Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D




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collectio, 31 vole., Florence

and Venice, 1759 98

JAOS ........

JBL ...........

JE ..........

Krumbacher,

Geachichte, ,

Lam . . . . . . . . . . . . Lamentations

Lanigan, Ecc1. ~ J• Lanigan, Ecclesiastical History of Ire­Hiat . . . . . , . , land to the 13th Century, 4 vole., Dub 

lin, 1829

Lat . Latin, Latiniaed

Leg . . . . . . . . . . . . Lepea, legum

Lev . . . . . . . . . . . . Leviticua

Lichtenberger, ~ F• Lichtenberger, EncydopMie den aci­ESR . . . . . . . , ences rdigieuaea, 13 vole., Paris, 1877­1882

Lorenz, DGQ ..G'n° G ~;Ze°mMittelalter, 3d edBerln7

LXX ........ The Septuagint

I Mace T Maccabees

TI Mace TI Maccabees

Mai, Nova cot  ~ A. Mai, Scriptorum veterum nova cd 

dectio ... . . . . . Zectio~ 10 vole., Rome, 1825 38


Mat . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malachi

Mann, Popes . . . ~ R' C. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Early Midle Axes,
London, 1902 eqq.

G. D. Manai, .S'anctorum conciL%orum


Martel, Concilia. cdleclio nova, 31 vole., Florence and

Venice, 1728

Matt .... Matthew

Monuments Germanize histories, ed. G. H.

Perta and others, Hanover and Ber­

lin, 1828 eqq Te following abbrevia­

tions are used for the sections and

subsections Of this work: Ant., Antiqui­

tatea, ' Antiquities "; Auct. ant., Auo­

tares antiquiasimi, " Oldest Writers ";

Chron. mina Chronica minors, " Lesser

Chronicles ' ; Dip, Diplomats, Di­

plomas) Documents "; Epiat„ Epia­


tda.•, ' Letters ' ; Geat. Pont. Ram.,

Geata pontificum Romanorum " Deeds

of the Popes of Rome "• leg., I,egea,

' Laws"; Lib. de life, Libelli de )its

enter regnum et aaurdotium saculorum

xi. et xii, conacripti, " Books concerning

MGH . . . . . . . , , the Strife between the Civil and Eccle

eiastical Authorities in the Eleventh

and Twelfth Centuries Nee., Ne­

crologia Germanic, " l~ecrology of

Germany ; Poet. I,at, aroi Car.,

Poets Lalini a'vi Cardini, " Latin

Poets of the Caroline Time "• Poet.

Lat. mod , awi, Poets Latini medii ceva,

Latin Poets of the
Middle Ages

Script.. Scriptorea, Writers • Scr6pt.

rer. Germ.. Scriptorea rerum Oermani­

carum~ " Writers on German $ub­

jects';Script. rer. Lanpob., Scriptorea

rerum La.npobardicarum et Italicarum,

" Writers on Lombard and Italian

Subjects"; Script. rer. Merov. 3crip 

torea rerum Merovirepicarum, " Writers

Mic . 1Micah Merovingian Subjects "


. ~ H. H. Milman, History of Latin Chris 

Milman Latin tianity, Inducting that of the Popes to

Christianity Nicholas 'V., 8 vole., London,

1880 61

C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geachiehte den Papat­

Mirbt, QuelZen~ lama and den riimischen Katholicfamua,

Tiibingen, 1901

MPG J~ P. Migne, Patrdogica curaua complehus,

aeries Greece 162 vole., Paris, 1837 66

J  P. Migne, Patrdopicc tarsus con;pletua

MPL . ........ ~ series Latirue, 221 vole., Paris, 1844 84


MS., MSS Manuscript, Manuscripts

Muratori, Scrip  ~ L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum scrip.

