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feature, being very complete). The Danes have also a biographical

dictionary like those mentioned, Dansk biografisk lexikon, tillige omfallende Norge for tidarum~

met, 163' 1814. Udgivet of C. F. Brisk&, Copenhagen, 1887 sqq.

There is still needed an adequate work on American Biography which shall correspond to the English Dictionary of National Biography cited above. There are available the Na­tional Cyclopodia of American Biography, 13 vols., New York, 1892 1906 (the alphabetical order is abandoned and no consistent substitute adopted; an elaborate index volume appeared in 1 906); and Appleton's Cyclopadia of American BiWrapby by James Grant Wil 


son and John Fiske, rev. ed., 6 vols., ib., 1898 99 (the revision consists mainly of a sup­plement).

As a propaedeutic to the study of General Church History an indispensable

work is E. Sehdrer, Geschichte des iiidischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi,
3d ed., 3 vols.

and Index, Leipsic, 1898 1901, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., 5 vols., New York, 1891. Of works

on general Church History there is a wide range of choice. A. Neander, History of the Chris­

tian Religion and Church, 11th Am. ed., 5 vols., Boston, 1872 (coming down to 1517

A.D.), and Index volume, 1881, is the most philosophical work on the subject yet published,

superseded in parts by the discoveries made since it was written, but as a whole by no means

obsolete; with this should go J. K. L. Gieseler, whose Ecclesiastical History in the German was

in 5 vols., Darmstadt, 1824 25, Eng. transl. began by S. Davidson and others, 5 vols., Edin­

burgh, 1848 56, edited and translation carried further by H. B. Smith, translation com­

pleted by Miss Mary A. Robinson, 5 vols., New York, 1857 81 (especially valuable for its

citation of original documents); and J. H. Kurtz, a translation of which from the 9th Ger­

man edition by J. Macpherson appeared in London, 1888 89 (condensed in form and very

usable; new ed. of the German by N. Bonwetsch and P. Tschackert, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1906).

P. Schaff, History o f the Christian. Church, 7 vols., New York, 1882 92, coming down through

the Reformation, but omitting vol. v. on the scholastic period, is perhaps the most readable.

A very compact work is W. Moeller, History of the Christian Church, 3 vols., London, 1892­

1900 (comes down to 1648; the 2d ed. of the German original by H. von Schubert, Tiibingen,

1902). J. F. Hurst, History of the Christian Church, 2 vols., New York, 1897 1900, is also

compact; it is conservative in treatment of its subject. A. H. Newman, Manual of Church

History, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1900 03, is, like Hurst, compact but less conservative in tone.

The reader in Church History will find three works constantly referred to; viz., J. Bingham,

Origines eeelesiastiece, or the Antiquities of the Christian Church, 10 vols., London, 1708 22,

often reprinted, unfortunately not seldom in abbreviated form (recognized by scholars as a

work of "profound learning and unprejudiced inquiry" and remaining one of the standards

in this department; best ed. in 8 vols. of his complete works in 10 vols., by R. Bingham,

Jun., Oxford, 1855); A. J. Binterim, Die vorzitglichsten Denkwiirdigkeiten der christ katholischen

Kirche, 2d ed., 7 vols., Mainz, 1837 41 (a treasury of important notes on " things worthy

of remembrance"); and J. C. W. Augusti, Denku~urdigkeiten aus der christlichen Archaologie,

12 vols., Leipsic, 1817 31. Out of the number of works on the History of Dogma the one

likely to be most useful, though by no means the most philosophical, is A. Hamack, Lehr­

buch der Dogmengeschichte, 3d ed., 3 vols., Freiburg, 1894 97, Eng. tranal., 7 vols., London,

1894 99, and Boston, 1895 1900. A work of the first rank frequently referred to for the

history of Europe till the fall of Constantinople is E. Gibbon, History of the Decline aced Fall

of the Roman Empire, best edition by J. B. Bury, 7 vols., London, 1896 1900 (Gibbon is

said to be the only student who worked over thoroughly the Byzantine Histories; formerly

regarded as an opponent of Christianity, many of his positions are now taken by church


For the Church History of Germany three works with the same title, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, are of supereminent worth and are generally used as works of reference: A. Hauck, vol. i., 4th ed., Leipsic, 1904, vol. ii., 2d ed., 1900, vol. iii., 3d ed., 1906, vol. iv., 2d ed., 1903 (contains rich bibliography); F. W. Rettberg, 2 vols., G6ttingen, 1846 48 (espe­cially good for origins); and J. Friedrich, 2 vols., Bamberg, 1867 69 (like Hauck, good in history of the dioceses). A handy help to the early sources of German Church History is W. Wattenbaeh, Deutschlands GesehicWquellen . . . bis zum Mittel des. 13. Jahrhunderts, 5th ed., 2 vols., Berlin, 1885, 6th ed., 1893 94 (the changes are so great that both editions are frequently quoted side by side). A work of genius, learning, and attractiveness, but



avowedly from a strong Roman Catholic standpoint, is Johannes Janssen's History of the German People at the Close of the Middle Ages, German original ed. L. Pastor, 14th to 16th ed. completed in 8 vols.,1903, Eng. trawl. by Miss Mary A. Mitchell and Miss Alice M. Christie, London, 10 vols. having appeared up to 1907.

