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decade has witnessed great progress. The two great Bible Dictionaries, superseding
for English readers all others, are A Dictionary o f the Bible, by J. Hastings and J. A.
Selbie, 4 vols. and extra volume, Edinburgh and New York, 1898 1904 (comprehensive
and fully up to date in the Old Testament subjects, but conservative and often timid
in dealing with the New Testament), and Bncyclopcedia Biblica, by T. K. Cheyne and
J. S. Black, 4 vols., London and New York, 1899 1903 (also comprehensive, much
more " advanced" in the Old Testament and admitting representation to the "Dutch
School" in the New Testament parts, but handicapped by the Jerahmeel theory of Prof.
Cheyne). F. Pigouroux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, Paris, 1891 sqq., still in course of pub
lication, has reached « Palestine" with part xxix., and is an excellent specimen of the
conservative type of French Biblical scholarship.
In Christian Archeology the work of W. Smith and S. Cheetham, Dictionary of Chris
tian Antiquities, 2 vols., London, 1875 80, is still valuable, and there is no later work in
English to take its place. Of high value is F. X. Kraus, Real Eneyklopddie der christlichen
Alterthumer, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1881 86. The best work, which must supersede all others
because of its extraordinary completeness and fulness, but which has been only recently begun
and must take many years to complete under its present plan, is F. Cabrol, Dictionnaire
d'arcchiologie chretienne et de liturgie, Paris, 1903 sqq. (parts i. xii. are out, and bring the reader
down to "BaptAme"). In a different field, and worthy of high praise, is W. Smith
and H. Waee, Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doctrines, 4 vols.,
London 1877 87, representing the best English scholarship of its day, and, from the
nature of its contents, not easily to be superseded. A help to this, particularly in the matter
of early Christian writers, is W. Smith, Dictionary o f Greek and Roman Biography and myth
ology, 3 vols., new edition, London, 1890.
In the general field of Historical and Doctrinal Theology must be mentioned on the Roman Catholic side the Kirchenlexikon of Wetzer and Welte, 2d ed., begun by Cardinal Hergenrbther, continued by F. Kaulen, 12 vols. and Register, Freiburg, 1880 1903. This work must be commended for its accurate scholarship, its admirable regard for proportion, and for the large range of subjects it treats with fairness and with only a suspicion of a tendency toward ultramontanism. Briefer is the Handlexir kon der katholischen Theologie, begun by J. Schafler (continued by J. Sax), 4 vols., Regensburg, 1880 1900. The new Kirchliches Handlexikon of M. Buchberger, Munich, 1904 06 (in progress), is not particularly valuable. The evangelical side of German scholarship is represented by the great work of J. J. Herzog, Realencyklopddie fur protestantische Theologie and Kirche, 3d ed., revised under A. Hauck, Leipsic, 1896 sqq., 18 vols. issued to date. This is the great storehouse of German Protestant theology and the basis of the present work. The most ambitious work of American scholarship is J. McClintock and J. Strong, Cyclopcedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, 10 vols., New York, 18671881, with two supplementary volumes, 1884 86 (claims to have over 50,000 titles; necessarily it is now in need of revision). Other works, each having its distinctive field, are: W. F. Hook, A Church Dictionary, 8th ed., London, 1859, reprinted Philadelphia, 1854; J. Eadie, The Ecclesiastical Cyclopedia, ib., 1861; J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology, 2d ed:, ib., 1872; idem, Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, and Schools of Thought, ib., 1891 (both of considerable worth, representing "High Anglicanism"); W. E. Addis and T. Arnold, A Catholic Dictionary, London and New York, 6th ed., 1903; J. Hamburger, Real Encyklopadie des Judenthums, 3 vols., 3d ed., Leipsic, 1891 1901 (deals with both Biblical and Talmudic subjects; "by a Jew for Jews"); The Jewish Encyclopedia, published under the direction of an editorial board of which I. K. Funk was chairman and Isidore Singer managing editor, 12 vols., New York, 1901 06; F. Lichtenberger, Encyclop6die des sciences religieuses, 13 vols., Paris, 1877 82 (for French Protestants). T. P. Hugh, Dictionary of Islam, London, 1885, is the only encyclopedic work on the subject, but defective and unreliable. In Hymnology there are: H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, i. Latin hymns, ii. Latin sequences, iii. Greek hymns, iv. v. supplement to vols. i. ii., Leipsic, 1841 55 (a storehouse of material often inaccessible elsewhere, but ill digested, inaccurate, and perplexing to consult); E. E. Koch, Geschichte des Kirchenliedes and Kirchengesangs der christlichen . . . Kirche, 3d ed., partly posthumous, 8 vols. and index, 1866 77 (the greatest collection of biographies of hymnists, unfortunately not reliable); the one English cyclopedic work in hymnology is J. Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, London and New York, 1907. A work of immense erudition and alone in its field, which comprehends much that is theological, is J. M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, 3 vols., New York, 1901 06 (vol. iii. in 2 parts is devoted to the bibliography of the subject, duly classified).