tares. . . . . . . tares, 28 vole., 1723 51

Neuea Archiv der Ceaellachaft )sir,

ttltere

NA . . . . . . . . . ~ deutsche Ceachichtakunde, $anover,

1878 sqq,

Nah . . . . . . . . . . . . Nahum

n.d. . . . . . . . . . . . . no date of publication

Neander, Chris  S A• Neander, General History
of the Chris­

tian Church.. ~ fian Religion and Church, 6 vole., and

index, Boston, 1872 81

Neh . Nehemiah

Niceron, bfe (R. P. Niceron Mcsmoirea pour aervir h


moirea . . . . . . . fhiatoire den ~hommes illualres . ., 43

vole., Paris 1729 45 •

NKZ . . . . . . . . . ~ Neue kirchtiche Zeifachrift, Leipsie, 1890

Nowaek, Arche  ~ W94 Nowack, Lehrbuch der hebrliiachen

ologie .... . . . . Archiidogie, 2 vole., Freibur6l 1
$81

Il.p. . . . . . . . . . . . . no pace of publication

The Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, let

NPNF ... . . . . . , series, 14 vole., New York, 1887 92; 2d


series, 14 vole., New York, 1890 1900

N. T.. . . . . . , , , , ~ New Testament, Novum Teatamenlum

Nouveau Testament, Neues Testament

Num . . . . . . . , , , , , , Numbers

Ob . Obadiah





LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

O. $. B . . . . . . . ~ Ord' M'M Benedict" "' Order of $t.

Benedict "

O. T Old Testament

OTJC . $ee Smith

P Prieetly document

L. Psator, The His tosgthe Popes fro 

Pastor, Popes. . . ~ ate Close of the M Agee, 8 vole.,

London,1891 1908

PEA . . . . . . j Pastes eccl°°ia Anplieana•., ed. J. A. Giles,

34 vole., London, 1838 48

PEF .Palestine Exploration Fund

I Pet . . . First Epistle of Peter

If Pet . $econd~pistle of Peter

B. Plating, Lives of the Popes from . . .

Plating, Popes.. ~ Gregory VIZ. to . . . Paul 1 ., 2 vole.,

London, n.d.

Puny, HisE. nat...Plin , Historic ftaturalis

Potthset. II'eD j A. )~ottlw~ dt ~ ~ieto ~~s

~a~' ~ ~ ' ' ' ' ' werke, Berlin, 1898

prov Proverbs

Ps . Pealme

PSBA. . . .) Proceedings of die Society of
Biblical

I Archeology, London, 1880 eqq.

v 9q.v . . (qua;) vole, ' which we '

............... .actor

Ranks, Popes. . . { L. von Ranks. History of the Popes. 3 vole., London, 1908

RDM . Revua du deux mondes, Paris, 1831 sqq.

RE See Hauck Herzog

Reich, Docu  ~ E. Reich, Select Documents Illustrating Me 

menta . . diaoal and Modern History, London, 1905

REJ . Revue dew etudes 7uivea, Paris, 1880 sqq.

Rettberg, KD. . , i F. W. Rettberg, KwchengescAiehle Deutec/o 

lands 2 vole., GSttingen, 1848 48

Rev .......... Book of Revelation

RHR . . . . . ~ Revue
de 1'Aistoirs des rdigiona. Paris,

1880 q.

(E. C. Ric ardson, Alphabetical Sub 7set In­JIl dex and Index Encyclopaedia to
Period­scal Articles on Religion, 1890 89, New York 1907.

A. L. 1'tichter, Lehrbuch dew katlvoliuhen and evanpdiachen K
irchenrechta, 8th ed. by W. Kahl, Leipaic, 1888

( E. Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine, oston 1841, and Later

Later Re ~ Biblical Researches in Palestine, 3d ed.

searches ..... of the whole, 3 vole 1887

Robinson, Euro  J. H. Robinson, Reading& in ,European peon History. . ~ fliesory, 2 vole., Boston, 1904 08

It obinaon and J. H. Robinson, and C. A. eard, Devdop­


Beard, Modern meat of Modem
Europe, 2 vole., Boston,

Europe 1907

R,om .. .Epistle to the Romans

RSE .. . . . . . . . . . ~ Revue des sciences ecdlaiaatiques, Arras.

1860 74, Amiens, 1875 sqq.

