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Course title: SOCIOLOGY OF NATIONS
Lecturer: ANTONINA KOLODII
Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Department of Political Science
Aims of the course:
The course is designated for the students of the Ivan Franko Lviv National University, specializing in Political Science. It addresses contemporary theories of nations and nationalism with special attention to questions of identity, integration, culture, myths and symbols, language etc. There is an intention behind this course to make students not only to be aware of major debates on the topic, but also to know the possibilities of operationalization of some theories and using them in the empirical investigation of ethnic/national problems in Ukraine. Undergraduate students, who are supposed to attend this course, may regard it as a methodological introduction to future possible participation in sociological surveys of ethnic-national relationships, at least, in Lviv region.
The course will be run as a lecture / seminar course (50:50). It is divided into two parts: (1) purely theoretical and (2) more oriented at empirical reality. Lecturer provides half topics of the first section. Students read corresponding literature and participate in lectures actively. Four seminars follow after that. To some extent (but not wholly) seminar topics overlap theoretical material of lectures and concretize it. Students work over the rest of the literature, connected with this section, discuss it in the class and make evaluations of some recommended readings, writing short essays. Almost the same scheme is used for providing the second section: 4 lecture followed by 3 seminars and 2 practical training classes at which we will analyze the available sociological data and try to compose new questionnaires to investigate still uncovered problems.
Generally, the course is composed of
8 lectures = 16 hours
7 seminars = 14 hours
2 practical classes = 4 hours
34 hours (1 academic term, 2 hours per week)
The major requirements to the students are: to attend lectures and seminars regularly and participate in class discussions. Participants of the course must read all literature from the obligatory list and some works from recommended list, especially, when writing the midterm essays. At first glance, there are big lists of both required and recommended literature. But, actually, many positions mention very small excerpts from some important research works, which are included in the “Nationalism. Anthology”, published in Ukrainian. It is expected that participants read the whole book, but the distinct works are mentioned in the list in order to highlight those of them, which will be stressed in the classes.
Each student must give no less than two statements at the seminars – in the form of an introduction to the discussion on the particular questions. All participants are required to put questions and/or provide some short comments at the lectures and be active discussants at the seminar. After finishing the first part of the course, each student must deliver a short paper (5-6 typewritten double spaced pages), in which he/she makes critical analysis of the ideas and arguments of any work from recommended list of literature. In the end of the course there will be an exam, which includes such forms of written control:
Evaluation of assignments:
1. Participation – 40%
2. A short essay (5-6 pages length) – 20%
3. Final examination – 40%
Course content and readings:
Part I. SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF A NATION AND NATIONALISM.
Lect. 1. Introduction to the course. Sociology as a science about human society in a wide variety of settings. What is “social reality”? Concepts of “society”, “social group”, and “social community”. Solidarity and integration. Different types of solidarity. Functional and cultural integration. Theory of communication and national consolidation. The conceptions of the collapse of social solidarity and group consciousness. Nations and national minorities: “imagined” or (and) “real” communities. Modern and postmodern vision of social life.
Lec. 2. The formation of sociological approach to the study of nations and nationalism. Thinkers of the XIX – the 1st half of the XX century about political, economic and cultural factors of national integration. The concept of “historical” and “non-historical nations”. Marxist economic view of national development. The liberal ideal of a culturally homogeneous nation-state. Assimilation and acculturation in the XIX century. Concepts of class, nation, ethnie and state.
Lec. 3. Introduction to contemporary theories of nations and nationalism. Perrennialism vs. constructivism in contemporary scientific debates about nations and nationalism. National identity and its place in the hierarchy of different identities of a person. Individual and collective identities. Identity, resentment and recognition in the post-modern era. The discursive nature of nationalism.
Lec.4. Nation-states and ethnic/national minorities. Political origins of nations and liberal nation-states. Nationality and citizenship. Social ties, symbols and shared societal culture as “glue” for civic nations. Policies of “nation-building”. Language(s) of a civic nation. Ethnic groups and “nested nationalities” within civic nations. A concept of ethnic/national minority. Minority rights and their protection. Latest revision of liberal understanding of the nation-state, nationwhood and minority rights (Y. Tamir, Ch. Taylor, W. Kymlicka). National states and globalization.
