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As a directory upon the geography of Palestine the following works represent the choicest: the latest and the standard bibliography of Palestine is R. Rohricht, Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geograpie des heiligen Landes bezuglichen Litteratur von 888 bis 1878, Berlin, 1890. Earlier but still useful is T. Tobler, Bzbliographia geographica Palestince, Leipsic, 1867. On the topography there is nothing in English, perhaps nothing in any other tongue, superior in its way to G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, 7th ed., London, 1897. Alongside this should be put E. Robinson's BZlical Researches in Palestine, 3 vols., London and Boston, 1841, and in Germ. trawl. at Halle the same year, and Later Biblical Researches, 1856 (a second ed., including both works in 3 vols., was published, Boston, 1868, but omits some things in the first edition which are sadly missed). In spite of its age this book is still useful. The Palestine Text Society of London has since 1887 been engaged in republishing the ancient itineraries and descriptions relating to Palestine, thus making available to the student material otherwise obtainable only by painful research. Special notice is deserved by the monographs published by the Palestine Exploration Fund of London, including the massive Memoirs. An epoch making work was W. M. Thomson's The Land and the Book, 3 vols., New York, 1886 (perhaps the most popular book ever written on the subject). An old classic, by no means superseded, is H. Reland, Palostina ex monumentis illustrate, Utrecht 1714. On the antiquities of Israel two works with nearly the wane title, Hebriiische Archdologie, were issued in the same place and year, Freiburg, 1894, the one by I. Benzinger, in 1 vol. (new ed., Tilbingen, 1907), the other by W. Nowack, in 2 vols.
In the department of Church History the sources available to the student are
growing exceedingly abundant. For a survey of early Christian literature the most
detailed work is that of A. Harnaek, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius,
2 vols. in 3 parts, Leipsic, 1893 1904 (a book of reference). A handbook of great value
is G. Krager, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur in den. drei ersten Jahrhunderten, Frei
burg,1895, 2d ed., 1898, Eng. trawl., NewYork,1897 (a model of compression and succinct
ness, including short lives of the writers and good lists of literature). C. T. Gruttwell, Lit
erary History o f Early Christianity, 2 vols., London, 1893, is also a work of merit. A
massive work, doing for the Byzantine and later writers of the Greek Church what Harnack
does for the early period, is K. Krumbacher, Byzantinische Lztteraturgeschichte, 527 IJt68,
Munich, 1897. As a guide to the use of medieval literature, and as a help to the
sources and an indicator of all that is best in those sources in modern works, there is no book
which can be compared with A. Potthast, Bibliodeca historica medii cevi, Berlin, 1896, quoted
in this work as Potthast, Wegweiser. No student of ecclesiastical history can afford to
be without this most complete guide to the MSS. and the editions of the sources of
knowledge of the lives of the saints, notables, and writers down to 1500 A.D.
As a source for original investigation in Patristics, as well as in medieval theological writings, there is nothing so handy (because of its comprehensiveness) as the collection made under the direction of the Abby Migne, Patrologice cursus completus, Series Latina, 22.1 vols., Paris, 1844 64; Series Grceca, 162 vols., ib., 1857 66 (a set of works rarely on the market, costing about $1,200, but possessed by the principal general and theological libraries in the country; the drawback is that the text is often not critical and is very badly printed). Subsidiary to the use of Migne the following works are often quoted: J. A. Fabricius, Bibliotheca Grwca, 14 vols., Hamburg, 1705 28, new ed., by G. C. Harles, 12 vols., 1790 1811, incomplete (quoted as Fabricius Harles), which is a bibliographical and biographical directory to early patristic writings, and contains textual matter of great importance; J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca orientalis Clementino Vaticana, 3 vols., Rome, 1719 28 (a collection of Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hebrew, Samaritan, Ar
menian, Ethiopic, Egyptian, and other documents, with critical matter relating to them); E. Martkne and N. Durand, Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum . . . collectio, 9 vols., Paris, 1724 33; A. Gallandi, Bibliotheca veterum patrum aatiquarumque acriptorum eccleair asticorum, 14 vols., Venice, 1765 81 (contains some works otherwise difficult of access. An index of contents to Gallandi is to be found in J. G. Dowling, Notitia scriptorum sanctorum patrum, pp. 192 209, Oxford, 1839). A work of great usefulness is R. Ceillier, Histoire gintrale des auteurs 4acris et eeeUsiastiques, new ed., 14 vols. in 15 and Table ginirale des matures, 2 vois., Paris, 185869. Noteworthy are the excellent and handy Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna, 1867 aqq., appearing in parts and not in regular order (vol. xxxxvii. appeared 1906), and Patrum apostolicorum opera, ed. 0. von Gebhardt, A. Harnack, and T. Zahn, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1876 78, the same, 5th ed. minor, 1905; and J. B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, 4 vols., London, 1877 89 (a work which will stand as one of the monuments of English scholarship, rich in original investigation, and with excursuses of the first rank in value and brilliancy). All these are supplemented in the case of new discoveries or by new treatment of works already in hand in the Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchrisdichen Iitteratur, ed. 0. von Gebhardt and A. Harnack, 1st series, 15 vols., 2d series in progress (14 vols. issued), Berlin, 1883 sqq., and by the English Texts and Studies, ed. J. A. Robinson, 7 vols., Cambridge, 1891 1906. For the English student there are available the Library of the Fathers, ed. E. B. Pusey, J. Keble, and J. H. Newman, 40 vols., Oxford, 1839 sqq.; and the Ante Nicene, and Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, best and handiest in the Am. ed., published as follows: Ante Nicene Fathers, ed. A. Cleveland Coxe, 9 vols. and Index, Buffalo, 1887 (Index volume contains a valuable bibliography of patristics); Select Library of the Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, 1st series, ed. P. Schaff, 14 vols., New York, 1887 92, 2d series, ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace, 14 vols., New York, 1890 1900. The first series includes 8 vols. of Augustine's works (by far the best collection yet published in English) and 6 of Chrysostom's; the 2d series includes the church histories of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, and selected works of Gregory of Nyasa, Basil, Jerome, Gennadius, and others. Not to be left out of account is the Reliquim sacra of M. J. Routh, 2d ed., 5 vols., Oxford, 1846 48, a collection of patristic and other fragments still of value and constantly employed and referred to.
Among collections of Sources the first place is easily held by the massive Monuments
Germanim historica, still in course of publication, of which over 60 volumes are already issued
in folio and quarto, Hanover and Berlin. This series originated in the Gesellsclaa f t far die
altere deutsche Gesdcichtskunde in Frankfort, 1819. The work was put into the hands of
Dr. G. H. Pertz, to whom the great comprehensiveness of the series and its consequent value
is largely due. Dr. Pertz was editor and did much of the work till in 1875 it passed into
the lends of Prof. G. Waltz, at whose death in 1886 Prof. W: Wattenbach took charge,
and in 1888 Prof. E. Diimmler. Most of the German experts in the branches which the
collected documents represent have collaborated. There are five sections, Scriptores, Leges,
Diplomafa, Epistola, Antiquitates, and many subsections. The documents in this royal
series concern Christendom at large and not, as the title suggests, the German empire alone.
There is a volume of Indices by 0. Holder Egger and K. Zeumer, Berlin, 1890, covering the
volumes issued up to that time, and the table of contents is carried five years, farther along
in the work of Potthast mentioned above.
Other collections of value to the historical student are: the Bibliotheca rerun Germaniear:an,
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