Samuel macauley jackson, D. D., LL. D

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INTERIM: The name of three provisional and temporary arrangements between the Protestants of Germany and the Roman Catholic Church in the time of the Reformation, intended to be valid only for the interval pending a final settlement of re­ligious differences by a general council (whence the name, from Lat. interim, " meanwhile ").

;<. The Regensburg Interim: The outcome of the Conference of Regensburg in 1541. See REGENB­BURG, CONFERENCE OF. .

z. The Augsburg Interim: Adopted at the diet at Augsburg June 30, 1548. After the Schmalkald War, Charles V. thought of reestablishing religious unity in Germany; and at the diet in session in Augsburg in 1547 it was agreed that a provisional arrangement should be made until the Council of Trent had completed its work. In Feb., 1548, Charles chose a commission from both communions to devise an arrangement; this commission could not reach an agreement, and several states pro­posed that the matter be turned over to the theo­logians. Consequently, at the command of the emperor, Julius Pflug, bishop of Naumburg, Michael Helding, suffragan bishop of Mainz, and Johann Agricola, court preacher to the elector of Brandenburg, prepared a draft, which was then revised by certain Spanish monks and was secretly submitted by the emperor to the Protestant elec­tors and prominent Roman Catholics of the em­pire. In twenty six articles it treated of man before and after the fall (i. ii.), of redemption through Christ (iii.), of justification (iv. vi.), of love and good works (vii.), of forgiveness of sins (viii.), of the Church (ix. xii.), of bishops (xiii.), of the sacraments (xiv. xxi.), of the sacri­fice of the mass (xxii.), of the saints (xxiii.), of the commemoration of the dead (xxiv.), of the communion at the mass (xxv.), and of the cere 



monies of the sacraments (xxvi.). Although the views of the Protestants were taken into account in a general way, the document revealed the old Church with its faith and worship. In the belief that the Interim applied to all imperial estates, the electors of Brandenburg and the Palatinate approved it. After a long opposition Elector Maurice of Saxony and Margrave Hans of Kiiatrin promised not to protest openly if all imperial estates should approve and accept it. The Roman Catholics, however, were not willing to make any concessions. On May 15, 1548, Charles assembled the imperial estates and demanded their submission. He admonished the Protestants to return to the old faith or to live in accordance with the Interim, while the Roman Catholics were to remain faithful to the ordinances of their Church. Elector Maurice, Margrave Hans, and their adherents were greatly angered because only the Protestants were to be compelled to accept the Interim, but in accordance with their promise they did not protest. On June 30, 1548, the Interim became imperial law. In South Germany the emperor succeeded in introducing it in some cities and territories by force, but in the rest of Germany his orders were not carried out. In the Palatinate, Brandenburg, Saxony, Weimar, Hesse, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and other states, as well as in the North German cities, there arose vehement opposition, of which Magdeburg became the center, headed by men like Flaciua, Amadorf, and Callus, while Agricola and Melanchthon were inclined to compromise.

3. The Leipsic Interim: Adopted by the Saxon diet at Leipsic Dec., 1548. After his return from the diet at Augsburg, Maurice of Saxony assem­bled his prominent councilors and theologians at Meissen to disease the imperial Interim. He was resolutely bent upon adhering to the Evangelical doctrine, but was anxious to have a frank and definite statement of what might be accepted and what must be rejected on the ground of Scripture. After a careful and conscientious examination, the theologians flatly rejected the entire Augsburg docu­ment. After a royal and imperial admonition to introduce it in Saxony, a new discussion took place in Torgau Oct. 18, 1548. The electoral councilors laid before the theologians a list of the points which in their estimation were acceptable and might lead to a new church order. Melanchthon agreed with moat of the points. Deliberations were continued in Altzella Nov. 19 22, and, under stress of the news of the emperor's forcible measures in South Ger­many, an interim was drawn up which, in the doc­trine of justification and in other points, upheld the Protestant doctrine, while it conceded as "Adiaph­ora " (q.v.) such things as extreme unction, the mass, lights, vestments, vessels, image®, fasts and festivals, and the like. Maurice and Joachim of Brandenburg came to an agreement and put in writing what they would accept. The Saxon diet met in Leipaic on Dec. 21 and accepted the Altzella, resolutions; the bishops of Naumburg and Meissen, however, refused to concur, because in their opinion it was reserved to the emperor alone to make changes in the (Augsburg) Interim. The ultimate outcome was that things remained as before.

At the diet at Augsburg in 1550 51 the majority

of the estates advocated the continuation of the

Council of Trent and urged the emperor to compel

Protestants to accept the Interim. When the im­

perial invitation to the council arrived in Dresden,

Maurice began negotiations with the Protestant

estates concerning a general agreement. In Dessau

Melanchthon with Prince George of Anhalt drew up

the so called Saxon Confession, which was approved

by Maurice, Hans of Kilatrin, the dukes of Mecklen­

burg and Pomerania, and others. It was proposed

that certain Saxon theologians should go to Trent

under safe protection and defend the pure doctrine.