RTP ~ Revue de ihloloDie et de philoaophie,


Lausanne, 1873 ,

R. V Revised Version (of the English Bible)

saw . e2cu(um. ' century "

I Sam . .. .I Samuel

II Sam . . . . . .II Samuel

SBA . . . . . . . . , , ISitzunpabd•ichte der Berliner Akademie,

Berlin, 1882 sqq.

F. Max Miiller and others, The Sawed

6BE . . . ... .. . ~ Books
o/ the East, Oxfor, 1879 aqq.,

vol. xlviii., 1904

Sacred Books of the Ofd Testament (" Rain­


SBOT . bow Bible ), Leipaic, London, and

Baltimore, 1894 sqq.

Schaff, Christian ~ p' Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Church . . . . . . . vole. i, iv., n., vii., New York, 1882 92, vol. v.. Part 1, by D. S. Schaff, 1907

Schaff, Creeds. . I p' Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom,

3 vole., New York, 1877 84

E. Schrader, Cuneiform Inscriptions and

Schrader, COT. . th" Old Testament, 2 vole., London,

E. Schrader, Die Keilinaekriften and daa

Alts Testament. 2 vole., Berlin, 1902 03

E. Schrader, KeilinechrajUiche BiMioNek,


8 vole., Berlin, 1889 1901

'E. Scharer, Geschichte dew j>ldischen

Volkea im ZeitatterJesuChristi, 4th ad.,

3 vole. Leipaic,1902 eqq.; Eng. trans]., 5

vole., Kew York, 1891

Script . Scriptorea, ' writers 11

Scrivener, F. H. A. Scrivener, Introduction toNewTes­


Introduction . . { lament
Criticism, 4th ed., Londoy, 1894

Sent . SsntenUa•. "Sentences '•

$. J. . . . . . .Societaa Jean, Society of Jesus "

SMA . . . . . . . . ISia~u b~ ~ 6 8~ ~MQ nchener Aka 

Smith, Kinship.. I W Early Arabia, Kinship and 031 Marriage in

Richardson, En 

cyclopaedia...

Richter, KirrJun 

rech6 .........

Robinson, Re 

searches , and

Schrader, KAT

Schrader, KB.

$ehOrer.

Geschirhte. . .

Smith, OTJC. . .;W' R,. Smith, The Ofd Testament in the Jewish Church, London, 1892

Smith, Prophets.. f Wt he R$~ ~h&rysun 89s' . W

Smith, Rd. of ~ W. R. Smith, Religion of the Semites,

3em . London, 1894

$. P. C. H. . . . (Society for the Promotion of Christian

Knowledge

$. P. G.. . . . . . , , ~ $°ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel

in Foreign Parts

aq eqq and followsng

Strom . . . . . . . . . . ..Stromata. ' Miecelhuvee "

e.v sub voce, or sub verbo

$wete, Introduo  ~ H. B. $wete, Introduction W the Old Tes­


tion .... . . . . . . lament in Greek, London, 1900

WS Syriac

i Trinitarian Bible Soci t

Thatch 0. J, Thatcher and eW H. McNeal, A

MeNeal,3oweei Source Book for MtdiaWal History.

Book... . . . . . . 1
New York, 1905

I These First Epistle to the Thessalonians

II Them . $e~tTi7daehrslt Amsterdam and

Leyden,

ThT . .. .. . . . The~mBen, 1887 sqq.

Tillemont, M& ~ L: $• le Nain de Tillemont, Mlnwirea eccZtaiaatiquea des six premiere moaru ...."" aiLdes,. 18 vole., Paris, 1893 1712

I Tim .. . .... .. .. .FSret Epistle to Timothy

II Tim . $econd Epistle to Timothy

Theofopiacher Jahreabericht, Leipeio, 1882 

TJB ... . . . . . . . . ~ 1887. Freiburg, 1888. Brunswick. 1859­


1897, Berlin, 1898 sqq.

Theofogiachca Litteraturbfatt, Bonn, 1888

TLZ . T =gisd. Lr• LeiPsi0.

1878 sqq.

Tob. . . . . . . . . . .. . . Tobit

TQ . . . . ~ Theol°D°"cha Quart°Z"ch'ift, Ttibingen,

1819eq q.

