Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D

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Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Obnrch, Pariah of St. Paul,



General Secretary of the Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip,




Pastor of the First German Evangelical Lutheran Bt. John's

Church, Newark, N. J.


Formerly Instructor in French, Yale College and Sbefeld Sd­

entific School, New Haven. Conn.


Pastor at Gatergieben, Prussian Saxony.


University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology. Uni­

verefty of Leipeia


Late Professor of History, University of Amsterdam.

HUGO BACHBBE, Ph.D., Th.Lic., Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Rostock


Professor for Religious Instruction and Hebrew, Holy Cross

Gymnasium, Dresden.


Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary,

Allegheny, Pa.


Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary,

New York.


Pastor at Goldberg, Mecklenburg.


Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Gottingen.


Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology. Univer­

sity of Greflswald.



Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Boetoct.


Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Bmi1n.


Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, University

of Erlangen.



Professor of Dogmatiae and New Testament Ete8esls. Evan­

gellaal Theological Faculty. University of Bonn.


Late Professor of Church History, University of Basel.


Professor of .Egyptology, University of Leipelo.


Privy Councilor. Professor of the German Ianguege and Li4

eratnre, University of Erlangen.


Astor Library, New York City.

PAUL T8C8dCSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen.

WILHELB VOL03K (f), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Eaeged>0. University of Ros.



D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Didactic and Polemical Theology. Princeton Theo­

logical Seminary.


Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Marburg



Pastor Prlmarlae, Guben. Prussia.


Professor of Classical Philology, University of Munich.


Professor of New Testament &aegedr and Introduction, Uni­

versity of Erlangen,

OTTO ZOECBLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Proleeeot of Church History and Apologetics, University of



This encyclopedia presents in a condensed and mqdified form that great body of Prot­

estant learning called the Realmcyklopddie fzir psotestantischeTheologieandKirche,editedby

Professor Albert Hauck, Ph.D., D.Th., D. Jur., the famous church historian of Germany. The

German work is the third edition of that religious encyclopedia which was originally edited

by the late Professor Johann Jakob Herzog and bore his name popularly as a convenient

short title. The late Professor Philip Schaff was requested by his intimate friend Dr. Her­

zog to adapt the encyclopedia to the American public and this he did. To this combination

of German and American scholarship the publishers gave the happy title of The Schaff­

Herzog Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge. This name has been familiar to thousands of

the religious public on both sides of the sea for the past twenty five years and so has been

preserved as the title of this publication, with the prefix " ° New."

The history of this encyclopedia up to the present is this: In December, 1853, there appeared at Gotha

the first part of the Reatencykloplidie fur protestantische Theologie and Kirche, which was the Protestant

reply to the challenge of the Roman Catholic scholars engaged upon the Kirchenlexikon oder Encyklopeidie

der katholischea Theologie and Arer H2llf suissenschaftm, which had been appearing at Freiburg im Breisgau

since 1846. The credit for suggesting the latter work must be given to Benjamin Herder (1818 88), one

of the leading publishers of Germany. Its editors were Heinrich Joseph *etzer (1801 53), professor

of Oriental philology in the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, a layman, and Benedict Welts (1805 85),

a priest and professor of theology in the University of Tabingen. The proposition to do as much for Prot­

estant theology and research was mooted by a company of Protestant theologians, and Matthias Schnecken­

burger (1804 18), professor of theology in Bern, had been chosen editor of the projected work. But

the political troubles of 1848 prevented the carrying out of the scheme and the death of Schneokenburger

that year made it necessary to find another leader. At this juncture Friedrich August Tholuck (1799­

1877), professor of theology in Halls, where Johann Jakob Herzog was professor from 1847 to 1854, was

consulted and he named his colleague. It was an ideal choice, as Professor Herzog was a competent

scholar, a friend of progress in theology, moderate in his views, and a persona grata to all parties among

the Protestants. The publisher of the Protestant encyclopedia was Christian Friedrich Adolf Rost (1790­

1856), who was carrying on the business of Johann Conrad Hinrichs, and under that name.

Both the Roman Catholic and Protestant religious encyclopedias were conspicuous successes and came

to be called popularly, by the names of their editors, " Wetzer and Welts " and " Herzog " respectively.

The former was finished in 1856 in twelve volumes, followed by an index volume in 1860; the latter in

1868 in twenty two volumes including the index. In December, 1877, the Herders entrusted a' new edition

of "Wetzer and Welts" to Joseph Hergenr6ther (1824 80), at that time a professor of theology in.Munich.

On his elevation to the cardinalate in 1879 he transferred his editorial duties to Franz Philipp Kaulen

(1827 1907), Roman Catholic professor of theology in Bonn, and under him the new edition was finished

in 1901 in twelve volumes, each one much larger than those of the first edition. In September, 1903, the

index volume appeared. In 1877 the first volume of the second edition of "Herzog" appeared, edited by

Professor Herzog with the assistance of his colleague in the theological faculty in Erlangen, Gustav Leopold

Plitt (1836 80). On Plitt's death Herzog called in another colleague, Albert Hauck (1845 ), the professor

of church history, who survived him and brought the work to its triumphant close in 1888 in eighteen

volumes. includingthe index. In the spring of 1896 appeared the first part of the third edition of" Herzog"

with Hauck, who meanwhile had gone to Leipsic as professor of church history, as sole editor. It is upon

this third edition that the present work is based.