In Jan., 1552, Melanchthon, with two others, started

on the journey and got as far as Augsburg; but in

March they were called back because the war against

the emperor began. The expedition of Maurice to

South Germany occasioned the suspension of the

Council of Trent. The Treaty of Passau annihilated

the Interim and led to the Religious Peace of Auga­

burg (q.v.) . (S. IBaLEIB.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Beutel, Ueber den Ursprunp du Aupa­burper Interims, Dresden, 1888; G. P. Fisher, The ReJor­
mation, pp. 186 214, New York, 1873; A. von Dru$'el, BrieJe and Akten zur Guchidrte du 1B. Jahrhunderta, iii. 42 eqq, Munich, 1882; C. Beard, The Reformation, pp. 109, 243 210, London, 1883; F. von Beaold, Geachichte der deut'chen won. pp. 806 808, Berlin, 1890; 8. Ianleib, in Ntuea Archiv Jilr a6chaiacht Guchichte, xiii, 188 eqq., xv. 193 nqq, Dresden, 1892 94; idem, Morifa von Sachsen, pp. 189 213, Leipaie,1907; W. Walker, The ReJor­~tiou. PP. 207 ZOB, 218. New York, 1900; J. Babington, The Reformation, Pp.. 113 114, London, 1901; Cambridge Modern History, The Reformation, pp. 284 288, New York, 1904.

INTERMEDIATE STATE: A term designating both the period and the condition of the soul between death and the final judgment. The inter­mediate state is an aspect of the doctrine of Hades (q.v.). It has assumed many forms. (1) The early doctrine; which in general has continued to be the common view, that the dead remain in a condition of privation until the resurrection the righteous happier (martyrs going at once to Paradise), the wicked more miserable, than while on earth (Ire. neeus, Haer. v. 31; Tertullian, " On the Soul," IV.). (2) Purgatory, the condition of those who depart this life in faith, yet are still liable to punitive sufferings for venial sins and who are purged before their entrance into heaven; such may be " helped " by the suffrages of the faithful, but principally by the acceptable sacrifice of the altar " (Council of Trent, Sera. xxv.; see PURGATORY). (3) The limbo of the Fathers is the abode of Old Testament saints to whom after his death Christ preached the Gospel

(Thomas Aquinas, Summa, qu. 69, art. 4; Dente, Ditine Comedy, Inferno,
Canto iv.; W. E. Addis and T. Arnold, Catholic Dictionary, pp, 584 585, London, 1903). (4) .The limbo of infants is the

region to which unbaptized infants are consigned after death, to remain forever in a state of PP1Yar

tion, without suffering and also without 6pplneaa,

a doctrine based on the universal necessity of

baptism for the remission of the guilt of original sin (Thomas Aquinas, ut sup., qu. 89,. art. 8' Bee INFANT SALVATION; LIMHUS). (5) The sleep of souls, based on such passages as Acts vii. 80, xiii. 38; 1 Cor. xv. 8, 18, 20, 51; 1 These. iv. 13 15. Between



death and the second coming of Christ all souls

are is a dreamless sleep (thus oblivious of the lapse

of time and without moral change) from which they

are simultaneously awakened for the judgment.

This view was opposed in the early Church (of.

Eusebius, Hint. eccl. VI., awii.). Calvin wrote in

refutation of it Psycho;Oannychia (1534),

against the Anabaptists. Richard Whately pre­

sented it with great force and sympathy as an

alternative belief, in his work Ors the Future State

(London, 1829). It is an article of faith among

the several branches of Adventists (q.v.). (6)

Preservation of the spiritual element of both the

saved and the unsaved during the middle state,

when by a creative act of God soul and body are

reunited before the judgment. This element of the

personality exists in various degrees of conscious­

ness, knowledge, and enjoyment, some sloping,

some learning, some as demons on earth, some

imprisoned in the abyss or suffering in Hades for

life's sins, some being evangelised. In the interval

between death and the resurrection the Gospel may

be accepted or finally refused by those who have

not known it here below (Edward White, Life in

Christ, chap. xai., London, 1878). (7) A relatively

bodiless condition in which the pious dead are in a

state of privation, to be described as inwardness and

spirituality and progressive development, of deepest

retirement, and of withdrawal into self, and at the

same time of communion with Christ (cf. H. L.

Martensen, Christian Dogmatics, 1276, Edinburgh,

1868; J. J. van Oosterzee, Christian Dogmatics,

I ealii., London, 1870; I. A. Dorner, System of

Christian Doctrine, iv. 212, Edinburgh, 1880 82).

(8) As to the unbelieving dead, who have not de­

cisively rejected the Gospel, the intermediate state

opens the door of repentance and spiritual life


C. A. BEC%WiT$.

B:arroaawra:: The literature of the subject is well covered


(99.v.). Consult further: V. U. Maywhalen. The Inter­

mediate State, London, 1858; H. M. Luekock, The Inter­

mediate Stale between )cath and Judgment, ib., 1890; T. H.

Stockwell, editor, our Dead: Where are They? A Sym­

posium, ib., 1890; A. Willismeon The Intermediate State,

ib., 1891; G. $. Barrett, The Intermediate State; the Lost

Things. ib., 1898• C. H. H. Wright, intermediate State and

Prayer for the Dead, ib. 1900; G. T. Feehner, Little Book

01 Life alms' Death, oston, 1904; $. C. Gayford, Life altar

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