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For purposes of research and definite information the student is constantly under the necessity of discovering not only lists of works on a given subject, but also initials or full names of authors and place and date of publication and often the exact form of the title of a book inaccurately or partially known. To furnish this information the work which will prove useful beyond all others is the British Museum Catalogue, which with its Supple»ient records the books received down to 1900; accessions beyond this date are also recorded in supplementary issues. Especially valuable to the theological student are the four parts devoted to the Bibles and Bible works in the British Museum, though the large number of entries makes it hard to consult these parts. Some help is given by the tables of arrangement. A Subject Index for 1881 1905, ed. G. K. Fortescue, 4 vols., London, 1902 06, makes available a very considerable part of the latg literature upon all subjects. Next to this, if indeed not equally valuable so far as it is finished, is the exhaustive work doing for the French National Library and for publications in French what the work just named does for the British. This is the Catalogue g6nkral . . . de la BiTiliotheque Nationale, now in course of publication, Paris, 1897 sqq., of which volume xxiv., the last received, carries the list through "Catzius." The value of these two publications will be more accurately estimated when it is recalled that the two institutions are stated repositories for copyrighted books in the two countries respectively. An important feature of the first volume of the French catalogue is a helpful account of previous catalogues of the French National Library. The English work is in folio, the French in octavo. Perhaps the next best general work is that of J. C. Brunet, Manuel du lxbraire, 3. vols., Paris, 1810, superseded by the 5th ed., 6 vols., 1860 65, with Supplement, 2 vols., 1878 80. After these two works come in point of usefulness what may be called the ,national catalogues, recording the books published in Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, and America. For Germany the work was begun in the Allge meines Rucher Lezicon, by W. Heinsius, reedited and enlarged by 0. A. Schulz. then by F. A.. &hiller, covering the period 1700 1851 in 11 volumes, Leipsic, 1812 54, for
the earlier period incomplete. This was continued by Hinrichs' Biicher Katalog, covering the years 1851 65 in one volume (1875), and from that time to the present by the Fanfjdhriger Biccher Katalog. Half yearly volumes are published which are superseded in course by the five year volumes. These were accompanied by a Repertorium up to 1885, which arranged the entries topically. From 1883 on the Repertorium was superseded by a Schlagwort Katalog, by Georg and L. Ost, Hanover, 1889 1904 (now complete down to 1902), serving as an index to the Hinrichs, and arranging the catch words alphabetically.
For publications in French there is the Catalogue gfn6ral de la librairie fran!paise, covering the period 1840 99, 15 vols., Paris, 1867 1904, begun by O. Lorenz and continued by D. Jordell, with a Table des matieres or index published at irregular intervals, but exceedingly full and usable. The Table syst6matique de la bibliographie de la France is an annual list of copyrighted books classified according to subjects, published in Paris.
For British publications the London Catalogue, London, 1846, now very hard to obtain, carries the list of books from 1800 to 1846 with Index to the same. This was continued by the English Catalogue, now complete down to 1905, 7 vols., London, 1864 1905. The three volumes for 1890 1905 are arranged by authors and subjects in one alphabet. For the period 1837 89 there is an Index of Subjects, 4 vols., London, 1858 93. A Yearly Catalogue is issued, which, like the French annuals and German semiannuals, is superseded by the volume covering a series of years.
For modern Italian works the authoritative source is the Catalogo generate della libreria Italians, 184.7 99, compilato dal Prof. Attilio Pagliaini, 3 vols., Milan, 1901 05, a work singularly complete for the period it covers.
For American publications the period 1820 71 is inadequately covered by the Bibliotheca Americana, by O. A. Roorbach to 1861, and then by J. Kelly, a set of books rarely on the market. The American Catalogue continues this to the end of 1905 in 6 vols. folio, 2 vols. roy. 8vo, New York, 1880 1906. This was begun by F. Leypoldt and is continued by the Publishers' Weekly. In this series a Yearly Catalogue is issued, superseded like the other annuals by the larger volume. The whole is being supplemented by Charles Evans with the American Bibliography, a Chronological Dictionary of All . . . Publications . . . , 1689 1820. Of this magnificent work, vols. i. iv. are issued, Chicago, 1903 07, bringing the titles down to 1773.
