Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D

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* There is no evidence that Arnold of Brescia or the Wal­deases commingled pagan elements with Christian. On the contrary, they combated with the utmost decision the pagan elements that had been incorporated in the doctrines and practise of the dominant Church They appear to have been Absolutely free from Manichean or Gnostic tendencies.


ceedinga were held either in special court rooms or in the official diocesan court. For the trial in its different stages, for the imposition of the penalty, and the like, the moat exact prescriptions are extant, and these were continually supplemented as occasion demanded. But for all the exceedingly detailed form of procedure, much was left to the inquisitor's discretion. The new papal tribunal encroached in various ways upon the sphere of the episcopal inquisition, and conflicts of jurisdiction arose, which the popes did not always find it easy to adjust, because, in any case, the episcopal in­quisition was not to be abrogated. Neverthe­less, in a critical case, the higher authority was lodged in the inquisitor, and his executive scope was more extended than that of the episcopal officials. Charges of heresy against bishops, and even nuncios, were subject to the papal inquisitors.

The unconditional support of the secular arm was invoked for the papal inquisition by virtue of the Veronese agreement (though this

a. Rela  was not properly made for that end).

tics to the The secular arm was " executor," or Secular " minister " of the inquisition. The

Powers. popes constantly strove to get the co­

operation of the secular powers em­

bodied in state laws, municipal statutes, and the like.

To this end Innocent IV., in the bull Ad ezstirParcda,

conceded to the State a portion of the property to

be confiscated; and the State in return assumed

the odium and burden of inflicting the penalty,

even to capital execution, if need were. The first

instance of an execution under imputation of heresy

was supplied in 385 by the usurper Maximus (see

PafaCILLIAN) an event by no means approved by

Augustine. While the Veronese agreement left the

question open, King Peter of Aragon, as early as

1197, threatened the death penalty against heretics

who did not submit to the decree of expulsion; and

in the course of the thirteenth century this threat was

enforced in the widest terms. Even the Emperor

Frederick IL, " free thinking " man though he was

reputed to be, decreed the death penalty for Lom,

hardy in 1224; for Sicily in 1230; and, with Greg­

ory IX., for Rome in 1231. The sentence itself was

determined, as might be expected, by the ecclesi­

astical (papal) court; whereupon the execution was

committed to the temporal authorities. Hence it

is possible for certain apologists of the Roman

Church to urge that the Church of Rome has never

shed blood (cf. Die Selbetbiographie dee Cardinals

Bellormina, ed. J. J. I. von D6llinger and F. H.

Reusch, pp. 233 sqq., Bonn, 188?).

This new form of the Inquisition was now made effective with iron strictness in Italy, France, the Netherlands, and England. In Italy,

g. In Italy. which, especially in the north and central regions, was honeycombed with heresy, the situation was managed by Innocent III.
At Viterbo, for example, proceedings were instituted with unexampled severity against the Paterenes in

1207 (cf. Muratori, Rerum Italioarum acriptorea, iii., 1, Milan 1723). The civil strife that was stirred up led repeatedly as at Viterbo in 1265, in Parma, 1277 to the expulsion of the inquisitors; they were even slain, as Peter Martyr at Verona in


1245, who thus became the saint of the Inquisition. " But this occasioned frightful vengeance . . . If the complaints became too loud, a pope did indeed now and then serve a note of reproof on the inquis­itor; but it does not appear that so much as one pope wished to lop the institution's rankest out­crops" (D&llinger, ut sup.). For the detailed pro­cedure, cf. Lea, vol. ii., chap. iv. A special arrange­ment prevailed at Venice in the interest of the State, but a milder policy in this case was excep­tional. Moreover, the pope appointed the inquis­itor whom the Senate classed as an officer of the State by granting him a " provision " or salary; and the extent of his influence on the " learned in heresy " depended entirely on the Roman Curia's influence over the Senate itself.

In France the Inquisition's most appalling opera­tion began in the thirteenth century (see NEw

MANICHEANa, IL; INNOCENT III.), ;. France. and did not reach an end with the

annihilation of the Albigenses. The people endured the yoke with extreme reluctance; in 1242 a desperately goaded multitude assailed the inquisitors in the territory of Avignon. (Those then slain were canonized by Pius IX. in Sept., 1866; and he did the same thing, in the year follow­ing, for the atrocious Spanish inquisitor, Pedro Arbues.) The attitude of the French kings to the Inquisition shows various phases. Louis IX. (Saint Louis) promulgated a mandate in 1228 which binds the temporal sovereignty to unconditional collabora­tion with the Inquisition; on the other hand, Philip the Fair decreed, in 1290, that due circumspection should be observed in the matter of arresting alleged heretics. The violent reactions of the tortured people and various royal edicts had at last their effect; and in time the complete revolu­tion brought forth by the Great Schism and the growing independence of the French nation made an end of the Inquisition in France sooner than in other lands.