J. A. Robineon Texts and Studies,

TS Cambridge, 1891 eqq~

Transactions of the 3oeiety of Biblical

TSBA . ~ ArchooloDy London, 1872aqq.

Theolopische Studisn and KriRiJcen, Ham­


burg, 1828 sqq.

Teats and Unterauchungen cur Geachrochte

der aitchriaUichen Litteratur, ed. O, von

Gebhardt end A. Harnack, Leipeio,

1882 sqq.

TZT ;T0inger Zeitachriff tilt Theodopie, Tu­


bingen 1838 40

Ugolini, Theaau  J B. Ugolinus, Thesaurus anliqfsitatum 'rum, 34 vols., Venice, 1744  69

VT Vatua Testamentum, Vieux Testament, "Old

. T

Testament

Wattenbaeh, W• Wattenbaeh, Deutschland& Geechichts­


en, 5th ed., 2 vole., Berlin, 1885;

DGQ . . ~ ed1893 94

Wellhaueen, ' ) J. Wellhsusen, Reate arabischen Heiden­


Heidentum . . . . ~ soma Berlin, 1887

Wellhauaen. J• Wellhsusen, PrafeDomena our Cesehichle

laraeLa, 8th ed., Berlin, 1905, Eng.

prolegomena tmnal Edinburgh, 1885

Zeifachrift fur AaayrioLopie, Leipaie,

ZA . 1886_.88 Berlin, 1889 aqq.

Zahn, Einlei  ~ T, Zahn, Einleitunp in dae Neus Testa_

""' rnent, 3d ed., Leipeic, 1907

T. Zahn, Geachichte des neuteatamenh

lichen Kanone, 2 vole., Leipaie. 1888 92

ZeitacArift far die altteatamentliche V'is­


aenachaft Giessen, 1881 sqq.

Zeitachrift f urdeutachsa Alterthum and deut­


ache Literatur Berlin, 1878 sqq.

f Zeitachrift der n`eutachen morpenitindiachen

I Grselfachrs t, Leipeic, 1847 sqq.

I Zig~riJt ~iir deutsche Pkilolopie, Halls,

Zeitachr~tq•dra deufachcn PalUetina Very

I sine. LeiPsic, 1878 eqq .

. Zechnriah

. Zephaniah

Zeetachrijt flit die hiatoriache Theolopit,

ZHT . pubhshed successively at Leipaic,

Hamburg and Gotha, 1832 75

ZRG . ~Zdtsehrift fur Kirehcnearhichte. Goths,

1878 sqq.

Zeitachrift  far Kirchenrteht, Berlin, Tii 

ZKR ....... ..
bingen. Freiburg, 1881eg~q

ZKT ..... . . . . . . ~ Zeitachrift far kathoiiache Tluolopit, Inns­bruck, 1$77 sqq.

Zsitaeh t far ksrehliche 1Viasenechaft and

ZKW. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' kirchdichea Leben. Leipsie, 1880 89

ZNTW . ~ ZdtschriJt flit die neuteatamenUiehe Wis.

aenachafl, Giessen, 1900 sqq.

ZPK ,; ZiltehriJt fur Proteatantiamua and Kireke,

Erlangen, 1838 78

Zeitachrift far u>ieaenschalUiche Theolopie.

ZtVT Jena, 1858 60, Halls, 1881 87, Leipsic,

1868 sqq.

TLB ..........

TSK ...........

TU............

Zahn, Kanon ....

ZATW ......... ZDAL.........

ZDMG.........

ZDP........... ZDPV.........

Zech ..........

Zeph..........





SYSTEM OF TRANSLITERATION

The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew:

bt _ ' or omitted at the t = z y =

beginning of a word. n = h 13 = p

2 =b b=~

D=phorp

3=bhorb ,=y

t =g ~=k

I =ghorg ~=khork

1=r

1=d 5=1 ~=s

1=dhord n=m

L~'r = sli

1=h ~=n

n=t

1=w p=s

TI = th or t


The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, u, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Arabic and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Greek is written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being used.