Sem. 1. Nation and etnie. Timing and historic roots of nations. Ancient states and ethnie. Clarifying the terms: ethnie, ethnic group, ethnicity. Difference between a ‘nation’ and an ‘ethnie’. Ethnic core of contemporary nations. “Ethnic nations”: emergence and evolution. Ethnic/historical roots and stages of consolidation of Ukrainian nation.
Sem.2. Nation and culture. Levels of culture (“high” and “low”, societal/civic and everyday/ethnic) and its role in national consolidation. National cultures and ethnic sub-cultures. “Cultural nations” as a specific type of national communities. Politicization of “cultural” nations. Irredentism and nationalism. Language as a factor of national consoldation. Ethnolinguistic and national identities.
Sem. 3. “Political” (“civic”) nations. Nations, state and civil societies. The role of revolutions in the appearance of civic national consciousness. “The Nation” and “The People”. Nationality and citizenship. ‘National question’ in empires. Contradictions of self-determination idea and practice. The nature of contemporary secessionist movements.
Sem. 4. Ethnic/national minorities in national states. What is a “national minority”. Types of national minorities. National consolidation and minority rights Changing liberal doctrine of dealing with minorities: from assimilation to multiculturalism.
Part I. Literature:
Part II. TYPOLOGY OF NATIONALISM and DIVERSITY OF WAYS TO POLITICAL NATIONAL CONSOLIDATION. A CASE STUDY OF UKRAINE.
Lect. 5. Types of Nationalism. Concepts of “Ethnic” and “Civic” Nationalisms as Ideal Types. Their relevance to the practice of national development in different countries. Historic regions of Europe. Ways and means of national consolidation in Westen, Central and Eastern Europe, Northen and Southern Americas and East-Central Europe. Globalization process and ethnic/national revival in contemporary world.
Lect. 6. Unexpected National Revolutions: From Soviet Empire to Newly Independent States. Theory of the ethnic origins of nations in the former Soviet Union: from J. Stalin to Y. Bromley. ‘National question’ in Soviet times and in the era of Gorbachov’s ‘perestroika’. The process of ‘souvereignization’ and its acceptance by the elite and the people in the former soviet republics. The title nations and minorities. The new role of citizenship.
Lec. 7-8. Emergence and Evolution of Ukrainian “Ethnic Nation”: Factors and Indicators of its Consolidation on the Civic Basis. Types and Role of Ukrainian Nationalism in the 20th century. Analysis of its changing forms in the context of ethnic nationalism and political national consolidation in East-Central Europe and development of post-Soviet states. Ethnic and national identities in Ukraine: empirical data and its conceptualization. Is Ukraine a political community? Development of civil ties. Typology and condition of ethnic/national minorities. The role of the applied Sociology in the discovery of the present status of Ukrainian nation. History, language and citizenship as means of self-identification. “Creolization” of the title ethnie. “Nationalising” or “state-building” policies of the state? National feelings and national ideology in Ukraine today.
Sem.5. Typology of Nationalisms and Their Practical Manifestations in Western Europe. Civic and ethnic aspects of national identification in France and Great Britain. Specific ways of the national consciousness formation in Germany and Italy. Irredentism and its consequences.
Sem. 6. Typology of Nationalisms and Their Practical Manifestations in America. Emergence of all-national identity in immigrant-type countries (USA, Canada). Latin American national states and communities. The theory and practice of multiculturalism.
Sem. 7. Ukrainian Nation Through the Prism of Contemporary Theories of a Nation and Nationalism. Genetic Sociology of M. Hrushevskyi and historical roots of Ukrainian nation. Contemporary critic of Hrushevskyi’s positivism. Myths and symbols in the history of Ukrainian collective consciousness. “Re-envention the tradition”? Conception of “core” solidarity and ethnic/national and linguistic identities in Ukraine. “Umbrella national identity” and national consolidation in Ukraine. Ways of possible transformation of ethnic Ukrainian nation into a civic one.
Pract. 8-9. Methods and Results of Sociological Surveys of Ethnic/National Identities in Ukraine. Study of ethnic/national problems in the Western region and the country as a whole by means of applied sociology. Analysis of available survey materials and composing new questionarries.
Part 2. Literature:
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