy to make mistakes.

  2. Do you want to go to the lecture?

  3. He got up early in order to have time to pack.

  4. I need some more books to read.

  5. Have you got the key to open this door?

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, найди­те и определите форму инфинитива.

Образец: I am sorry not to have come on Thursday. - Жаль, что я не пришел в четверг.

to have come -Perfect Infinitive Active.

  1. Car needs to be washed.

  2. I would prefer to have left yesterday, but John would prefer to leave tomorrow.

  3. It is nice to be sitting here with you.

  4. My sister promised to stay after party.

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

1. In the United States, airlines are run as private firms, while airports and the air traffic control network are supplied by government. Motorists and trucks operate in the private sector and travel on highways provided by the public, largely through taxes collected on motor fuels. Barges and Great Lakes carriers and oceangoing ships are private-enterprise operations, paying low levels of user fees. They travel on waterways improved and maintained by governments. Railroads

are private-enterprise ventures operating on their own roadbed and track. An exception is intercity rail passenger service, which is provided by a government agency. Oil and gas pipelines are operated by private enterprise. Mass transit operations carrying large numbers of passengers in urban areas on buses, light rail vehicles, and ferries are usually operated in the public sector.

2. At one time mass transit was provided by the private sector, but private firms could not survive much beyond World War II, when automobiles became popular. Communities, later aided by the federal government, bought out the declining private transit operators and replaced them with public-enterprise operations. Vehicles, aircraft, and ships are usually built by firms in the private sector.

  1. Придумайте заголовок к тексту.

  2. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

  3. Прочитайте текст, придумайте заголовок, составьте аннотацию.

Научные рекомендации экономики транспорта по рационализации транспортных связей широко используются при решении таких важных на­родно-хозяйственных задач, как рациональное размещение производства по территории страны, выбор оптимальных размеров предприятий, экономи­ческое обоснование специализации и кооперирования производства. Это помогает разгрузить транспорт от излишней работы, совершенствовать сис­тему материально-технического снабжения в народном хозяйстве, более пол­но удовлетворять потребность в перевозках, снижать потери продукции про­мышленности и сельского хозяйства в процессе транспортирования. Науч­ные разработки по совершенствованию планирования пассажирских пере­возок способствуют более полному удовлетворению потребностей населе­ния в передвижении, развитию туризма.

Вариант 2

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию инфинитива в предложении:

  • подлежащего;

  • дополнения;

' определения; обстоятельства.


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  1. It made him angry to wait for people who were late.

  2. John decided not to go to Paris.

  3. I am going to Australia to learn English.

  4. Did you tell him which bus to take?

  5. It was a war to end all wars.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, найди­те и определите форму инфинитива.

Образец: I am sorry not to have come on Thursday. - Жаль, что я не пришел в четверг.

to have come - Perfect Infinitive Active.

  1. I am glad to have left school.

  2. He was nowhere to be seen.

  3. Norman tries to get at least one stamp from every African country.

  4. What do you plan to be doing when studies end?

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Carriers set their rates between two limits. The upper limit is the value of service to the user, meaning that, if the carrier knew the true value of the service to an individual shipper or passenger that is the amount they would charge. They could not charge more than the value of service, because the customer would not use it. Carriers would like to analyze the needs of each potential user and place each in a group where the charges would equal the total value of the transportation service. Carriers cannot do this, but they do place users into groups. Airline passengers sitting in the same row on a single plane may each pay a different fare, depending on how far in advance they were willing to buy a ticket and what kind of restrictions on the use of the ticket they were willing to accept. Freight shipments also are divided into many classifications, and one factor influencing the freight rates is the value of the product, with higher-valued products paying more. Part of the rationale for this is that higher transportation costs have less impact on an expensive good's final selling price; hence they can stand to pay the higher rates. In a sense, they help subsidize the carriage of less valuable freight.

  1. Придумайте заголовок к тексту

  2. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

  3. Прочитайте текст, придумайте заголовок, составьте аннотацию.

Транспорт - ведущая отрасль экономики, осуществляющая перевозку пассажиров и грузов. Транспорт является основой географического разде­ления труда и активно воздействует на размещение производства.

По характеру перевозок транспорт подразделяется на грузовой и пас­сажирский.