Meanwhile the Inquisition in Spain blossomed out with peculiar fulness. It is, to be sure, an error to

ascribe to it, with Hefele (Cardinal g. Spain. Ximenez,
Tiibingen, 1844) and Ranks,

the character of a royal court of justice; for, as the Jesuits Grisar and Orti y Lars, prove, it is altogether ecclesiastical, having only certain special state privileges and a certain influence being allowed the king in the choice of inquisitors. It developed from the thirteenth century, on the background of persecution of Moors and Jews. Prior to the sixteenth century, its principal opera­tion was against the Maranoa or alleged converts from Judaism to Christianity. The inquisitor­general, Tomes de Torquemada (q.v.), appointed by Pope Sixtus IV., outdid all precedents in the way of executions and confiscationa; it was under him, in Saragossa, that Arbuea came to his bloody end. To say naught of the fact that the national character was favorable to it, the Spanish Inqui­sition underwent a peculiar development on three aides: in the first place, it had a royally acknowl­edged head in the inquisitor general; in the second place, under the inquisitor general, the Conaejo de la supreme acted uniformly for all Spain, with

assistance from the state authorities; in the third place, while the king's influence on the tribunal was undoubtedly large, it was never exerted against the interests of the Church on the contrary, the presence of the king or of his representative at the autos do f6 imparted to these the quality of great spectacles authorized by the State, almost popular festivals. It is impossible to estimate the number of the victims. Llorente's data are questioned, and may be disregarded. However, from the Inquisitor Paramo's treatise De origins et progresau inqui­sitionis
(Madrid, 1598), p. 140, it appeafs that in forty years (1480 1520), at Seville, 4,000 were burned, and 30,000 " penitents " were sentenced to various penalties.

In Germany, Conrad of Marburg (q.v.) was to bring the institution to its flower. But the wrath

of the people slew him and his assistant, 6. Ger  Droso, just as their activity began to many, the ripen (1233). Hence in Germany the

Nether  Inquisition, for the moat part, failed lands, and to attain to thoroughgoing activity.

England. Nevertheless, until the fifteenth cen 

tury a good many instances of separate procedures occur. The acts collected by Fr6d6ricq show what was ordained for Germany and the Netherlands in common. This author gives the directions of Gregory IX., addressed to the bishops, in 1233, to the effect that they shall catch the " little foxes " that is, the heretics ostensibly con­verted; while a whole series of similar ordinances ensues to the time of the bull Summia desiderantes in 1484, by the terms of which the special activity of the Inquisition was directed against Witchcraft (q.v.). It was furthermore directed against the " Waldenses " along the Rhine, in Bava:ia and Austria, in Bohemia, and as far as the mark of Brandenburg and Pomerania, as well as against sects of every kind in the Netherlands. It had waged a fearful war of extermination in North Germany, in the district of Bremen, 1233, against the Stedingi (q.v.). From the exact information in FrAd6ricq's work, it appears that the extent of the bloody doings at Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, Utrecht, and other cities was greater than previously known. During the period before the Reformation, England was less affected by the Inquisition. It first became active against the Lollards (q.v.). In 1401 Henry IV. had parliament confirm the statute De hordico eomburendo.

III. The Inquisition and the Counter Reformation: In 1542 Cardinal Caraffa, subsequently Pope Paul

IV., reorganized the Roman Inquisi­r. The lion after the pattern of the Spanish.

