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* There is no evidence that Arnold of Brescia or the Waldeases commingled pagan elements with Christian. On the contrary, they combated with the utmost decision the pagan elements that had been incorporated in the doctrines and practise of the dominant Church They appear to have been Absolutely free from Manichean or Gnostic tendencies.
ceedinga were held either in special court rooms or in the official diocesan court. For the trial in its different stages, for the imposition of the penalty, and the like, the moat exact prescriptions are extant, and these were continually supplemented as occasion demanded. But for all the exceedingly detailed form of procedure, much was left to the inquisitor's discretion. The new papal tribunal encroached in various ways upon the sphere of the episcopal inquisition, and conflicts of jurisdiction arose, which the popes did not always find it easy to adjust, because, in any case, the episcopal inquisition was not to be abrogated. Nevertheless, in a critical case, the higher authority was lodged in the inquisitor, and his executive scope was more extended than that of the episcopal officials. Charges of heresy against bishops, and even nuncios, were subject to the papal inquisitors.
The unconditional support of the secular arm was invoked for the papal inquisition by virtue of the Veronese agreement (though this
a. Rela was not properly made for that end).
tics to the The secular arm was " executor," or Secular " minister " of the inquisition. The
Powers. popes constantly strove to get the co
operation of the secular powers em
bodied in state laws, municipal statutes, and the like.
To this end Innocent IV., in the bull Ad ezstirParcda,
conceded to the State a portion of the property to
be confiscated; and the State in return assumed
the odium and burden of inflicting the penalty,
even to capital execution, if need were. The first
instance of an execution under imputation of heresy
was supplied in 385 by the usurper Maximus (see
PafaCILLIAN) an event by no means approved by
Augustine. While the Veronese agreement left the
question open, King Peter of Aragon, as early as
1197, threatened the death penalty against heretics
who did not submit to the decree of expulsion; and
in the course of the thirteenth century this threat was
enforced in the widest terms. Even the Emperor
Frederick IL, " free thinking " man though he was
reputed to be, decreed the death penalty for Lom,
hardy in 1224; for Sicily in 1230; and, with Greg
ory IX., for Rome in 1231. The sentence itself was
determined, as might be expected, by the ecclesi
astical (papal) court; whereupon the execution was
committed to the temporal authorities. Hence it
is possible for certain apologists of the Roman
Church to urge that the Church of Rome has never
shed blood (cf. Die Selbetbiographie dee Cardinals
Bellormina, ed. J. J. I. von D6llinger and F. H.
Reusch, pp. 233 sqq., Bonn, 188?).
This new form of the Inquisition was now made effective with iron strictness in Italy, France, the Netherlands, and England. In Italy,
g. In Italy. which, especially in the north and central regions, was honeycombed with heresy, the situation was managed by Innocent III. At Viterbo, for example, proceedings were instituted with unexampled severity against the Paterenes in
1207 (cf. Muratori, Rerum Italioarum acriptorea, iii., 1, Milan 1723). The civil strife that was stirred up led repeatedly as at Viterbo in 1265, in Parma, 1277 to the expulsion of the inquisitors; they were even slain, as Peter Martyr at Verona in
3 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Inquisition
1245, who thus became the saint of the Inquisition. " But this occasioned frightful vengeance . . . If the complaints became too loud, a pope did indeed now and then serve a note of reproof on the inquisitor; but it does not appear that so much as one pope wished to lop the institution's rankest outcrops" (D&llinger, ut sup.). For the detailed procedure, cf. Lea, vol. ii., chap. iv. A special arrangement prevailed at Venice in the interest of the State, but a milder policy in this case was exceptional. Moreover, the pope appointed the inquisitor whom the Senate classed as an officer of the State by granting him a " provision " or salary; and the extent of his influence on the " learned in heresy " depended entirely on the Roman Curia's influence over the Senate itself.
In France the Inquisition's most appalling operation began in the thirteenth century (see NEw
MANICHEANa, IL; INNOCENT III.), ;. France. and did not reach an end with the
annihilation of the Albigenses. The people endured the yoke with extreme reluctance; in 1242 a desperately goaded multitude assailed the inquisitors in the territory of Avignon. (Those then slain were canonized by Pius IX. in Sept., 1866; and he did the same thing, in the year following, for the atrocious Spanish inquisitor, Pedro Arbues.) The attitude of the French kings to the Inquisition shows various phases. Louis IX. (Saint Louis) promulgated a mandate in 1228 which binds the temporal sovereignty to unconditional collaboration with the Inquisition; on the other hand, Philip the Fair decreed, in 1290, that due circumspection should be observed in the matter of arresting alleged heretics. The violent reactions of the tortured people and various royal edicts had at last their effect; and in time the complete revolution brought forth by the Great Schism and the growing independence of the French nation made an end of the Inquisition in France sooner than in other lands.