For the Church History of France a bibliography is furnished by A. Molinier, Les Sources de Mistoire de France,
2 vols., Paris, 1901 02. Besides Bouquet, already mentioned, there are available for early sources: F. Guizot, Collection des m4moires relatifs a Mistoire de France, 31 vols., Paris, 1823 35; and Gallic christiana, 16 vols., ib., 1715 1865. An important work is J. N. Jager, Histoire de l'Iylise catholique en France, 20 vols., ib., 1862 78. In Eng­lish there are: W. H. Jervis, The Gallican Church, 2 vols., London, 1872; H. M. Baird, Rise of the Huguenots, 2 vols., New York, 1883; idem, The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, 2 vols. ib., 1886 87; idem, The Huguenots and the Revocation. of the Edict of Names, 2 vols., ib., 1895.

A fair survey of the course of the Church in England is obtained by combining W. Bright, Chapters in Early English Church History, Oxford, 1906, with the series edited by W. R. W. Stephens and W. Hunt, 7 vols., London, 1899 1906, as follows: W. Hunt, The English Church 697' 1066 (1899); W. R. W. Stephens, The English Church 1066 1272 (1901); W. W. Capes, The English Church in the 14th and 16th Centuries (1900); J. Gairdner, The English Church in the 16th Century (1903); W. H. Frere, The English Church in the Reigns of Elizabeth and James 1. (1904); W. H. Hutton, The English Church from the Acces­sion of Charles 1. to the Death of Anne (1903); J. H. Overton and B. Felton, The Church of England 1714 1800 (1906).

For the Church History of Ireland and Scotland the following are valuable: J. Colgan,

Acta sanetorum veteris et majoris Sconce seu Hz'bernice sanetorum insulce . . . , 2 vols., Louvain,

1645 47; H. M. Luekoek, The Church in Scotland, London, 1893; J. Lanigan, An Ecclesias­

tical History of Ireland . . . to the I8th Century, 2d ed., 4 vols., Dublin, 1829 (a very

important and essential work); J. O'Hanlon, Lives o f the Irish Saints, 7 vols., Dublin, 1875­

1877; J. Healy, Insula sanctorum et doctorum, or Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars, Dub­

lin, 1890; and T. Olden, The Church of Ireland, London, 1892. Consult particularly the

list of literature under CELTIC CHURO$ IN BRITAIN AND IRuLAND.

American Church History as a whole is treated in the American Church History Series,, 13 vols., New York, 1893 97, issued under the auspices of the American Society of Church History. The principal denominations receive extended treatment by some of their own specialists; for the minor denominations the provision made is only that given in vol. i. by H. K. Carroll, The Religious Forces of the United States, new ed., 1896. It is in respect to the minor sects that most difficulty is experienced in obtaining data. Another series of a more popular character is The Story of the Churches, New York, 1904 sqq.

For the history of the Papacy an indispensable work is C. Mirbt, Quellen cur Geschicchte

des Papsttums, 2d ed., Tiibingen, 1901 (a guide to the history, giving citations from original

sources and a conspectus of the weightiest literature). The only work which covers nearly

the entire history of the popes is that of A. Bower, History of the Popes to 1768, 7 vols.,

London, 1748 61, with Introduction and Continuation by S. H. Cox, 3 vols., Philadelphia,

1847 (the latter is the ed. cited in this work; the character of the History is poor, as was

that of the author). H. H. Milman, History o f Latin Christianity, 9 vols., new ed., London, 1883,

is excellent and brings the history down to 1455; for its period (590 795, $58 891) a worthy

work is R. C. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, vol. i., 2 parts, London,

1902; vol. iii., 1906; of great value is L. Pastor, Geschichte der Pdpste seit derv Ausgang

des Mittelalters, 4 vols., 4th ed., Freiburg, 1901 07, Eng. trawl., 6 vols., London, 1891 1902

(a most industrious and honest work, based on research in the original archives, covers the


period 1305 1534; vols. i., iii., and v. of the English contain bibliographies); the period

1378 1527 is covered by M. Creighton's History of the Papacy, 6 vols., London, 1897 (an

invaluable work); L. von Ranke, Romische Pdpste,
9th ed., 3 vols., Leipsic, 1889, Eng.

transl., 3 vols., London, 1896, is indispensable for the period 1513 1847; the story is con­

cluded by F. Nielsen, Geschichte des Papsttums im 19. Jahrhundert, 2d ed., Gotha, 1880, Eng.

transl., 2 vols., New York, 1906. A work which parallels part of those mentioned is

F. Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, G 16 Jahrhundert, 8 vols., Stuttgart, 1886 96, 5th

ed., 1903 sqq., Eng. transl., from the 4th edition, 8 vols., London, 1901 02. The official

Catholic record, covering the early and middle period, is the In'ber pontificalis, best ed. of

the whole work by L. Duchesne, containing text, introduction, and commentary, 2 vols.,

Paris, 1886 92, though the ed. by Mommsen, in MGH, Gestomm pond ficum Romanomm

vol. i, 1898, is even better so far as it goes. The bulls and briefs of the popes are best con­

sulted in Bullarium, privilegiorum ac diplomatum Romanorum pontificum collectio C. Cocque­

lines, 14 vols., Rome, 1733 48, supplemented by Bullarium Benedicti XIV., 4 vols., ib.,

1754 58, and Bullarii Romani continuatio (Clement XIII. Gregory XVI.) by A. Barberi and

A. Spetia,19 vols., ib., 1835 57, the whole reedited by A. Tomassetti, 24 vols., Turin, 1857 72.

Consult also L. Pastor, Acts. inedita ad historiam Pontificum Romanorum, vol. i., 18'6 1,¢64,

Freiburg, 1904.

A number of collections and discussions of the
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