Reforms  He himself assumed the direction of

lion Sup  the Holy Office created by the bull

pressed Licet ab initio. The executive pro 

is Italy. cedure was to be centralized at Rome,

primarily for all Italy; and the out­come was to be guaranteed by uniform, ruthless, and swift operation. The new organization, having at its disposal the entire influence of the Roman Curia over every state of Italy, by the time of Plus V. had made an end of the Reformation in that country (see ITALY, THE REFORMATION IN); its advocates were either incarcerated or killed, or




driven to flight, while literary products were nought out and destroyed, save insignificant remnants. As an example of the Inquisition's operation in Italy, its actions against " Lutherans " or other heretics in Venice may be enumerated: in the sixteenth cen­tury, according to the seta still preserved in the state archives, there were 803 trials for "Lutheran­ism"; five for "Calvinism"; thirty five for Ana­baptism; forty three for relapse of converts into Judaism; sixty five for blasphemous speeches; 148 for sorcery; forty five for contempt of religion (that is, of ecclesiastical ceremonies, etc.); and more of the sort. Later these figures
notably vanish. Branches of the new Roman office were organized in all other cities of Italy, Naples excepted. Rome, however, continued the center; and how numerous the trials conducted at that place must have been appears from the circumstance that the single protocol book accessible records during the three years 15647 no fewer than 111 sentences, all involving severe punishment, some the death penalty, and some

imprisonment for life. j

As in Italy, so in Spain, the reformatory move­ment of the sixteenth century fell a prey to the

Inquisition (see SPAIN, REBORMA 

2. In Spain TION MOVEMENTS OF SIXTEENTH CEN­aad the TURY IN). At Seville and Valladolid

Nether  the movement was crushed and obliter­iands. ated in the course of four autos da fE,

1559 and 1560 (cf. E. Schafer, Setrilla and Valladolid, die evantgeliachenGemeinden Spaniena ire Reforntationszeitalter,
Halls, 1903); and the In­quisition still flourished in all the land until 1700; so­cording to Llorente, 782 more autos occurred under the first Bourbons (1700 46), wherein 14,000 persona were subjected to heavier or lighter penalties. Indeed, Ferdinand VII, restored the Inquisition along with the Restoration in 1814; but it was finally set aside in 1834. The Inquisition persisted long also in Portugal, where it was mainly directed against the Jews; it came to an end there in 1826. In the im­perial Netherlands, the Inquisition effectively com­bated the Reformation in the sixteenth century. From Brussels as a center, it was so actively con­ducted, or supported, from 1522 downward by the officials of Charles V., then by the two stadtholder princesses, that by 1530 its goal seemed achieved. The spirit, however, it could not subdue, and it raged afresh under Philip IL, and anticipated the cruel deeds of Alva. When eventually the north provinces conquered their religious and political freedom, the Inquisition had annihilated the Reformation in the south provinces. Its activity was also carried into the Spanish possessions in America, and into the East Indies by the Portu­guese.

The Congregatio sanctae Romartae et univertralis inquiaitionia is still maintained by the Curia; and the estimate which Rome puts on the institution appeared in 1887 in the canonization of Pedro Arbuea, and in 1889 in the constitution Apoatolicae, which threatens penalty for every infraction of the Inquisition's activity. Not one of all the regulations which define its action and determine its aims has

been repealed. K. BENRATH.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: In the first rank as a source is the Dirac. torium of Eymerich written at Avignon as a manual of procedure in 1378, edited by Pogue, Rome, 1580, cf. P. H. DeniBe in Archiv far Litteratur  and Kirchengeachirhte, 1885, 0.10. The Liter eententiarum inquiaitiania Tholoearus is reproduced as an addition to P, van Limborch, Historic; Iraquiaitionia, Amsterdam, 1892, Eg. travel., London, 1731, often abbreviated and republished in England and America. The Practices Irequiait4onia of Bernard Guidonia, W C• Dousia, appeared Paris, 1888. The beat collection of sources for the Netherlands is gathered in P. Frdddricq, Corpus doctsmentorum luquiaitionia, 2 voles., The Hague, 1889 '98• Early material on Spain and Italy respectively is included in J. A. Llorente, HisEoria critics de la ln­quiaacion de Eapesiia, 10 vole„ Madrid, 1822, abridged Eng. tranal., Hist. Of the Inquisition of Spain from the Time of the Establishment to the Reign of Ferdinand VIL, London, 1828, and in E. C. Combs, I uoatri Proteatanti, Vol. ii., Florence, 1897. An index to some aourcee,ie found in Catalogue of es Collection of Manuscripts j
ormerly belong­ing to the Holy Ojftce , , , in the Canary Islands, 1499­1893, 2 vole., Edinburgh, 1903.

