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ed, P. Jaff4, 6 vols., Berlin, 1864 73; M. Bouquet, Rerun Galliearum et Francicarum scriptores. Recueil dog histariena des Gaules et de la France, 23 vols., Paris, 17381876 (begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur and continued by the Academy. A new ed. was published

under L. Delisle, 1869 94. The record is carried down to 1328 A.n.); L: A. Muratori, Rerun


Italicar°um scriptores, 25 vols. in 28, Milan, 1723 51 (covers the period 500 1500 A.D.; an elaborate new ed. under the direction of Giosu6 Carducci and Vittorio Fiorini is being pub­lished by S. Lapi at Citth di Castello, 1900 sqq.); Corpus scriptorum historia Byzantinx,
ed. Niebuhr, Bekker, and others, 49 vols., Bonn, 1828 78 (not so good in workmanship as is usual with German issues; a new ed. is in course of publication in 50 vols. at Bonn). In connection with this series of Byzantine historians should be noticed E. A. Sophocles, Creek­English Dictionary, Memorial edition, New York, 1887 (good for the Greek of the Roman and Byzantine periods). Recueil des historiens des croisades, 13 vols., Paris, 1841 85 (pub­lished under the care of the French Academy), is necessary for the study of the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia. The Corpus Reformatorum, begun at Halle, 1834, with the works of Melanchthon in 28 vols.; continued with Calvin's in 59; and now presenting those of Zwingli, is the indispensable source for the student of those writers. Of some value to the student, more particularly to the archeologist, are: Corpus inscriptionum Lati­narum, Berlin, 1863 sqq., and Corpus inscriptionum Grwcarum, Berlin, 1825 sqq. A mag­nificent series is in progress in the Corpus inscriptionum Semiticarum, Paris, 1881 aqq.

For those who have not access to large libraries a number of selections from historical documents have been printed. For church history to the time of Con­stantine, cf. H. M. Gwatkin, Selection from Early Writers, London and New York, 1893; for the medieval and modern periods one of the best is E. Reich, Select Documents Illustrating Mediceval and Modern. History, London, 1905, with which may be compared the smaller collection by S. Mathews, Select Mediwval Documents, 764. 1264 A.D., Boston, 1892 (both give the selections in the original languages). For stu­dents of the medieval period O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal have translated many impor­tant documents in A Source Book for Mediceval History, New York, 1905. Other works of this character are E. F. Henderson, Select Documents of the Middle Ages, London, 1892; D. C. Munro and G. C. Sellery, Medieval Civilization, New York, 1904 (consists of transla­tions or condensations from European writers on important topics); J. H. Robinson, Read­ings in European History, 2 vols., Boston, 1904 06 (containing translations, condensations, and adaptations of selections, ranging from Seneca to J. A. Hobson, useful for illustration of European and American history, sacred and secular). The reader of German will receive efficient help in such publications as M. Schilling, Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der Neuzeit, 2d ed., Berlin, 1890; K. Noack, Kirchengeschichtliches Lesebuch, 2d ed., Berlin 1890; D. A. Ludwig, Quellenbuch zur Kirche»geschichte, Davos, 1891; P. Mehlhorn, Am den Quellen der Kirchengesehiehte, Berlin, 1894; C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschiehte des Papsttums, 2d ed., Tiibingen, 1901; H. Rinn and J. Jilngst, Kirchengeschichtliches Lesebuch, Tiibingen, 1905.

To English Ecclesiastical Sources an excellent guide is C. Gross, Sources and Literature

of English History to 1485, London, 1900. First among the collections of sources is

to be mentioned A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents

relating to Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vols. (vol. ii. in 2 parts), London, 1869 78

(covering the period 200 870 A.D.; a storehouse of original documents, unfor­

tunately left incomplete through the death of Haddan). Of high value are David Wil­

kins, Concilia Magnca Britannim . . . 4.4B 1717, 4 vols., London, 1737; Monumenta his­

torica Britannica. Materials for the History o f Britain . . . to the End o f the Reign o f Henry

VII. Notes by H. Petrie and J. Sharpe, Introduction by T. D. Hardy, vol. i. folio, London,

1848 (no more published; issued under the direction of the Record Commission); J. A.