For earlier books a valuable set of volumes is L. Hain, Repertorium bi7iliographicum, 2 vols. in 4 parts and an Index, Stuttgart, 1826 91, giving a list of books printed from the invention of printing to 1500. To this W. A. Copinger has added a Supplement in 2 vols., 3 parts, London, 1895 1902, and Dietrich Reichling, Appendices, in course of preparation and publication, containing corrections and additions, Munich, 1905 aqq.
Valuable as selected and classified lists of general literature, including theology, are Sonnenachein's Best Books and Reader's Guide, London, 1891 95. The foregoing are all in the field of general literature and are not specifically theological.
Of specifically Theological Bibliographies, giving fists of literature in the various departments of the science, the older ones have principally a historic value. Some of the best are: J. G. Watch, Bibliotheca theologica selects, 4 vols., Jena, 1757 65, arranged topically with an index of authors; G. B. Winer, Handbuch der theologischen Iitteratur, 3d ed., 3 vols., Leipsic, 1837 42 (gives little literature in English); E. A. Zuchold, Bibliotheca theologica, 2 vols., G6ttingen, 1864 (an alphabetical arrangement by authors of books in German issued 1830 62) ; W. Orme, Bxblioaeca theologica, London, 1824 (contains critical notes). One of the older books, often referred to for its lists of editions of Scripture,. is J. Le Long, Bxbliothem sacra, 2 vols., Paris, 1709, enlarged by A. G. Masch, 5 vols., Halle, 1778 90. T. H. Horne added to his Introduction a rich bibliography of the works issued before and in his time (also printed
on the subject). Of H. J. Moulton's Grammar of New Testament Greek, only vol. i.,
Prolegomena, is published, Edinburgh, 1906. General Semitic and Oriental philology is
treated in separate volumes on the individual languages in the Ports linguarum oriew
taldum, ed. J. H. Petermann, H. L. Strack, and others, Berlin, 1884 aqq.
separately), London, 1839, which, however, is not found in editions of the Introduction later than that of 1846. An excellent work is that by James Darling, Cyclopcedia Bibliographica; a Library Manual of Theological and General Literature, London, 1854, with supplementary volume, 1859, particularly useful as giving the contents of series and even of volumes. A modern production, noting only works in English, is J. F. Hurst, Literature of Theology, New York, 1896, fairly complete up to its date, arranged according to the divisions in Theology and in convenient smaller rubrics, with very full indexes. Unfortunately, it needs supplementing by the literature subsequent to 1895. It is to be hoped that the publishers will see their way to add a supplement, containing the later literature. For Roman Catholic theology consult D. Gla, Systematisch geordnetes Repertorium der katholisch theologischen Litteratur, Paderborn, 1894. W. T. Lowndes, Bibliographer's Manual, 4 vols., London, 1834, new edition by Henry G. Bohn, 1857 64, while not exclusively theological, deals largely with curious theological books and is useful for the annotations.
Among the most useful guides to theological literature are the works on Introduction to. Theology or on Theological Encyclopedia and Methodology, most of which give classified lists of literature. Schleiermacher's Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums, Berlin, 1811, 1830, was followed by K. R. Hagenbach, Eneyklopddie and Methodologie, Leipsic,1833, revised by M. Reischle, 1889. This last, though not in its latest form, was practically reproduced by G. R. Crooks and J. F. Hurst, New York, 1884, rev. ed., 1894, with copious lists of literature, English and American, added. Better even than this is A. Cave, Introduction to Theology, 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1896, in which the lists of literature are especially valuable, though the lapse of a decade since the publication makes a new edition desirable. Of very high value for its citation of literature, including Continental, English, and American, is L. Emery, Introduction h l'ttvde de la tUologie protestante, Paris, 1904.
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