По назначению транспорт подразделяется на:

  • транспорт общего пользования, обслуживающий сферу обращения товаров и население;

  • транспорт необщего пользования - внутрипроизводственный, ведом­ственный;

  • транспорт личного пользования - легковые автомобили, мотоциклы,

велосипеды, лодки, яхты и др.

По видам транспорт подразделяется на сухопутный, водный и воздуш­ный. Особую группу составляет трубопроводный транспорт. Видом транс­порта являются ленточные транспортеры, конвейеры.

Вариант 3

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию инфинитива в предложении:

подлежащего;

дополнения;

определения;

обстоятельства.

  1. Не was the first to prove it.

  2. It is difficult to understand what she is talking about.

  3. I like to eat cornflakes.

  4. To switch on, press red button.

  5. I would like something to stop my toothache.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, найди­те и определите форму инфинитива.

Образец: I am sorry not to have come on Thursday. - Жаль, что я не пришел в четверг.

to have come - Perfect Infinitive Active.

  1. Peter offered to help Denise, but she refused to help.

  2. You are to be congratulated.


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  1. Malcolm claims to be speaking for the entire class.

  2. We hope to have finished the job by next Saturday.

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

The lower limit of a transportation rate is the cost of service— the carrier should not charge less than the cost of service or it will lose money on the business. It is difficult, however, for many carriers to know or determine their costs. Railroads and pipelines have large overhead, or fixed, costs. These are costs to which the carrier is already committed without regard to the level of current business. The other form of cost is known as out-of-pocket, or variable, costs. They are related to current business. If a shipper wants to ship four railcars of freight, the railroad's fixed costs—e.g., interest and taxes on its roadbed—continue without regard to whether the railroad decides to move the shipper's four cars. If the railroad decides to move the cars, it incurs variable expenses, such as fuel for the engine and salary for the crew. The shipper may be willing to pay only a little more than the variable costs. The railroad will consider any payments received that are greater than its variable costs as a contribution to overhead.

  1. Придумайте заголовок к тексту.

  2. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

  3. Прочитайте текст, придумайте заголовок, составьте аннотацию.

Водный транспорт - вид транспорта, перевозящий грузы и пассажи­ров по водным естественным (океаны, моря, реки, озера) и искусственным (каналы, водохранилища) путям сообщения. Водный транспорт подразде­ляется на морской и внутренний водный транспорт.

Внутренний водный транспорт - вид водного транспорта, произво­дящий перевозки грузов и пассажиров по рекам, озерам и каналам речных систем (речное судоходство).

Погрузо- и пассажирообороту речной транспорт уступает автомобиль­ному и железнодорожному транспорту. Морские перевозки - перевозки гру­зов и людей, осуществляемые на судах по морским коммуникациям.

Морской транспорт - вид водного транспорта, производящий пере­возки грузов и пассажиров с помощью судов по океанам, морям, морским каналам (морское судоходство). Морской транспорт:

- характеризуется высокой грузоподъемностью транспортных средств, неограниченной пропускной способностью, сравнительно небольшими зат­ратами на перевозки;


  • обслуживает 4/5 всей международной торговли;

  • подразделяется на каботажный и международный дальнего плавания

Вариант 4

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию инфинитива в предложении:

подлежащего; дополнения; определения; обстоятельства.

  1. То watch him eating really gets on my nerves.

  2. She wants to dance.

  3. I moved to a new flat so as to be near my work.

  4. Is there anything to drink?

  5. I've got letters to write.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, найди­те и определите форму инфинитива.

Образец: I am sorry not to have come on Thursday. - Жаль, что я не пришел в четверг.

to have come - Perfect Infinitive Active.

  1. We want to be studying when he gets there.

  2. I decided to go shopping, but I neglected to bring my checkbook.

  3. I meant to have telephoned, but I forgot.

  4. This method to be used is not new.

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Associated with carrier costs are costs of congestion. Most people like to travel at certain hours or on certain days; the same holds for some types of freight. This phenomenon is known as peaking. Carrier costs increase during peak periods because they must provide extra equipment. Congestion itself adds to operating costs because vehicles may not be able to depart on time and must move slowly because of heavy traffic. Because of these added costs associated with congestion, many carriers charge more for operations during peak hours. The increased charges reflect two factors: the carrier's higher costs and higher demand by passengers and shippers. Most users are willing to pay higher charges for service during peak


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periods even though they also incur additional costs in terms of waiting time. Carriers charge lower rates for "off-peak" periods. This reflects their lower costs and is an effort to entice users away from the peak periods. Mass transit systems often charge lower fares from 9:00 AM until 3:00 PM on weekdays, for example, encouraging shoppers to travel when a system is not filled with commuters. Carriers have "incentive" rates to encourage increased utilization of equipment, and they will charge less per unit of weight for larger shipments.