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

When the pronunciation is self evident the titles are not respelled; when by mere division and accen­tuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, and the accented syllables indicated.

a as in sofa a rr of arm

" at

" fare e rr rr pen'

'` fate i " " tin

q " " machine p rr rr obey a " " no

e as in not

8 " " nor

u " " full3

r' if rule

13 91 f' but

117 " " burn

ai " " pine

au " " out

Bl " " oil

iu '• " few

1 In accented syllables only; fn unaccented syllables it approximates the sound of a 1n over. beneath it, Indicates the sound of n as fn ink. Nasal n (as in lrrenc6 words) is rendered n.

' In German and French names G approaimatea the sound of a In dune.

iu as in duration

c = k " " cat

ch " " church

ew = qu as in queen

(th) cc rr the f r* cc lanc3r

g (hard) " " 90

g u rr loch (Scotch)

hw (rah) " •` ruby

" " jaw

The letter n, with a dot





THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

INNOCENTS, FEAST OF THE HOLY: A church

festival in honor of the children slain by Herod in

Bethlehem (Matt. ii. 1(i 18). They were very early

regarded as Christian martyrs, as Irengeus, Ter­


tullian, Cyprian, and many later authors speak of

them in that way. At what time the festival be­


came commonly celebrated is not known. In the

fifth century the holy innocents were commemorated

in connection with the adoration of the Magi at

the feast of Epiphany. The Carthaginian calendar,

edited by Mabillon from a manuscript of the

seventh century, has the entry opposite Dec. 28

" (the day) of the holy children slain by Herod."

This day is still kept by the Roman Catholic and

Protestant Episcopal churches, but the Greek

Church observes Dec. 29. In course of time the

feast received an octave. (A. HAUCK.)

1n the Saturnalia (IL, 4, 11) of Macrobius, the Roman writer in the fifth century, is this anecdote: "When he (Augustus) heard that among the boys whom in Syria Herod, the king of the Jews, had ordered to be killed there were infants of two years and under, he exclaimed: ' I had rather be a pig of Herod's than a son."' As the Saturnalia
contains many anecdotes which carry with them indubitable evidence of being of contemporary origin, there is no reason for sup­posing that this one was the creation of a time subsequent to Augustus, but every probability that it, too, was contemporary, and so is an inci­dental, undesigned, but striking witness to the truthfulness of the Gospel story. E. G. S1aLEa.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bingham, Oripinea, XX., vii. 12; J. C. W. Auguati, Denkwi7rdigksiten, i. 304 .eqq., Leipeic, 1817: P. Gueranger, L'AanEs liturgiqae, i. 388 eqq., Paris, 1880; W. E. Addis and T. Arnold, Catholic Dictionary, pp. 487­488, London, 1903; G. Wissowa, Analecta Macrobiana, is Hermea, xvi. 499 eqq.


INQUISITION.

I. In the Older Church.

II. The Inquisition in the Middle Ages.

Organisation and Competence (§ 1).

Relation to the Secular Powers (¢ 2).

In Italy (¢ 3).

France (14).

Spain (¢ b).

Germany, the Netherlands, and England (¢ 8).

111. The Inquisition and the Counter Reformation. The Reformation Suppressed m Italy (¢ 1). In Spain and the Netherlands (; 2).

I. In the Older Church: The Inquisition (In­quisitio htereticta pravitatis) or the " Holy Office " (Sanctum officium) is the name of the spiritual court VI. 1