Meanwhile the Inquisition in Spain blossomed out with peculiar fulness. It is, to be sure, an error to
ascribe to it, with Hefele (Cardinal g. Spain. Ximenez, Tiibingen, 1844) and Ranks,
the character of a royal court of justice; for, as the Jesuits Grisar and Orti y Lars, prove, it is altogether ecclesiastical, having only certain special state privileges and a certain influence being allowed the king in the choice of inquisitors. It developed from the thirteenth century, on the background of persecution of Moors and Jews. Prior to the sixteenth century, its principal operation was against the Maranoa or alleged converts from Judaism to Christianity. The inquisitorgeneral, Tomes de Torquemada (q.v.), appointed by Pope Sixtus IV., outdid all precedents in the way of executions and confiscationa; it was under him, in Saragossa, that Arbuea came to his bloody end. To say naught of the fact that the national character was favorable to it, the Spanish Inquisition underwent a peculiar development on three aides: in the first place, it had a royally acknowledged head in the inquisitor general; in the second place, under the inquisitor general, the Conaejo de la supreme acted uniformly for all Spain, with
assistance from the state authorities; in the third place, while the king's influence on the tribunal was undoubtedly large, it was never exerted against the interests of the Church on the contrary, the presence of the king or of his representative at the autos do f6 imparted to these the quality of great spectacles authorized by the State, almost popular festivals. It is impossible to estimate the number of the victims. Llorente's data are questioned, and may be disregarded. However, from the Inquisitor Paramo's treatise De origins et progresau inquisitionis (Madrid, 1598), p. 140, it appeafs that in forty years (1480 1520), at Seville, 4,000 were burned, and 30,000 " penitents " were sentenced to various penalties.
In Germany, Conrad of Marburg (q.v.) was to bring the institution to its flower. But the wrath
of the people slew him and his assistant, 6. Ger Droso, just as their activity began to many, the ripen (1233). Hence in Germany the
Nether Inquisition, for the moat part, failed lands, and to attain to thoroughgoing activity.
England. Nevertheless, until the fifteenth cen
tury a good many instances of separate procedures occur. The acts collected by Fr6d6ricq show what was ordained for Germany and the Netherlands in common. This author gives the directions of Gregory IX., addressed to the bishops, in 1233, to the effect that they shall catch the " little foxes " that is, the heretics ostensibly converted; while a whole series of similar ordinances ensues to the time of the bull Summia desiderantes in 1484, by the terms of which the special activity of the Inquisition was directed against Witchcraft (q.v.). It was furthermore directed against the " Waldenses " along the Rhine, in Bava:ia and Austria, in Bohemia, and as far as the mark of Brandenburg and Pomerania, as well as against sects of every kind in the Netherlands. It had waged a fearful war of extermination in North Germany, in the district of Bremen, 1233, against the Stedingi (q.v.). From the exact information in FrAd6ricq's work, it appears that the extent of the bloody doings at Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, Utrecht, and other cities was greater than previously known. During the period before the Reformation, England was less affected by the Inquisition. It first became active against the Lollards (q.v.). In 1401 Henry IV. had parliament confirm the statute De hordico eomburendo.
III. The Inquisition and the Counter Reformation: In 1542 Cardinal Caraffa, subsequently Pope Paul
IV., reorganized the Roman Inquisir. The lion after the pattern of the Spanish.