The idea of translating " Herzog  ' in a slightly condensed form occurred to John Henry Augustus Bomberger (1817 90), a minister of the German Reformed Church, and then president of Ursinus Col­lege, Collegeville, Pa., and in 1856 he brought out in Philadelphia the first volume, whose title page reads thus: The Protestant Theological and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia: Being a Condensed Translation of Herzog's Real Encyclopedia. With Additions from Other Sources. By Rn. J. H. A. Bomberger, D.D., As­aisted by Distinguished Theologians of Various Denominations. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakidon,


1866. In this work he associated with himself twelve persons, all but one ministers. In 1860 hdissued the second volume. But the Civil War breaking out the next year put a stop to so costly an enterprise and it was never resumed. The first volume included the article " Concubinage," the second " Josiah." It had been issued in numbers, of which the last was the twelfth.

In 1877 Professor Philip Schaff (1819 93) was asked by Dr. Herzog himself to undertake an English reproduction of the second edition of his encyclopedia, and this work was fairly begun when, in the autumn of 1880, Clemens Petersen and Samuel Macauley Jackson were engaged to work daily on it in Dr. Schaff's study in the Bible House, New York City. The next year Dr. Schaff's son, the Rev. David Schley Schaff, now professor of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., joined the staff. The original publishers were $. 8. Scranton & Company, Hartford, Conn., but a change was made before the issue of the first volume and the encyclopediawas issued by Funk & Wagnalls. The title page read thus

A Religious Encyclopaedia : or Dictionary o f Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology. Based on the

Real Encykloplldw of Herzog, Plitt, and Hauck. Edited by Philip Schaff, D.D., LL D., Professor in the Union

T heological Seminary, New York. Associate editors: Rev. Samuel M. Jackson, M. A., and Rev. D. S. Schaff.

Volume 1. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 10 and 18 Dey Street. The first volume was issued

Wednesday, November 1, 1882, the second Thursday, March 1, 1883, and the third Tuesday, March 4,

1884. Volume I. had pp. xix. 1 847; volume II. pp. xvii. 848 1714; and volume III. pp. xix.

1715 2631. In November, 1886, a revised edition was issued and at the same time the Encyclopedia of

Living Divines and Christian Workers of All Denominations in Europe and America, Being a Supplement to

Schaff Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Edited by Rev. Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., and Rev.

Samuel Macauley Jackson, M. A. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 18 and 20 Astor Place, 1887.

In 1891 the third edition of the encyclopedia was issued and with it was incorporated the Encyclopedia

of Liming Divines, with an appendix, largely the work of Rev. George William Gilmore, bringing the bio­

graphical and literary notices down to December, ,1890. The entire work was repaged sufficiently to

make it one of four volumes of about equal size, and it is this four volume edition which is known to

the public as the Schaff Herzog Encycyclopedia, the volumes being respectively of pp. xlviii. 679 and four

pages unnumbered; 680 1378; 1379 2086; iv. 2087 2629, viii. 296. As the German work at its base was

overtaken by the time "3" had been reached, the "Schaff Herzog" from that letter on was based on the

first edition of " Herzog." Therefore much of its matter is now very old. Yet it has been a useful work,

and in 1903 its publishers determined on a new edition based on the third edition of " Herzog/ " which

had been appearing since 1896. But inasmuch as there was a space of ten years between the be.

ginnings of the two works, it has been necessary to bring the matter from the German down to date.

This end has been accomplished by two courses: first by securing from the German contributors to " Her­

zog " condensations of their contributions, in which way matter contributed to the German work has in

many instances been brought down to date, and second by calling on department editors for supplemen­

tary matter.

As appears from what has been said above, this encyclopedia is not entirely anew work. It is really anold workreconatructed. Its list of titles is largely the same and it follows the same general plan as inthe oldwork. The points of identity are: (1) that at its base lies the Realency­k1opddie Nr protestantische Theol*e and Kirche, once associated with the name of Herzog, now with the name of Albert Hauck, professor of church history in the University of Leipsic, and the author of the authoritative history of the Church in Germany; (2) that it gives in condensed form the information in that work, and takes such matter directly from the Ger­man work in most instances, although occasionally while the topic is the same the treatment is independent of the German contributor's; (3) that it has much matter contributed by the editorial staff and specially secured contributors; (4) that in Biblical matters it limits its titles to those of the German base, so that it should not be considered as a Bible dictionary, although the Biblical department comprehends the principal articles of such a dictionary. The points of dissimilarity are these: (1) It contains much matter furnished directly by those contributors to the German work who have kindly consented to condense their articles and bring them within prescribed limits. These limits have often been narrow, but in no other way was it possible to utilize the German matter. (2) It con­tains hundreds of sketches of living persons derived in almost every instance from matter furnished by themselves. In writing these sketches much help has been received, principally in the suggestion of names, from the English and American Who's Who and from the German Wer ist's (which is a similar work for Germany), and we desire to acknowledge our indebtedness with thanks. But comparison between the sketches in this book and those given of the same individual in the books referred to will reveal many differences and be so many proofs of the