  1. Придумайте заголовок к тексту.

  2. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

  3. Прочитайте текст, придумайте заголовок, составьте аннотацию.

Экономика транспорта - отрасль экономической науки, изучающая за­кономерности развития и функционирования транспорта как особой сфе­ры материального производства. Экономика транспорта включает экономи­ку железнодорожного, морского, речного, автомобильного, воздушного, тру­бопроводного транспорта; рассматривает технико-экономические особенно­сти каждого вида транспорта как составной части единой транспортной сети страны; изучает организацию управления, принципы и методы выбора оп­тимальных технических и организационных решений, экономику перевозок грузов и пассажиров, эксплуатационные работы, эффективность развития материально-технической базы, научную организацию труда и заработной платы, категории и методы измерения затрат и результатов транспортного производства. Экономика транспорта связана с такими отраслями знаний, как планирование народного хозяйства, экономика промышленности, сельс­кого хозяйства, труда, статистика, экономическая география, с технически­ми науками.

Вариант 5

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык и определите функцию инфинитива в предложении:

подлежащего; ' дополнения;

определения;

обстоятельства.

1. It is nice to talk to you.


  1. Norman likes to collect stamps.

  2. He needs a place to live in.

  3. I watched him in order to know more about him.

  4. It will be done in the years to come.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, найди­те и определите форму инфинитива.

Образец: I am sorry not to have come on Thursday. - Жаль, что я не пришел в четверг.

to have come - Perfect Infinitive Active.

1. This form is to be filled in ink.

2. She was sorry to have missed Jill.

  1. I noticed that he seemed to be smoking a lot.

  2. Norman wasn't allowed to stay up late when he was a child.

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Carriers are often uncertain how to determine the costs of individual hauls. An American railroad does not know how much of its overhead costs to allocate, for example, to a shipment of coal from Cheyenne, Wyo., to Duluth, Minn. Sometimes the concepts of "joint products" and "by-products" are used. A joint product is essential to the long-term survival of the firm, while a by-product is nonessential. The carrier must have a strategy to keep the joint-product types of traffic and be certain that their rates on this traffic are compensatory. Carriers also enjoy economies of scale, although this varies with mode of transportation. Railroads benefit the most. A stretch of track between two cities has the same fixed daily costs whether it handles 1 or 10,000 cars per day. Airliners have a break-even point, at a load of about 70 percent of capacity. Revenues from any passengers carried above this amount flow almost directly into the firm's profits. A carrier enjoying economies of scale tries to increase volume by lowering rates to attract additional traffic. In transportation, the phrase "economic density" is used to describe benefits to carriers of having certain heavily used routes that are full, or dense, with traffic.

  1. Придумайте заголовок к тексту

  2. Письменно составьте аннотацию к тексту.

  3. Прочитайте текст, придумайте заголовок, составьте аннотацию.


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Транспорт (от лат. transporto — переношу, перемещаю, перевожу), в общем смысле перемещение людей и грузов; одна из важнейших областей общественного материального производства. В современную транспортную систему входит транспорт общего пользования—железнодорожный транс­порт, автомобильный транспорт, морской транспорт, речной транспорт, воздушный транспорт, трубопроводный транспорт, и не общего пользо­вания промышленный транспорт. Транспорт общего пользования, дос­тавляя продукты труда в места их потребления, продолжает производствен­ный процесс. Грузовой транспорт хотя и не увеличивает количества продук­тов, но, являясь продолжением производственного процесса, относится к материальному производству. К производственной сфере К. Маркс относит и пассажирский транспорт общего пользования. Этот вид транспорта не­посредственно связан с удовлетворением потребностей людей в простран­ственном перемещении, как для производственных, так и личных целей. Наряду с этими видами транспорта существует транспорт личного пользо­вания (легковые автомашины, мотоциклы, велосипеды, лодки, яхты и т.п.).

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