On the general history of the Inquisition the best work is H. C. Lea Hist. of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages, revised ad., 3 vole., New York, 1908 07. Consult further: J. Marsollier, Hist. de
t'inquiaition dLe eon origins, Cologne, 1893; W. H. Rule, Hist. of the Inquisition in Every Coun­try where its Tribunal& have been Established, London, 1874; Ord y Lam, La Inquiaizion, Madrid, 1877; J. Havet, L H6rEaie et le brae a&utier, Paris, 1881; A. Henner, BebtrJige cur Organisation der p2ipatlichen Ketzerperichte, Leipaie, 1890; J. Hanson, Zaubermeaea, Inquisition and Hexenprozcae im Mittslaltcr, Munich, 1900; P. von Hoens­broech, Dan Papatlum ins aocia4kuLturellen Wirkaamkeit, vol. i., Leipaic 1900• C. V. Langlois, L'Inquiaition d'apr9a des travaux rEcenla, Paris, 1902; E. Sch6fer, Beilrdps our Oeachichte . . der Inquisition, 3 vole., Giiteraloh, 1902;

C. Dousia, L'Inquiaition, so aoripinea, as proeQdure, Paris, 1908; E. Vacandaxd L'Inquiaition; . , is pouvoir coer 

eit4/ de l'igtiae ib. 1908 Eng. travel, Critical and Hiatoriral Study of the Coercive Power of the Church, London, 1908; T, de Caunona, Lea Atbigeoie et d'inquiaition, tea Vaudois et 1'inquiaition, 2 vols., Paris, 1907; Schaff, Christian Church, v. 1, pp. 515 eqq ; the literature under NEw MANICHEANa and in general the treatises on Church history.

For the institution in France, consult: C. Molinier, L'Inquieition done Is midi de la France, Paris, 1881; W. Eemein, Hint. . • . de la procddure inquiaitoire, ib. 1882; L. Tenon, Hiat. de l'inquiaition en France, ib. 1893; T. de Cauzona, Hint. de 1'inquirition en France; Vol. i., Lea Originea, Paris, 1908. For Germany consult: H. Haupt, IValdeneerthum and Inquisition im aiid datlichen Deutach­land, Freiburg, 1890; P. Flade, Dan rsmiache Inquiaitioraa_ roerfaArea in Deutschland, Berlin, 1902. For the Nether­lands: W. Moll, Kerkgeachdedenis van Nederland, ii., chap, 18, Utrecht 1889; J. G. de Hoop Bcheffer, Geechialenia der Kerkharvorming in Nederland, Amsterdam, 1873; P. Claeseena L'Inquiaition dana lee Pays Bas, Turnhout, 1888; P. Fr,6dtrieq, Geachiedenia der Inquiaitie in de Nedar­danden, 2 voles., Ghent, 1892 97; J. Frederiche, Two Ver­handelinpert over de Inquiaitie in de Nederlandeta, The Hague, 1897 For Italy: L. Wine, A Glance at flee Italian Inquisition, London, 1885; L. Amabile, It Santo Officio dells Inquiaizione in Napoli, 2 voles., Citta di Castello, 1892. For Spain: H. C. Lea The Inquisition in Spain, 4 vole., New York, 1908 07; idem, The Inquisition in the

Spanish Dependenies, ib. 1908; idem, Chapters from the Hint. of Spain connected wills the Inquisition, Philadelphia, 1890; I;. de Molt!nes, Toryuemada et l'inquiaition, Paris, 1897; C. J. von Hefele, Life and Times of Cardinal X imenaz, London, 1885. For South America: B. V. Mackenna,

Francesco Moyen; or, the Inquisition as it was in America, London, 1888. J. T. Medina has written a number of volumes in Spanish, on the Inquisition in Lima, Santiago, 1887; in Chile, 3 vole., ib. 1890; in Cartagena, ib. 1899; in De la Plats, ib 1899; in the Philippines, ib. 1899; and in Mexico, ib. 1905.

IftSABATATI (SABOTIERS): A name given to

the Waldenses (q.v.) from their sabots, marked with a painted cross, or from the sandals tied cross­wise.




I. Egyptian Inscriptions.

Forms and Character (¢ 1).

Number, Age, and Contents (¢ 2).

The Rosette Stone and Decipher­ment (¢ 3).

Illustration of the Bible (¢ 4). II. Cuneiform Inscriptions.

The Name; Area Covered by the Script (¢ 1).

Discoveries; Decipherment of Persian (¢ 2).

Decipherment of Babylonian As­syrian (¢ 3).

Origin and Character of the Script (¢ 4).

