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On the subject of Monasticism all students are most deeply indebted to C. F. de T. Montalembert, Les Moines d'occident, 5 vols., Paris, 1860 67, authorized Eng. transl.,' 7 vols., London, 1861 79. For the history of religious orders the old standard, rich in erudition, is P. Helyot, Histoire des ordres monastiques, religieux et militairea et des, congregations aWaires de l'un et de l'autre sexe, 8 vols., Paris, 1714 19; the best modern work is M. Heim bueher, Die Orden and Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche, 2 vols., Paderbom,1896 97, 2d and enlarged ed., 3 vols., 1907, utilized from Vol. IV. on; the one work in English to be cited, which, however, leaves much to be desired, is C. W. Currier, History of Religious Orders, New York, 1896.
On the history of the separate Orders in the Roman Catholic Church the most important are the following: for the Jesuits, A. and A. de Backer, Biblio~ des 4crivains de la socW de Jesus, 7 vols., Liege, 1853 61, new ed. by C. Sommervogel, Paris, 1891 sqq. ; the Historue societatis Jesu, by a number of hands, 6 parts in 8 vols., Rome, 1615 1759 ; J. A. M. Cretineau Joly, Histoire religieuse, politique et littdraire de la compagnie de Jkus, 6 vols., Paris, 1844 46; for the Benedictines, J. Mabillon, Acta ordinis sancti Benedictii, 9 vols., Paris, 1668 1702, and his Annalm ordinis . . . Benedicti, 6 vols., Paris, 1703 39; for the Carmelites, J. B. de Lezana, Annalm aaeri prophetici et Eliani ordinis . . . de Monte Carmelo, 4 vols., Rome, 1651 66; for the Dominicans, Monumenta ordinis fratrum prodicatomm, in course of publication at Louvain since 1896 (the earlier works, now being superseded, are: A. Touron, Histoire des hommesilluaeres de Saint Dominique, 6 vols., Paris, 1743 49, and T. M. Mamaehi, Annales ordinia
prwdicatorum, 5 vols., Rome, 1754); for the Cistercians, A. Maurique, Annales cisterciennes, 4 vols., Lyons, 1642 59, and P. le Nain, Essai de l'ordre de citeaux, 9 vols., Paris, 16961697; for the Franciscans, the Analecta Franciscana, 3 vols., Freiburg, 1885 97, and the Annales fratrum minorum, begun by L. Wadding, 8 vols., Lyons, 1625 sqq., continued by J. de Luca and various hands at Naples and Rome, 26 vols., and covering the period 1208 1611.
Somewhat akin to the foregoing is the subject of Hagiology, in which two works stand out as preeminent. The one is the Acta sanctorum of J. Bolland, the issue of which was begun in 1643, continued till the dispersion of the Jesuits compelled suspension of the work from 1794 (when vol. liii. was issued) till 1845. In all 63 vols. have been published, and a new ed. has appeared, Paris, 1863 94 (see ACTA MARTYRUM, ACTA SANGTORUM). This is supplemented by the Analecta Bollandiana, edited by a number of Jesuits, Paris and Brussels, 1882 sqq. (still in progress; it includes documents unused or passed by in the Acta, newly discovered material, variant accounts, notes on the old accounts, and description of manuscripts). The other important work is the Acta sanctorum ordinis S. Benedicti of J. Mabillon and T. Ruinart, 9 vols., Paris, 1668 1701, and Venice, 1733 40. Mention may be made of the Acta sanctorum Belgii of J. Ghesquiere and others, 6 vols., Brussels, 1783 94. J. Colgan's work on Scottish and Irish saints is noted above (p. xviii.). The plan of arrangement in these compilations is that of the Roman calendar, the substance is the lives and legends concerning the saints, and the value of the material varies greatly. A very large amount of the material is derived from contemporary sources and is therefore useful when sifted by the critical processes.