Giles, Patres eaclesix Anglicani ad annum 1800, 36 vols., Oxford, 1838 43 (the work not

well done, but still useful). For the reader of English alone a large number of select sources

are given in H. Gee and W. J. Hardy, Documents Illustrative of English Church. History,

London, 1896 (covers. the period 314 1700). Known by the searcher after original sources


as of the highest value are the publications of a number of societies. Belonging in this

class, though not under the care of any society, are Rerum Britannicarum medii cevi scrip­

tores, published under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls, London, 1858 91 (known as

the Rolls Series.
One of the most important of this series is No. 26, T. D. Hardy's De­

scriptive Catalogue o f Materials Relating to the History o f Great Britain and Ireland . . . to

the End of the Reign of Henry YIL, 3 vols. in 4, 1862 71). The Henry Bradshaw Society

of London began in 1891 to publish monastic and other documents; the Camden Society

exists for the purpose of publishing documents illustrative of English history (London,

1838 to date), many of which are of ecclesiastical interest; the Surtees Society of Durham,

founded 1834, has issued over 100 volumes, many of which make available sources of the

first rank.

In the field of Biography a number of works should be known to students. A monu­

mental work begun by J. S. Erach and J. G. Gruber, continued by A. Leskien, is Allgemeine

Encyklopddie der Wissenschaften and Kunste in alphabetischer Folge, Leipsic, 1818 89 and still

receiving additions. Already 100 volumes and more have been issued, and it is to be contin­

ued from time to time. The biographical interest is so pronounced in this production that it

takes a front rank in this class of works. The biographical interest is also predominant in

another work to which very frequent reference is made, L. S. Le Nain de Tillemont, M&aires

pour sermr a Mistoire eecUsiastique ides six premiers Wcles, 2d ed.,16 vols., Paris, 1701 12,

parts of it in an English translation by T. Deacon, 2 vols., London, 1721,1733 35. J. P. Nice­

ron, Mfmoires pour seruir ds Mistoire des hommes illustrh dans la republique des lettres, 43 vols.,

Paris, 1729 45, is a work of reference often used; mention is due also to the Biographic univer­

selle, ancienne et moderne, 45 vols., Paris, 1843 aqq., and Nouvelle biographic universelle

of J. C. F. Hoefer, 46 vols., Paris, 1852 56, both serviceable and sometimes the only avail­

able works. Of national biographical works, for Germany there is the Allgemeane deutsche

Biographic, 50 vols., Leipsic, 1875 1905 (still in progress; it is under the auspices of the

Historical Commission of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences); for France, the His­

toire litMraire de la France begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur, 12 vols., Paris, 1733 63,

and continued by members of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles lettres to vol., xxxii.,

1898 (a new edition is in progress, completed as far as vol. gvi.); for Protestant France

may be consulted E. and It. Haag, La France protestante, 7 vols., Paris, 1846 59, 2d ed.,

enlarged by H. L. Bordier, vols. i. vi., 1887 89; also belonging here is A. C, A. Agnew,

Protestant Exiles from France, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1886 (printed for private circulation only).

The one work of note for Holland is A. J. Van der Aa, Biographiseh Woordenboek van der

Nederlanden, Haarlem, 1852 sqq. For England there is the noble Dictionary of National

Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, 63 vols., and 3 supplement vols., with

one of errata, London and New York, 1885 1904 (contains much of interest to Americans,

especially on the founders and notables of colonial times; a cheaper ed. is promised); F.

Boase, Modern English Biography of Persons who have died since . . . 1860, 3 vols., Truro,

1892 1901; and J. Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary o f English Catholics, 1684. 1886, 5

vols., London and New York, n.d. (the lists of works by the subjects of the entries are an

exceedingly valuable
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