extensive correspondence carried on to secure the given facts. Every person sketched herein, with almost no exception, has been sent a blank for biographical data. Some thought to save themselves the trouble of filling out the blank by referring to a dictionary of living persons, but it has generally turned out that the requirements of this blank were not met by the book referred to and it has been necessary to write to the subject, and frequently more than once, before the desired information could be secured., (3) The matter in proof has been sent to persons specially chosen for eminence in their respective departments. These depart­ments with the names of those in charge of them are: Systematic Theology, Rev. CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D., professor of systematic theology, Chicago Theological Seminary; Minor Denominations, Rev. HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D., one of the corresponding sec­retaries of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York City; Liturgies and Religious Orders, in the first volume, Rev. JOHN THOMAS CREAGH, D.D., professor of canon law, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., in subsequent volumes, Very Rev. JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D., president of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.; the Old Testament, Rev. JAMES FREDERICK MCCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D., professor of Oriental languages, University College, Toronto; the New Testament, Rev. HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D., professor of the literature and interpretation of the New Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.; Church History, Rev. ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D., professor of church history, Baylor Theological Seminary (Baylor University), Waco, Texas. Besides reading the proofs they were requested to make such additions as would not only bring them up to date but represent the dis­tinctive results of British and American Scholarship. (4) A much more thorough bib­liography is furnished. The attempt has been made to give sources so that students may pursue a subject to its roots; second, to supply the best literature in whatever language it occurs; third, to supply references in English for those who read only that language. (5) All articles based on German originals have been sent in proof to the writers of the original German articles when these writers were still living. Some of them had furnished the articles and they had merely been translated, but in the great majority of cases the German authors had not. given that cooperation; not a few, however, have kindly read our condensations and made corrections and additions. For this cooperation thanks are due.

We here mention with gratitude the permission given by the publisher of the ReaL­encyklopadie fiir protestantische Theologie unal Kirche, Mr. HEINRICH ROST, the head of the great publishing house of J. C. HINRICHS of Leipsic, and by the editor of its third edition, Professor ALBERT HAUCg, Ph.D., D.Th., D.Jur., of the University of Leipsic, to use its contents in our discretion. Dr. Hauck has done far more than give permission. He has manifested a kindly interest in our work, has revised the condensations of his articles, and facilitated our efforts to secure from his contributors advance articles. This helpfulness is much appreciated, and we would fain give it prominent recognition.

Rev. DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D., who holds the chair of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., whose father was the founder of this work and who was himself one of its original associate editors, felt unable on account of other duties to assume any editorial responsibility for the present work, as he had been asked to do by the publishers when the new edition was determined .on, but he entered heartily into the arrangement whereby the sole responsibility of general editor should be lodged with his former associate editor, and has cooperated by bringing down to date almost all the articles which he and his father contributed to the first edition.

The labor of coordinating the material sent in by the many persons who have coop­er ated to bring out this work has fallen upon the managing editor, CHARLES COLEBROOK SHER­MAN, who has discharged his difficult duties with conscientious fidelity and marked ability.


The bibliography, which is probably the greatest novelty of this encyclopedia and is a fea­

ture certain to be greatly appreciated, has been prepared by Professor GEORGE WILLIAM

GILMORE, late of Bangor Theological Seminary, and the author of Hurst's Literature o f

The work of condensing and translating the articles from the contributors to

the Realencyklopadie fair protestantische Theologie and Kirche has been done by BERNHARD

PIOK, Ph.D., D.D., Lutheran pastor, Newark, N. J.; ALEXIaIRA"E DU PONT COLEMAN, M.A.

of Oxford University, instructor in English in the College of the City of New York; ALFRED

STOECKIUS, Ph.D., of the Astor Library; WILLIAM PRICE; and HuRERT EvANs, Ph.D. of

Leipsic. The pronunciations have been supplied by FRANK HORACE VIzETELLY, F.S.A.,

managing editor of the Standard Dictionary.

When the contributors to the Realencyklopadie have chosen not to condense their articles themselves, but have preferred that this work should be done by the editors of the New Schaff Herzog, the fact is indicated by the use of parentheses enclosing the signature. Edi­torial addition's or changes in the body of signed articles for which the contributors should not be held responsible are indicated by brackets. A double signature indicates that an article originally prepared by the contributor whose name appears first (in parentheses) has been revised by the contributor whose name follows. The cross (t) following the name of a contributor indicates that he is dead.

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