Reforms He himself assumed the direction of
lion Sup the Holy Office created by the bull
pressed Licet ab initio. The executive pro
is Italy. cedure was to be centralized at Rome,
primarily for all Italy; and the outcome was to be guaranteed by uniform, ruthless, and swift operation. The new organization, having at its disposal the entire influence of the Roman Curia over every state of Italy, by the time of Plus V. had made an end of the Reformation in that country (see ITALY, THE REFORMATION IN); its advocates were either incarcerated or killed, or
Inscriptions THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
driven to flight, while literary products were nought out and destroyed, save insignificant remnants. As an example of the Inquisition's operation in Italy, its actions against " Lutherans " or other heretics in Venice may be enumerated: in the sixteenth century, according to the seta still preserved in the state archives, there were 803 trials for "Lutheranism"; five for "Calvinism"; thirty five for Anabaptism; forty three for relapse of converts into Judaism; sixty five for blasphemous speeches; 148 for sorcery; forty five for contempt of religion (that is, of ecclesiastical ceremonies, etc.); and more of the sort. Later these figures notably vanish. Branches of the new Roman office were organized in all other cities of Italy, Naples excepted. Rome, however, continued the center; and how numerous the trials conducted at that place must have been appears from the circumstance that the single protocol book accessible records during the three years 15647 no fewer than 111 sentences, all involving severe punishment, some the death penalty, and some
imprisonment for life. j
As in Italy, so in Spain, the reformatory movement of the sixteenth century fell a prey to the
Inquisition (see SPAIN, REBORMA
2. In Spain TION MOVEMENTS OF SIXTEENTH CENaad the TURY IN). At Seville and Valladolid
Nether the movement was crushed and obliteriands. ated in the course of four autos da fE,
1559 and 1560 (cf. E. Schafer, Setrilla and Valladolid, die evantgeliachenGemeinden Spaniena ire Reforntationszeitalter, Halls, 1903); and the Inquisition still flourished in all the land until 1700; socording to Llorente, 782 more autos occurred under the first Bourbons (1700 46), wherein 14,000 persona were subjected to heavier or lighter penalties. Indeed, Ferdinand VII, restored the Inquisition along with the Restoration in 1814; but it was finally set aside in 1834. The Inquisition persisted long also in Portugal, where it was mainly directed against the Jews; it came to an end there in 1826. In the imperial Netherlands, the Inquisition effectively combated the Reformation in the sixteenth century. From Brussels as a center, it was so actively conducted, or supported, from 1522 downward by the officials of Charles V., then by the two stadtholder princesses, that by 1530 its goal seemed achieved. The spirit, however, it could not subdue, and it raged afresh under Philip IL, and anticipated the cruel deeds of Alva. When eventually the north provinces conquered their religious and political freedom, the Inquisition had annihilated the Reformation in the south provinces. Its activity was also carried into the Spanish possessions in America, and into the East Indies by the Portuguese.
The Congregatio sanctae Romartae et univertralis inquiaitionia is still maintained by the Curia; and the estimate which Rome puts on the institution appeared in 1887 in the canonization of Pedro Arbuea, and in 1889 in the constitution Apoatolicae, which threatens penalty for every infraction of the Inquisition's activity. Not one of all the regulations which define its action and determine its aims has
been repealed. K. BENRATH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: In the first rank as a source is the Dirac. torium of Eymerich written at Avignon as a manual of procedure in 1378, edited by Pogue, Rome, 1580, cf. P. H. DeniBe in Archiv far Litteratur and Kirchengeachirhte, 1885, 0.10. The Liter eententiarum inquiaitiania Tholoearus is reproduced as an addition to P, van Limborch, Historic; Iraquiaitionia, Amsterdam, 1892, Eg. travel., London, 1731, often abbreviated and republished in England and America. The Practices Irequiait4onia of Bernard Guidonia, W C• Dousia, appeared Paris, 1888. The beat collection of sources for the Netherlands is gathered in P. Frdddricq, Corpus doctsmentorum luquiaitionia, 2 voles., The Hague, 1889 '98• Early material on Spain and Italy respectively is included in J. A. Llorente, HisEoria critics de la lnquiaacion de Eapesiia, 10 vole„ Madrid, 1822, abridged Eng. tranal., Hist. Of the Inquisition of Spain from the Time of the Establishment to the Reign of Ferdinand VIL, London, 1828, and in E. C. Combs, I uoatri Proteatanti, Vol. ii., Florence, 1897. An index to some aourcee,ie found in Catalogue of es Collection of Manuscripts jormerly belonging to the Holy Ojftce , , , in the Canary Islands, 14991893, 2 vole., Edinburgh, 1903.