III. Christian Inscriptions.

I. Egyptian Inscriptions: The inscriptions of

Egypt are no new discovery. The term most

used to describe the characters em­

°rms ployed in the inscriptions, " hiero­

Character. glyphics°" is of Greek origin (hieros

" sacred " f 
glyphei.n, " to carve") and

bears witness both to early knowledge of the exist­

ence of the writing and to the conception at that

time that the priestly class was its executor. In

more modern usage the term is not confined to the

Egyptian inscriptions, but is used generally of any

kind of picture writing. The inscriptions on the

monuments of Egypt are in the main in a picture­

writing, the individual signs of which are representa­

tions of objects or actions more or less convention­

alized. This detailed representation passed by the

method of abbreviation into a shorter form called

the hieratic script, and by the extension of this

process to a still shorter form, the demotic. But

in only the very late period of Egyptian history

was either the hieratic or demotic form employed

upon the monuments, though both were used on

papyri from an early age. While originally the

signs stood for the objects they pictured, at a very

early stage they came to have phonetic quality,

and from this to the development of an alphabet

the steps were rapid and easy. While this process

was going on, the signs were given values associated

with those already customary and also others

disconnected from the original connotation. The

alphabet was of twenty one letters (some authori­

ties say twenty two, others twenty four), all conso­

nants, though some of the letters were employed to

indicate vowel sounds, as in the Semitic languages.

The signs became also signs of syllables as well as

of single letters, and, still further, signs of words or

ideographs. In all, the number of symbols known

from the monuments is slightly under 1,400. Since

some of these symbols might express several ideas,

it became necessary to use certain signs as deter­

minatives to fix the meaning of the group in which

they occurred, thus to remove ambiguity. The

signs composing a word or idea are, grouped in

quadrangular form, though the order of grouping

is not invariable, being either perpendicular or

horizontal, according to the shape of the com­

ponents, the exigencies of the space at disposal

or the artistic taste of the scribe. The groups were

arranged in columns or in lines, according to the

material used and the space and form available for

the inscription. The writing runs either (prefer­

ably) from right to left or the reverse when arranged

horizontally, or from above downward when it is

in columns.

1. Ancient Christian Inscriptions.

Methods of Writing (¢ 1).

Languages Employed (¢ 2).

Contents (¢ 3).

Value of the Material (¢ 4).

2. Medieval and Later Inscriptions.

3. History of Epigraphy.

The Early Period (¢ I).

The Nineteenth Century (§ 2).

The area within which these inscriptions are found embraces the whole of the Nile valley as far as Nubia, parts of the peninsula of Sinai, 2. Number, and locations in Syria and Palestine.

Ass, and

Contents. Records begin with the second dy­

nasty; during the fourth, fifth and

sixth dynasties they become numerous, though

largely centralized around Memphis; then they

become fewer until with the eleventh dynasty they

again grow abundant and spread out over a wide

area, continuing numerous till the fourteenth dy­

nasty. Of the Hykaos kings few remains are found.

With the seventeenth dynasty inscriptions once

more become abundant and continue so, with ex­

ceptions in some dynasties or single reigns, till

down into Roman times. The inscriptions were

placed on the walls of temples, on steles and monu­

ments set up within the temple courts, on obelisks,

and in tombs both of the Pharaohs and of the nobil­

ity and the wealthier classes, and on gems, tinge,

and scarabs. Since the temples of the earlier period

have vanished, it follows that the inscriptions of

those times have for the moat part perished. Yet

while some of the earliest monuments were des­

troyed at a very early date, it sometimes occurs

that the record which they bore wee copied on a

more perishable material which has survived. A

matter which often causes embarrassment to the

decipherer is that it was the known habit of some

Pharaohs, as in the case of Ramesea IL, to remove

the royal name in the cartouche of the original

Pharaoh who ordered the inscription, and to in­

scribe their own in its place, thus claiming the

deeds originally assigned to another and dislocating

the order of history. The earliest inscriptions come

from massive masonry tombs, where often little

more than names, titles, and, sometimes, the legal

provisions for maintenance of the tomb are pre­

served. Later, in addition to these bare statements,

the lists of titles are extended to include something

of the career of the deceased. Finally they contain

records of achievement whether of Pharaohs,

generals, or administrators  of the occasion which

the record commemorates, and may even include

the royal patent for the work of which the inscrip­

tion speaks. But, in general, a vagueness charac­

terizes the content of the inscriptions and makes

them illusive and difficult, not only in themselves

but also in the historical mater to which they refer.

Thus, in a story of conquest, the foe is often referred to not by name or country, but is described by some derogatory epithet: again, the events narrated

were often contemporary and matters of general
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