In the comparatively new and certainly interesting region of the Comparison and His
tory of Religions the series of first importance, making available to readers of English many
of the Bibles and Commentaries of the great religions, is that of the Sacred Books of the East,
under the editorship of F. Max Miiller, 48 vols., Oxford, 1879 1904. A valuable set of his
torical expositions of the historical religions is found in the Darstellungen am dem Gebiete
der niehtchristliehen Religionsgeschichte, 15 vols., MU** The Annalea du Muse
Guimet, Paris, 1880 sqq., combine the features of the Sacred Books of the East (translations
of native sources) and of the Hibbert Lectures (discussions of particular religions). The
Hibbert Lectures (q.v.) are a number of series, each series amounting to a treatise on some indi
vidual religion or phase of religion, delivered in Great Britain between 1878 and 1902 by spe..
cialists of eminence. A corresponding series, known as the American Lectures on the History of
Religion (q.v.), has been in progress since 1895 and is planned ahead as far as 1910. A valuable
set is found in the Handbooks on the History of Religions edited by M. Jastrow, of which the
following have appeared, Boston, 1895 1905: E. W. Hopkins, Religion of India, 1895; M.
Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 1895; P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye, Religion
of the Ancient Teutons, 1896; A. Wiedemann, Religion. of the Ancient Egyptians, 1897;
M. Jastrow, Study o f Religion, 1901; and G. Steindorff, Religion. o f the Ancient Egyptians, 1905.
The best individual work on the whole subject is P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch
der Religionsgeschichte, 3d ed., 2 vols., Tubingen, 1905 (in which the author had the coopera
tion of numerous scholars). Next to this is C. P. Tiele, Inleiding tot de godadienstwetenschap,
2d ed., Amsterdam, 1900. Other important volumes are E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture,
4th ed:, 2 vols., London, 1903; J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 2d ed., 3 vols., ib.,1900; F. B.
Jevons, introduction to the History of Religion, ib., 1896 (all dealing with primitive religion).
GEo. W. GILmORE.
ABBEY: R. A. Cram, Ruined Abbeys of Great Britain, LondoD, 1906.
T. Perkins, Short Account of Ramsey Abbey,
London and New York, 1907.
ABBoTr, E. A.: Apologia: an Explanation and a Defense [of the Bible], London, 1907.
ABBoxT, L.: Christ's Secret of Happiness, New York, X907.
Impressions of a Careless Traveler, New York, 1907.
ABGAR: F. C. Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity, pp. 11 eqq„ London and New York, 1904.
ABHEDANANDA: Vedanta Philosophy, New York,
A:3RAaAMs, I.: A Short History of Jewish Literature [70 178 A.D.], New York, 1907.
Judaism, London, 1907.
ABYSSINIA: R. P. Skinner, Abyssinia of To day, London, 1906.
Lord Hmdllp, Abyssinia, London, 1906.
F. Rosen, Eine deutsche Gesandscha ft in Abessinien, Leipsic, 1907.
ACTA MARTYRuM, AGTA SANCTORUM: A. Dufourcq, etudes sue les gesta martyrum romaans, Paris, 1906 sqq.
Henri Quentin, l es Martyrologea historiques du
moyen dge. Etude sue la formation du mar
tyrologe romain, Paris, 1907.
P. Saintyves, Les Saints, succesaeurs des Dieux. Essais de mythologic chrdienne, Paris, 1907.
AvroN, LORD: The History of Freedom and other Essays London, 1907.
Historaca~ Essays and Studies, London, 1908.
ADAMS, G. M.: Life, by E. E. Strong, Boston, 1907.
ADDIS, W. E.: Christianity and the Roman Empire, new ed., London, 1906.
ADENEY, W. F.: How to Read the Bible, new ed., London, 1907.
ADLER, C.: Jews in the Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, ~elphia, 1907.
ADRIAN IV.: Life, by J. Duncan Mackie, London, 1907.
AFRICA: In General: E. d'Almeida, Historic Xtiopice. L4Zri 1. IV., Rome, 1907.
B. Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile, London and New York, 1907.
A. H. S. Landor, Across widest Africa, London and New York, 1907.
A. B. Lloyd, In Dwarf Land and Cannibal Country, London and New York, 1907.
C. G. Schillings, In Wildest Africa, New York, 1907.
AlgIers: Francs E. Nesbitt, Algeria and Tunis, Painted and Described, London, 1906
M. W. Hilton Simpson, Algiers and Beyond, London, 1906.
Egypt: W. S. Blunt, Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt, London, 1907.
French Africa: G. FranVois, L'Afrique occi.
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