On the general history of the Inquisition the best work is H. C. Lea Hist. of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages, revised ad., 3 vole., New York, 1908 07. Consult further: J. Marsollier, Hist. de t'inquiaition dLe eon origins, Cologne, 1893; W. H. Rule, Hist. of the Inquisition in Every Country where its Tribunal& have been Established, London, 1874; Ord y Lam, La Inquiaizion, Madrid, 1877; J. Havet, L H6rEaie et le brae a&utier, Paris, 1881; A. Henner, BebtrJige cur Organisation der p2ipatlichen Ketzerperichte, Leipaie, 1890; J. Hanson, Zaubermeaea, Inquisition and Hexenprozcae im Mittslaltcr, Munich, 1900; P. von Hoensbroech, Dan Papatlum ins aocia4kuLturellen Wirkaamkeit, vol. i., Leipaic 1900• C. V. Langlois, L'Inquiaition d'apr9a des travaux rEcenla, Paris, 1902; E. Sch6fer, Beilrdps our Oeachichte . . der Inquisition, 3 vole., Giiteraloh, 1902;
C. Dousia, L'Inquiaition, so aoripinea, as proeQdure, Paris, 1908; E. Vacandaxd L'Inquiaition; . , is pouvoir coer
eit4/ de l'igtiae ib. 1908 Eng. travel, Critical and Hiatoriral Study of the Coercive Power of the Church, London, 1908; T, de Caunona, Lea Atbigeoie et d'inquiaition, tea Vaudois et 1'inquiaition, 2 vols., Paris, 1907; Schaff, Christian Church, v. 1, pp. 515 eqq ; the literature under NEw MANICHEANa and in general the treatises on Church history.
For the institution in France, consult: C. Molinier, L'Inquieition done Is midi de la France, Paris, 1881; W. Eemein, Hint. . • . de la procddure inquiaitoire, ib. 1882; L. Tenon, Hiat. de l'inquiaition en France, ib. 1893; T. de Cauzona, Hint. de 1'inquirition en France; Vol. i., Lea Originea, Paris, 1908. For Germany consult: H. Haupt, IValdeneerthum and Inquisition im aiid datlichen Deutachland, Freiburg, 1890; P. Flade, Dan rsmiache Inquiaitioraa_ roerfaArea in Deutschland, Berlin, 1902. For the Netherlands: W. Moll, Kerkgeachdedenis van Nederland, ii., chap, 18, Utrecht 1889; J. G. de Hoop Bcheffer, Geechialenia der Kerkharvorming in Nederland, Amsterdam, 1873; P. Claeseena L'Inquiaition dana lee Pays Bas, Turnhout, 1888; P. Fr,6dtrieq, Geachiedenia der Inquiaitie in de Nedardanden, 2 voles., Ghent, 1892 97; J. Frederiche, Two Verhandelinpert over de Inquiaitie in de Nederlandeta, The Hague, 1897 For Italy: L. Wine, A Glance at flee Italian Inquisition, London, 1885; L. Amabile, It Santo Officio dells Inquiaizione in Napoli, 2 voles., Citta di Castello, 1892. For Spain: H. C. Lea The Inquisition in Spain, 4 vole., New York, 1908 07; idem, The Inquisition in the
Spanish Dependenies, ib. 1908; idem, Chapters from the Hint. of Spain connected wills the Inquisition, Philadelphia, 1890; I;. de Molt!nes, Toryuemada et l'inquiaition, Paris, 1897; C. J. von Hefele, Life and Times of Cardinal X imenaz, London, 1885. For South America: B. V. Mackenna,
Francesco Moyen; or, the Inquisition as it was in America, London, 1888. J. T. Medina has written a number of volumes in Spanish, on the Inquisition in Lima, Santiago, 1887; in Chile, 3 vole., ib. 1890; in Cartagena, ib. 1899; in De la Plats, ib 1899; in the Philippines, ib. 1899; and in Mexico, ib. 1905.
IftSABATATI (SABOTIERS): A name given to
the Waldenses (q.v.) from their sabots, marked with a painted cross, or from the sandals tied crosswise.
RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Inquisition
I. Egyptian Inscriptions.
Forms and Character (¢ 1).
Number, Age, and Contents (¢ 2).
The Rosette Stone and Decipherment (¢ 3).
Illustration of the Bible (¢ 4). II. Cuneiform Inscriptions.
The Name; Area Covered by the Script (¢ 1).
Discoveries; Decipherment of Persian (¢ 2).
Decipherment of Babylonian Assyrian (¢ 3).
Origin and Character of the Script (¢ 4).