While most of the Biblical Helps are noted under the appropriate titles in the text, the following are worthy of special mention here. For the Old Testament all the books except Exodus to Deuteronomy were published in handy form in the Hebrew by G. Baer and F. Delitzsch, Leipsic, 1869 95 (the text, though critical, does not concern itself with readings from the versions); the ht ed. so far of the complete Hebrew text is C. D. Ginsburg's Hebrew Bible, 2 vols., London, 1894; the text alone was reprinted in 1906 (the Introduction to the Hebrew Bible by Ginsburg, London, 1897, is the one indispensable handbook to the text); yet a very excellent Biblia Hebraica has been published by R. Kittel with the assistance of Professors G. Beer, F. Buhl, G. Dalman, S. R. Driver, M. Lohr, W. Nowack, J. W. Rothstein, and V. Ryssel, in 2 parts, Leipsic, 1905 06, obtainable also in smaller sections. The new series entitled The Sacred Books of the Old Testament, ed. Paul Haupt, now in course of publication, Leipsic, London,
and Baltimore, 1894 aqq., and known generally as the "Rainbow Bible" and less widely as the "Polychrome Bible," sets forth the composite origin of the books and indicates the separate documents by printing the text on backgrounds of different tints (the critical objection to the series is that as each book is not directly the result of a consensus of scholarship, the effect in each case is the pronouncement of a single scholar and consequent indecisiveness in the verdict). The lexicons which are most worthy of confidence are: W. Gesenius, Thesaurus philologicus criticus linguce Hebrace, 3 vols., Leipsie, 1826 53 (indispensable for the thorough student); idem, Hebrdisches and Aram4isches Handworterbuch, 14th ed. by F. Buhl, ib., 1905; and (best for the English student) F. Brown, C. A. Briggs, and S. R. Driver, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, Oxford and Boston, 1906. Besides the old Concordance of J. Fiirst, Leipsic, 1848, there is now available S. Mandelkern, Veteris Testamenti concordantim Hebraice et Chaldaice, ib., 1896, which unfortunately is badly done, the errors being very numerous. The best grammar is W. Gesenius, Hebraische Grammatik, 27th ed. by Kautzach, 1902, Eng. tranal. of 25th ed. adjusted to the 26th Germ. ed. by G. W. Collins, London, 1898, along with which should be used S. R. Driver, Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew, London, 1892. Related to Old Testament study is M. Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumim, Babli and Yerushalmi., and the Midrashic Literature, 2 vols., London and New York, 1903. For the Greek of the Old Testament there is sadly needed a new lexicon. The only one of moment is J. F. Schleusner, Lexrci in interpreter Gracos Veteris Testamenti . . . , 2 vols., Leipsic,1784 86. The ConcordanticE Gracce versionis, by A. Tromm, 2 vols., Amsterdam, 1718, ought not to be discarded, even by those who possess E. Hatch and H. A. Redpsth, A Concordance to the Septuagint, Oxford, 1892 1900, 2d ed., 2 vols. and supplement, 1906, the omissione in which make still necessary recourse to the older work.
For New Testament texts the student will naturally turn either to the Editio octava critics major of Tischendorf, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1869 72, with Prolegomena by C. R. Gregory, 3 vols., ib., 1884 94 (containing the most complete collection of the variant readings with description of the sources from which they are derived); to the edition by B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, 2d ed., Cambridge, 1890; to R. F. Weymouth's Resultant Greek Testament, London, 1892; to E. Nestle's Novum Testamentum (ice, 3d ed., Stuttgart, 1901; or to O. von Gebhardt's ed., combining the readings of Tischendorf, Tregelles, and Westeott and Hort, 16th ed., Leipsic, 1900. Of lexicons the best for general purposes is J. H. Thayer, (reek English Lexicon of the New Testament, New York, 1895; but notice must be taken of H. Cremer, Biblisch theologisches Worterbuch, 9th ed., Goths, 1902, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1886, with supplement (a work that aims to bring out especially the theological, philosophical, and psychological elements of the New Testament vocabulary, and is not a general lexicon). A choice is given in concordances between C. H. Bruder, Coneordantice . . . Novi Testamenti, 5th ed., Gottingen, 1900, and W. F. Moulton and A. S. Geden, Concordance to the (reek Testament, Edinburgh and New York, 1897 (good for Westcott and Hort's text). For the English Bible the two concordances of value now are R. Young, Analytical Concordance to the Bale, 7th ed., Edinburgh and New York, 1899; and J. Strong, Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, New York, 1896. The best grammar of the New Testament is F. Blass, Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch, Gottingen, 1902, Eng. transl. of .2d ed., London, 1905, along with which should be used E. D. Burton, Syntax of Moods and Tenses in New Testament (reek,
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