of the Roman Catholic Church for the detection and punishment of those whose opinions differ from the doctrines of the Church. It was a com­paratively late outgrowth of ancient ecclesiastical discipline. " In the primitive Church there was no arrangement that could have borne even a re­mote resemblance to the Inquisition. . . The whole instinct and the prevailing cast of thought of Christendom in the first four centuries was opposed to compulsion in religious affairs." (J. J. I. von DtSllin­ger, Kleinere Schriften, p. 295, Stuttgart, 1890.) The institution of " elder for repentance " (see PENI­TENTIARY), which occurs in the third century, bears quite a different character, as the very name denotes. Of course deviations in the sphere of Christian doctrine were combated, but hardly with other than spiritual weapons; and this prac­tise continued until Theodosius (d. 395), before a Christian emperor found it advisable to impose an ultimate death penalty on (Manichean) heresy. Chrysostom repudiated such action: " It is not right to put a heretic to death, since an implacable war would be brought into the world " (Hom. xlvi.
on Matt. xiii. 24 30); and still in the neighborhood of 450 the church historian Socrates characterized persecution for heresy as foreign to the orthodox Church. Nevertheless, in the meantime Augustine, in his conflict with the Donatiste, had set up the contrary doctrine in the West and had recommended compulsion as well as penalties against heretics (Epist. xciii., clxxalv.), though he did not approve the death penalty. Six centuries more passed before the theory of religious compulsion and of the violent extirpation of heresy came to have universal validity, although Pope Leo I. (Epiat. xv., ad Turrthium) had approved it in the fifth century. This long season of comparative tolerance is the more impressive in view of the circumstance that in Italy under East Gothic and Lombard rule, Catholics and Ariana lived whole centuries in close proximity, or even together (as in Ravenna). The impulse to more severe methods came from the decision that the numerous remnants of paganism must be finally rooted out; and certain measures in this direction were devised by the Carolingian legislation (Cdpitukriu. Carob, Magni of 769 and 813). The beginnings of episcopal inquisition are thus to be sought in the synodal courts for inves­tigations with reference to heresy (see SYNODAL COURTS; and cf. P. Hinsehius, Katholieehes Kirclaen­recht, v. 427, Berlin, 1895).





Zaquieition THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG g

II. The Inquisition is the Middle Ages: By the terms of their negotiations at Verona in 1184, Pope

Lucius III, and Emperor Frederick r., Organi  Barbaroasa converted the episcopal in­zation and quisition into a universal institution, Competence. to be unconditionally supported by the

temporal power. This was the period when a new and dangerous doctrine, commingling Christian and pagan elements in the manner of the ancient Gnostic speculations, diffused itself by way of the East, and lent its aid to popular religious antagonism that was constantly inflamed by the conditions of the worldly fashioned hierarchy (manifested by the Patarenes, Arnold of Brescia, the Waldenses, and others).* By 1179, the followers of the new doctrine had become so numerous, es­pecially in southern France (see NEw MwivicaEAxa) that Alexander III. urged the plan of suppressing them forcibly. Innocent III. (d. 1216) organized a systematic religious war against them; and among the agencies everywhere employed were the epis­copal inquisitions, with their modes of operation guaranteed by the agreement at Verona and the ready support of all temporal tribunals. However, this form of the Inquisition appeared even to Hon­orius III. (d. 1227) subject to obstruction, and not swift or comprehensive enough in its workings, for want of centralization. He and his successor, Gregory IX., grasped the entire procedure in a single hand, thus creating the new form of papal inquisition, which now received the specific name of Sanctum officiurra in distinction from the epis­copal office. The moat exact information as to this institution is furnished by Eymerich's Direclorium.
The officers are accountable directly to the pope. It is not the bishop who stands at their head, but the grand inquisitor, who is reinforced with notaries, conaultors on the judicial side, servants and attend­ants of every sort (e.g., jailers) on the practical side. In the Venetian Republic, each case was tried with a supplementary attendance of three " learned in heresy," who safeguarded the interests of the State. The new institution was accorded important priv­ileges, in fact, full power in the ecclesiastical prov­ince; the officers, being commissioned by the pope directly, were independent of the bishops, and, protected by high prerogatives, were inviolable and immune. All their privileges were newly confirmed to them in 1458 by the bull Injunctum reobia, and again in 1570 by the constitution Sacrosanctce Romance ecclesice. After the Dominican order had arisen in the thirteenth century, and its adherents had shown themselves exceptionally qualified, the office was transferred to them especially, though not to the exclusion of members of other orders. The inquisitors' official powers were great, including sentence of excommunication and interdict, sus­pension of those under suspicion, and adjudication of all aorta of Exemption (q.v.). The trial pr0 

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