III. Christian Inscriptions.
I. Egyptian Inscriptions: The inscriptions of
Egypt are no new discovery. The term most
used to describe the characters em
°rms ployed in the inscriptions, " hiero
Character. glyphics°" is of Greek origin (hieros
" sacred " f glyphei.n, " to carve") and
bears witness both to early knowledge of the exist
ence of the writing and to the conception at that
time that the priestly class was its executor. In
more modern usage the term is not confined to the
Egyptian inscriptions, but is used generally of any
kind of picture writing. The inscriptions on the
monuments of Egypt are in the main in a picture
writing, the individual signs of which are representa
tions of objects or actions more or less convention
alized. This detailed representation passed by the
method of abbreviation into a shorter form called
the hieratic script, and by the extension of this
process to a still shorter form, the demotic. But
in only the very late period of Egyptian history
was either the hieratic or demotic form employed
upon the monuments, though both were used on
papyri from an early age. While originally the
signs stood for the objects they pictured, at a very
early stage they came to have phonetic quality,
and from this to the development of an alphabet
the steps were rapid and easy. While this process
was going on, the signs were given values associated
with those already customary and also others
disconnected from the original connotation. The
alphabet was of twenty one letters (some authori
ties say twenty two, others twenty four), all conso
nants, though some of the letters were employed to
indicate vowel sounds, as in the Semitic languages.
The signs became also signs of syllables as well as
of single letters, and, still further, signs of words or
ideographs. In all, the number of symbols known
from the monuments is slightly under 1,400. Since
some of these symbols might express several ideas,
it became necessary to use certain signs as deter
minatives to fix the meaning of the group in which
they occurred, thus to remove ambiguity. The
signs composing a word or idea are, grouped in
quadrangular form, though the order of grouping
is not invariable, being either perpendicular or
horizontal, according to the shape of the com
ponents, the exigencies of the space at disposal
or the artistic taste of the scribe. The groups were
arranged in columns or in lines, according to the
material used and the space and form available for
the inscription. The writing runs either (prefer
ably) from right to left or the reverse when arranged
horizontally, or from above downward when it is
1. Ancient Christian Inscriptions.
Methods of Writing (¢ 1).
Languages Employed (¢ 2).
Contents (¢ 3).
Value of the Material (¢ 4).
2. Medieval and Later Inscriptions.
3. History of Epigraphy.
The Early Period (¢ I).
The Nineteenth Century (§ 2).
The area within which these inscriptions are found embraces the whole of the Nile valley as far as Nubia, parts of the peninsula of Sinai, 2. Number, and locations in Syria and Palestine.
Contents. Records begin with the second dy
nasty; during the fourth, fifth and
sixth dynasties they become numerous, though
largely centralized around Memphis; then they
become fewer until with the eleventh dynasty they
again grow abundant and spread out over a wide
area, continuing numerous till the fourteenth dy
nasty. Of the Hykaos kings few remains are found.
With the seventeenth dynasty inscriptions once
more become abundant and continue so, with ex
ceptions in some dynasties or single reigns, till
down into Roman times. The inscriptions were
placed on the walls of temples, on steles and monu
ments set up within the temple courts, on obelisks,
and in tombs both of the Pharaohs and of the nobil
ity and the wealthier classes, and on gems, tinge,
and scarabs. Since the temples of the earlier period
have vanished, it follows that the inscriptions of
those times have for the moat part perished. Yet
while some of the earliest monuments were des
troyed at a very early date, it sometimes occurs
that the record which they bore wee copied on a
more perishable material which has survived. A
matter which often causes embarrassment to the
decipherer is that it was the known habit of some
Pharaohs, as in the case of Ramesea IL, to remove
the royal name in the cartouche of the original
Pharaoh who ordered the inscription, and to in
scribe their own in its place, thus claiming the
deeds originally assigned to another and dislocating
the order of history. The earliest inscriptions come
from massive masonry tombs, where often little
more than names, titles, and, sometimes, the legal
provisions for maintenance of the tomb are pre
served. Later, in addition to these bare statements,
the lists of titles are extended to include something
of the career of the deceased. Finally they contain
records of achievement whether of Pharaohs,
generals, or administrators of the occasion which
the record commemorates, and may even include
the royal patent for the work of which the inscrip
tion speaks. But, in general, a vagueness charac
terizes the content of the inscriptions and makes
them illusive and difficult, not only in themselves
but also in the historical mater to which they refer.
Thus, in a story of conquest, the foe is often referred to not by name or country, but is described by some derogatory epithet: again, the events narrated
were often contemporary and matters of general
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